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Title: Unit 10


1
Unit 10Chapters 24 25
  • Great Depression and World War II (1929 1929)
    CSS 11.6

2
Causes of the Crash
We in America are nearer to the final triumph
over poverty than ever before in the history of
any land. We have not yet reached the goalbut .
. . we shall soon, with the help of God, be in
sight of the day when poverty will be banished
from this nation. Herbert Hoover, 1928
  • Major Causes
  • stocks were overpriced
  • massive fraud and illegal activity
  • buying on margin
  • public officials repeated reassurances
  • Federal Reserve policies
  • US tariff policies
  • Florida Land Boom
  • consumer debt
  • Black Tuesday, October 29, 1929
  • a major downturn on the Friday before led to 16
    million shares sold in one day
  • within two months 40 billion lost (the entire
    cost of WWI)
  • unemployment skyrocketed (up to 25--50 among
    black workers)
  • banks closed and savings were lost
  • prices/income dropped 20-50 but debts remained
    the same
  • 1 made over 10,000
  • 5 made 5,000 9,000
  • 29 made 2,000 5,000
  • 65 made under 2,000
  • 80 of radios purchased on credit
  • 60 of cars purchased on credit
  • Dust Bowl, 1933
  • long drought and strong winds carried away
    millions of tons of topsoil from the Midwest
  • caused partly by dryfarming
  • 350,000 moved from OK and AR to CA looking for
    work
  • 100 mile/hour winds blew dirt 8,000 feet in the
    air and as far as Boston
  • John Steinbeck
  • wrote Grapes of Wrath and Of Mice and Men
  • Human potrayal of depression in California

3
Hoover Administration1929-1933
531
1928
  • Election of 1928
  • Smith too Catholic, too urban, too Irish and too
    vocally opposed to Prohibition
  • Hoover popular for Food Administration during WWI
  • cut income tax on the wealthiest from 74 to 23
  • Muscle Shoals Bill, 1930
  • Hoover vetoed a proposal to create power plants
    in TN to produce cheap electricity and force
    private companies to lower their prices
  • Hoover Dam, 1930
  • Hoover attempted to provide jobs for the
    unemployed without sacrificing their dignity

R Herbert C. Hoover 21,391,993 444
D Alfred E. Smith 15,016,169 87
  • Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC), 1932
  • 500 million in relief to corporations such as
    banks, railroads, insurance companies, and local
    governments
  • stopped short of direct individual aid
  • by 1941, the RFC loaned 9.5 billion
  • Bonus Army, 1932
  • large assembly of WWI veterans marched on DC to
    demand their bonuses from the Adjusted
    Compensation Act
  • Congress refused so they set up Hoovervilles
    outside the city
  • Hoover sent Gen. MacArthur to chase them out
  • they did not get their money

I do not believe that the power and duty of the
General Government ought to be extended to the
relief of individual sufferingThe lesson should
be constantly enforced that though the people
support the Government the Government should not
support the people. Herbert Hoover, 1930
4
Roosevelt Administration1933-1937
531
  • FDR
  • used fireside chats to communicate directly to
    the people
  • his expert advisors were his brain trust
  • his New Deal was meant to get the US out of the
    depression and use government to help more
    Americans
  • Frances Perkins, Louis Brandeis, Mary McLeod
    Bethune
  • Eleanor Roosevelt
  • politically active spokeswoman for the New Deal
  • much more liberal and outspoken than her husband
  • champion of minority and womens rights
  • US ambassador to the UN after WWII

1932
The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.
D Franklin Roosevelt 22,809,638 472
R Herbert C. Hoover 15,758,901 59
S Norman Thomas 881,951 --
  • Keynsian Economics
  • planned deficit spending to jumpstart the economy
  • more government spending means more jobs which
    means more consumer spending which means more
    jobs
  • Relief policies that eased the suffering caused
    by the Depression
  • Recovery policies that intended to help the US
    get out of the Depression
  • Reform policies that intended to keep us from
    going into another Great Depression

