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The Age of Exploration

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The Age of Exploration Europe Encounters the World 8.2 B: compare political, economic ($), religious, and social reasons for the establishment of the 13 English colonies. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Age of Exploration


1
The Age of Exploration
  • Europe Encounters the World

2
What are we learning today8.2A Identify reasons
for European exploration and colonization of
North America.
8.2 B Compare economic, religious, and social
reasons for the establishment of the 13 English
colonies.
3
Why did explorations happen when they did?
  • A variety of factors all came together to make
    the time period (1450-1700) the age of
    exploration
  • Some of these factors were pushes, external
    forces acting on Europe
  • Some were pulls, motivations and things that
    attracted the Europeans

4
How did these explorations begin?
  • The first to encourage new ship explorations was
    Prince Henry of Portugal, known as Prince Henry
    the Navigator
  • Started an institute for seafaring and exploring
  • Combined ship technology learned from Islam with
    new European innovations
  • By the time of his death in 1460, Portuguese had
    sailed as far south as the Gold Coast of West
    Africa

5
What are we learning today?
8.2A Identify reasons for European exploration
and colonization of North America.
3 Gs Gold, Glory, God
6
What were the new technologies that enabled
explorations?
  • The caravel was a new, faster, more maneuverable
    ship
  • Older ships had square sails, caravels had
    triangular sails (easier to change direction)
  • Bilge pump system enabled ship to float higher
    (less likely to run aground, easier to explore
    coasts and rivers)
  • Compass, astrolabe, maps and other technologies
    from Islamic culture all helped make explorations
    possible

7
Growth in Trade
  • In the Middle Ages Marco Polo (1254-1324)
    returned from China and encourage an increase in
    trade.

8
  • Emergence of Powerful European Rulers
  • Wanted to extend their influence through
    exploration.
  • Desire for Profits
  • Capitalist economy was just emerging and people
    were seeing new wealth from investment and trade.
  • Religious Enthusiasm
  • Missionaries from Spain and Portugal sought to
    spread Christian religion.

G G G
9
What is the easiest way to remember it all?
  • The Three Gs
  • Gold
  • Glory
  • God
  • Although a little simplistic, this mnemonic is a
    great way to remember the main motivations of the
    European explorers.

10
The First G Gold
  • Gold was a hot item that explorers were looking
    for, but remember that it is really wealth (),
    not just literal gold that explorers were after.
  • Europe needed gold (and silver) to fuel the
    rising banking system
  • Europeans also desired spices
  • Other natural resources would come to be sold for
    profit as well (timber, sugar, tobacco, ivory,
    etc.)
  • This competition will be enhanced by the idea of
    mercantilism, the idea that there is only so much
    wealth in the world, and that to make your
    kingdom strong you must have more gold and wealth
    than the other kingdoms

11
Exploration--Mercantilism
Financial Reasons for Exploration--Mercantilism Pr
inciples of mercantilism Nations wealth
depends on capital. capital one of the
factors of production bullion (gold or silver).
A nation needed as much as possible.
Labor
Land
Capital
12
mercantilism
  • Fundamental tenets of mercantilism
  • 1.Mercantilism is Trademoney power for the
    mother country
  • converted into other forms of power such
  • as military instruments, influence, and territory
  • The New territory exist for the Mother Country.

13
mercantilism
1.Mercantilism is Trademoney power
For Whom?????
For the Mother Country
14
Mercantilism
  • Governments need raw materials for products
  • produced in the nation. They get the raw
    materials from the colonies at a low price that
    they use to make a product that they sell back
    to the colonies at a high price. Governments
    controlled corporations and trading
  • companies.
  • Governments regulated production so nation
  • could be exporting more than it imported.
  • Sought exclusive trading rights with foreign
  • powers and new world, which led to rivalries
    with
  • other European powers.
  • Established in the colonies for purpose of bring
    wealth
  • back to the mother country.

15
Think- Write- Pair Share
Explain the first reason for European Exploration?
The first reason for European Exploration is
What does Gold represent ?
In European exploration gold represents
What is mercantilism?
Mercantilism is the economic process that
16
The second G Glory
  • Just like the first G, Gold, Glory was a
    relatively new idea in Europe
  • Came out of the Renaissance ideal of Humanism,
    and the focus on individual achievement
  • With the rise of the printing press, the idea of
    gaining fame for ones actions was more possible
  • Also, individual kings wanted glory for their
    kingdoms, competition spreads

The Triumph of Fame, a Flemish tapestry from 1502.
17
The second G Glory
  • Spanish colonies were very successful in brining
    wealth and pride to Spain, so England and France
    wanted the same thing.
  • Workers/Farmers wanted to move up the social
    ladder.

