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Chemical Bonds

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Chemical Bonds Chapter 20 Sec. 1 - Combined Elements Elements make compounds Properties of compounds are different from elements Ex: Sodium Chloride, NaCl (table salt ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chemical Bonds


1
Chemical Bonds
  • Chapter 20

2
Sec. 1 - Combined Elements
  • Elements make ? compounds
  • Properties of compounds are different from
    elements
  • Ex Sodium Chloride, NaCl (table salt)
  • Na silver, metal, reacts violently w/ H2O
  • Cl poisonous greenish-yellow gas

3
Chemical Formulas
  • H2O ? 2 atoms H and 1 atom O

4
Atomic Stability
  • Why do atoms form compounds?
  • To be stable
  • Why dont noble gases form compounds?
  • Stable! ? Full energy levels!!
  • All atoms form compounds to get FULL ENERGY
    LEVELS ? stable

5
Atomic Stability
6
Atomic Stability
  • 1st energy level full with 2 e-
  • Other levels full with 8 e-

7
Stability is Reached
  • NaCl is made from atoms losing or gaining
    electrons
  • H2O is different ? elements share electrons
  • Both ways make a
  • Chemical Bond force that holds atoms together in
    a compound

8
Types of Bonds
  • Section 2

9
Ionic Bonds
  • Atoms can lose or gain e- to make an ion
  • Ion a charged particle because it now has either
    more or fewer e- than p
  • charge if fewer e- than p
  • - charge if more e- than p

10
Calcium Oxide - CaO
  • Calcium has 2 valence e-
  • Loses 2 e- and becomes an ion
  • Ca2
  • Oxygen has 6 valence e-
  • Gains 2 e- and becomes an ion
  • O-2
  • Calcium gives e- to Oxygen
  • Opposite charges ATTRACT!!

11
Ionic Bond Metal and Nonmetal
  • Def the force of attraction between opposite
    charges of the ions
  • Ex MgCl2 zero net charge
  • Smallest Particle formula unit

12
Covalent Bond 2 Nonmetals
  • Def attraction between atoms when they share
    electrons
  • Smallest particle molecule
  • H2O
  • CO2
  • N2

13
Covalent Bonds
  • Single Covalent Bond 2 shared electrons
  • Multiple Bonds
  • Double (4 shared e-)
  • Triple (6 shared e-)

14
Naming Compounds
  • Section 3

15
Naming Ionic Compounds
  • Binary compound has 2 elements
  • Ionic compounds name of ions makes name of
    compound
  • Positive Ions name of element
  • Na Sodium ion
  • Negative ions end in ide
  • Cl- Chloride ion

16
Special Ions
17
Polyatomic Ions
18
Sec. 3 Writing Formulas
  • Remember compounds are NEUTRAL!!
  • Write the () ion
  • Write the (-) ion
  • Balance charges criss-cross method
  • Reduce to smallest whole s

19
Write the Formula
  • Lithium Nitride
  • Lead(IV) Phosphide
  • Calcium Fluoride
  • Ammonium Phosphate
  • Magnesium Hydroxide

20
Naming Ionic Compounds
  • Put the two ion names together!
  • NaCl
  • Na Sodium ion
  • Cl- Chloride ion
  • Sodium Chloride

21
Practice Naming
  • RbCl
  • Mg3N2
  • AlF3
  • CrCl3
  • Ca(OH)2
  • Na2CO3
  • NH4Cl

22
Naming Covalent Compounds
  • No ions involved
  • Same elements can make different compounds CO,
    CO2
  • Naming Use prefixes to tell how many atoms of
    each element
  • Second element ends in -ide
  • Prefix mono is left out with the first element

23
Prefixes
24
Practice Naming
  • N4O6
  • C2O5
  • PH3
  • Sulfur Hexafluoride
  • Dihydrogen Monoxide

25
Hydrates
  • Def has water chemically attached to its ions
  • CoCl2 6H2O
  • Cobalt Chloride Hexahydrate
  • CaSO4 2H2O
  • Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate
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