5
First Hundred Days
Try something, if it works, do it. If it
doesnt try something else, but above alltry
something. Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • Federal Emergency Banking Relief Act
  • eight hours after taking office, FDR closed all
    banks for a week
  • banks were inspected and safe banks reopened nine
    days later
  • March 14 deposits exceeded withdrawals
  • Glass-Steagall Act
  • FDIC protected bank deposits up to 5000 (now
    100,000)
  • banks and stocks separated to prevent speculation
  • the restriction ended in 1998 which helped lead
    to the Great Recession
  • Federal Securities Act
  • required information regarding the soundness of
    stocks and bonds
  • created the Federal Securities Commission
  • Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
  • paid farmers to destroy crops and livestock to
    keep supply down and market prices up
  • many outraged that food was destroyed while many
    starved
  • AAA thrown out by the Supreme Court after the
    Schecter case
  • replaced in 1938 with the 2nd AAA
  • Federal Emergency Relief Administration
  • Harry Hopkins distributed money to states to help
    their relief programs
  • replaced Hoovers Emergency Relief Administration
  • 3 billion paid for temporary work for 20 million
    unskilled workers
  • Federal Housing Authority (FHA)
  • government provided loans for home mortgages

6
The New Deal
Throughout the nation men and women, forgotten
in the political philosophy of the Government,
look to us here for guidance and for more
equitable opportunity to share in the
distribution of national wealth... I pledge
myself to a new deal for the American people.
This is more than a political campaign. It is a
call to arms. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1932
  • Public Works Administration (PWA)
  • Harold Ickes, Secretary of the Interior
  • 6 billion funded over 34,000 public works
    projects
  • hospitals, schools, homes, roads
  • Lincoln Tunnel
  • Grand Coulee Dam
  • Key West Highway
  • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
  • provided work for about 3 million young men
    (18-25) at 1 a day
  • reforestation, fire control, flood control, swamp
    drainage
  • sent money home each month (30)
  • kept them from committing crimes
  • Tennessee Valley Authority, 1933
  • construction of nine dams in one of the most
    poverty-stricken regions in the nation
  • provided employment, cheap electricity, and water
    for agriculture
  • allowed government to determine fair prices for
    electricity
  • strongly criticized by conservatives for being
    too socialist
  • National Industrial Recovery Act, 1933
  • each industry established code of fair
    competition
  • established a minimum wage and maximum hours
  • businesses displayed blue eagle stickers to show
    participation

7
Roosevelt Administration1937-1945
531
  • Packing the Courts
  • the Supreme Court threw out some of FDRs
    programs
  • FDR tried to add judges to the Supreme Court so
    it would be more supportive of the New Deal
  • after three terms in office, FDR had appointed
    nine judges to the court
  • AAA and Fair Labor Standards Act, 1938
  • rewritten to be constitutional
  • replaced the old AAA and NIRA
  • Rural Electrification Administration, 1936
  • brought electricity to rural areas
  • Social Security Act, 1935
  • old-age pension, unemployment benefits, disability

1936
D Franklin Roosevelt 27,752,869 523
R Alfred M. Landon 16,674,665 8
U William Lemke 882,479 --
  • Works Projects Administration (WPA), 1935
  • replaced the expired PWA
  • 11 billion to provide 9 million jobs
  • wages varied from 19-94/month
  • 650,000 miles of roads
  • 78,000 bridges
  • 125,000 buildings
  • 700 miles of airport runway
  • presented 225,000 concerts for 150 million
  • commissioned almost 475,000 works of art

8
New Deal Critics
  • Criticisms
  • expanded the power of the President over Congress
  • expanded national authority over the states
  • threatened the power of the Supreme Court
  • federal deficit grew from 451 million in 1932 to
    4.4 billion in 1936
  • did not effectively spend the money
  • stank of bolshevism
  • discouraged industry and innovation
  • did little or nothing to end the Depression
  • Supporters
  • saved capitalism from itself
  • protected the nation from the worst effects of
    the Depression
  • Father Coughlin
  • outspoken Catholic radio-critic of New Deal from
    1933 to 1942
  • first spoke out against the New Deal but later
    spoke against Jews and was taken off the air
  • Huey Kingfish Long
  • Louisiana senator provided a more radical
    alternative called Share Our Wealth
  • no one allowed a fortune 100-300 times larger
    than the average income
  • guaranteed everyone an income of 2000-2500
  • old age pension
  • free education, including college
  • Long gained a large following until his
    assassination in 1935