18
Think- Write- Pair Share
  • What was the second reason for European
    Exploration?
  • The second reason for European exploration was
    _________________________

Define what it means by Glory
The term glory means
19
The third G God
  • Europeans have always felt it was their godly
    duty to spread Christianity and convert
    non-believers to their form of Christianity.
  • After the Protestant Reformation, competition
    will spring up to convert people to their form of
    Christianity
  • Colonization of the new world will become a race
    to convert native peoples to a particular brand
    of Christianity
  • Jesuits (Catholics) are some of the most active
  • People came to the New World to be able to
    practice their religion without fear of
    persecution

20
Think- Write - Pair Share
  • What is the third European reason for Exploration?

The third reason for European exploration is
21
Use your notes above to complete the Cause
section of your thinking map BACK PAGE OF NOTES
Exploration
22
Effects of European Exploration
  • Spanish Explorers claimed New Spain which is
    present day Mexico.
  • France set up Fur trade with the Native American
    in New France which was Ohio River valley to the
    Mississippi River and up into Canada.
  • England (Great Britain) claimed the land along
    the Atlantic Ocean called it the thirteen
    colonies.

23
Major Powers Exploring
England/ Great Britain
France
Spain
Mexico, Texas, and the West Coast of U.S.
United States colonies along the East Coast
Ohio River Valley and Canada
24
  • Exploration led to colonization of the new world
    which shifted wealth and power away from
    Mediterranean region to the countries of Western
    Europe toward Spain, England and France.
  • Spain was enriched by American gold and silver.
    Spanish colonies were very successful in bringing
    wealth and pride to Spain. This led to England
    and France to start Exploration and colonization.

25
Effects of Exploration
  • England rulers desired to stake a claim for lands
    and riches to match Spains wealth.
  • France set up a fur trade with Native American to
    gain wealth.

26
Columbian Exchange
  • Columbian Exchange exchange of plants, animals
    and diseases between the Eastern and Western
    Hemispheres that occurred after 1492

Columbian Exchange
Europe introduced
New World introduced
Corn, tomatoes, potatoes, and chocolate Tobacco,
Quinine turkey
Sugar, wheat, oranges, grapes, and
onions Horses, sheep, goats, cows, cats, and
rats Diseases smallpox, typhus, cholera, and
measles
27
(No Transcript)
28
Now complete your Cause and Effect thinking Map
Exploration
29
Warm up
  • Right below the timeline you need to define
    Colonization establishment of settlers and
    traders from a nation in an area outside the
    nations boundaries European nations established
    colonial empires for
  • Gold Gold Glory
  • You are going to decorate this area.

30
8.2b Compare political, economic, religious, and
social reasons for the establishment of the 13
English colonies.
Economic () Social (way of life) includes
religion Political (government)
31
What did the Americas have to offer to the people
  • Pushing them out of Europe
  • What was pulling people away from Europe and
    pushing them to the New World?
  • Religious persecution
  • Strict government rule
  • Less resources
  • King nobles owned land
  • Very few opportunities
  • Pull towards America
  • What did Americans have to offer?
  • Religious freedom
  • Less restricted government
  • Beginning of self-rule
  • Untapped resources
  • Could purchase cheap land
  • Tons of opportunities

32
  • What are the push and pull factors that
    influenced immigration to the New World?
  • The factors that pushed Europeans out of Europe
    are __________________________
  • and the pull factors that brought the immigrates
    to American are ____________

33
  • Some migration is not always by choice but by
    force.

Can you think of an example of forced migration?
Do you think that if they were forced to move
they are still immigrates? Why or Why not Once
you decide go to the sign that says yes or no or
undecided and be ready to support your choice.
34
8.2 B compare political, economic (),
religious, and social reasons for the
establishment of the 13 English colonies. 
35
The Political, economic, religious and social
reasons for English Exploration
Social
Economic
Political
making and spending money
Way of life how they lived day to day including
religion
Government
--New Merchant class wanted to get rich through
overseas trade --Middle /Lower class wanted a
better life- could not afford to live in
England. -- Unemployed farmers wanted to own
land
Workers/Farmers wanted to move up the social
ladder.
Wanted to escape the Kings strong control Get
away from the nobles and the caste system
England Higher class was forcing Debtors,
prisoner and to get them out of England
Rivalry with Spain and wanting England to be
better.
Religion
Immigrants came to practice their own religious
beliefs without persecution
36
European Peoples Gold reason for coming to New
World
  • . New Merchant class wanted to get rich through
    overseas trade.
  • Middle/Lower class wanted a better life and
    could not afford to live in England but could in
    the new world.
  • Unemployed farmers wanted to own land

37
The second G Glory
  • Spanish colonies were very successful in brining
    wealth and pride to Spain, so England and France
    wanted the same thing.
  • Workers/Farmers wanted to move up the social
    ladder.
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