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Introduction to Nonlinear Optics

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Introduction to Nonlinear Optics H. R. Khalesifard Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences Email: khalesi_at_iasbs.ac.ir – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Nonlinear Optics


1
Introduction to Nonlinear Optics
  • H. R. Khalesifard
  • Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences
  • Email khalesi_at_iasbs.ac.ir

2
Contents
  1. Introduction
  2. The essence of nonlinear optics
  3. Second order nonlinear phenomena
  4. Third order nonlinear phenomena
  5. Nonlinear optical materials
  6. Applications of nonlinear optics

3
Introduction
  • Question
  • Is it possible to change the color of a
    monochromatic light?
  • Answer
  • Not without a laser light

4
Stimulated emission, The MASER and The LASER
  • (1916) The concept of stimulated emission Albert
    Einstein
  • (1928) Observation of negative absorption or
    stimulated emission near to resonant wavelengths,
    Rudolf Walther Ladenburg
  • (1930) There is no need for a physical system to
    always be in thermal equilibrium, Artur L.
    Schawlow

5
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6
LASER (MASER)
7
The Maser
  • Two groups were working on Maser in 50s
  • Alexander M. Prokhorov and Nikolai G. Bassov
    (Lebedev institute of Moscow)
  • Charles H. Townes, James P. Gordon and Herbert J.
    Zeiger (Colombia University)

8
  • Left to right Prokhorov, Townes and Basov at
    the Lebede institute (1964 Nobel prize in Physics
    for developing the Maser-Laser principle)

9
  • Townes (left) and Gordon (right) and the
    ammonia maser they had built at Colombia
    University

10
The LASER
  • (1951) V. A. Fabrikant A method for the
    application of electromagnetic radiation
    (ultraviolet, visible, infrared, and radio
    waves) patented in Soviet Union.
  • (1958) Townes and Arthur L. Schawlow, Infrared
    and Optical Masers, Physical Review
  • (1958) Gordon Gould definition of Laser as
    Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of
    Radiation
  • (1960) Schawlow and Townes
    U. S. Patent
    No. 2,929,922
  • (1960) Theodore Maiman Invention of the first
    Ruby Laser
  • (1960) Ali Javan The first He-Ne Laser

11
  • Maiman and the first ruby laser

12
  • Ali Javan and the first He-Ne Laser

13
Properties of Laser Beam
  • A laser beam
  • Is intense
  • Is Coherent
  • Has a very low divergence
  • Can be compressed in time up to few femto second

14
Applications of Laser
  • (1960s) A solution looking for a problem
  • (Present time) Medicine, Research, Supermarkets,
    Entertainment, Industry, Military, Communication,
    Art, Information technology,

15
Start of Nonlinear Optics
  • Nonlinear optics started by the discovery of
    Second Harmonic generation shortly after
    demonstration of the first laser.
  • (Peter Franken et al 1961)

16
2. The Essence of Nonlinear Optics
  • When the intensity of the incident light to a
    material system increases the response of medium
    is no longer linear

17
Response of an optical Medium
  • The response of an optical medium to the incident
    electro magnetic field is the induced dipole
    moments inside the medium

18
Nonlinear Susceptibility
Dipole moment per unit volume or polarization
  • The general form of polarization

19
Nonlinear Polarization
  • Permanent Polarization
  • First order polarization
  • Second order Polarization
  • Third Order Polarization

20
How does optical nonlinearity appear
  • The strength of the electric field of the
    light wave should be in the range of atomic fields

21
Nonlinear Optical Interactions
  • The E-field of a laser beam
  • 2nd order nonlinear polarization

22
2nd Order Nonlinearities
  • The incident optical field
  • Nonlinear polarization contains the following
    terms

23
Sum Frequency Generation
Application Tunable radiation in the UV
Spectral region.
24
Difference Frequency Generation
25
Phase Matching
  • Since the optical (NLO) media are dispersive,
  • The fundamental and the harmonic signals have
  • different propagation speeds inside the media.
  • The harmonic signals generated at different
    points
  • interfere destructively with each other.

26
SHG Experiments
  • We can use a resonator to increase the efficiency
    of SHG.

27
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28
What is the phase conjugation
The signal wave
The phase conjugated wave
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