9
New Deal Coalition
  • Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act, 1932
  • outlawed yellow dog contracts
  • forbade federal courts from restraining strikes,
    boycotts, and picketing
  • major boost for labor after earlier post-war
    setbacks
  • John Lewis
  • formed the Committee of Industrial Organization,
    1935
  • took on big industries like automobiles
  • lifted labor from an annoyance to a major force
    in the nation
  • surpassed the AFL as the largest union in the
    nation
  • by 1940, it had 4 million members and 200,000
    blacks among them
  • Wagner Act, 1935
  • created National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to
    ensure labor could organize and bargain
    collectively
  • milestone of labor movement
  • New Deal Coalition
  • FDR built a powerful new democratic party
  • the Democrats dominated Congress from 1932 1995
  • Democrats won 6 of the next 8 presidential
    elections
  • Blue-collar northerners, southern whites, Midwest
    farmers, immigrants, and African Americans
  • because he needed the votes of southern whites,
    FDR did not do as much as he could for black
    voters

10
FDRs Foreign Policy
  • Isolationism
  • recognized American opposition to war
  • slowly edged US closer to involvement
  • Nye Committee
  • said merchants of death made lots of money off
    WWI
  • Stimson Doctrine, 1931
  • Japan invaded Manchuria
  • US refused to recognize Manchuria as Japanese
    territory
  • League of Nations did nothing
  • Appeasement
  • attempt to avoid war through diplomacy
  • made it easier for dictators to rise to power

D Franklin Roosevelt 27,307,819 449
R Wendell L. Willkie 22,321,018 82
  • London Economic Conference, 1933
  • attempt at solving world-wide depression through
    cooperative stabilization
  • FDR refused because he did not want to obligate
    the U.S.
  • conf. fell apart and led to nationalism
  • Good Neighbor Policy
  • stopped interfering in Latin America
  • did not interfere when Mexico seized U.S. assets
    in 1938
  • Reciprocal Trading Agreement Act, 1934
  • 21 nations signed by 1939

11
Neutrality
The epidemic of world lawlessness is spreading.
When an epidemic of physical disease starts to
spread, the community approves and joins in a
quarantine of the patients in order to protect
the health of the community against the spread of
disease . . . There must be positive endeavors to
preserve peace. --FDR, Quarantine Speech, 1937
  • Ethiopian Invasion, 1935
  • Emperor Haile Selassie asked League for aid after
    Italy invaded
  • trade embargo with Italy failed to deter
    aggression
  • Neutrality Act, 1935
  • no sale of arms to belligerents
  • Spanish Civil War, 1935-1939
  • fascist Francisco Franco overthrew republican
    govt.
  • backed by Hitler and Mussolini
  • Allied neutrality helped fascists
  • Neutrality Act, 1937
  • no sale of arms to nations in civil war
  • some Americans fought anyway
  • Olympic Games in Berlin, 1936
  • Hitler hosted games to showcase German economy
  • predicted his uberman would win all the events
  • New Germany scared Allies into appeasement
  • Jesse Owens won
  • Rome-Tokyo-Berlin Axis, 1937
  • pact by the three nations to fight for one
    another
  • led to war with Germany after Pearl Harbor
  • Panay Incident, 1937
  • U.S. ship sunk, Japan apologized

12
Appeasement
  • Munich Agreement, 1938
  • Neville Chamberlain of Britain meets with Hitler
  • they sign treaty promising Hitler will not take
    any more territory
  • Hitler took the rest of Czechoslovakia
  • Non-Aggression Pact, 1939
  • Hitler and Stalin agree to mutual peace
  • Britain and France are stunned
  • Stalin signs second pact with Japan in 1941
  • Poland, September 1939
  • blitzkrieg warfare coordinated planes and tanks
    from three directions
  • Poland fell within a month
  • France and Britain declared war too late to help
  • NAZI Germany
  • Hitler elected chancellor in 1932
  • promised end of depression and rise of third
    reich
  • left the League of Nations in 1933
  • occupied Rhineland in 1936
  • Anschluss (March 1938)
  • NAZI army greeted with flowers in Austria
  • Hitler argues all Germanic people should be under
    one flag
  • Sudetenland (September 1938)
  • NAZI army enters western Czechoslovakia
  • Kristallnacht, 1938
  • in one night, 7,500 Jewish shops and 400
    synagogues burned
  • almost 100 Jews killed and 20,000 sent to
    concentration camps

13
WWII in Europe
  • Invasion of Western Europe (France)
  • German forces took Denmark and Norway in April
  • Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg and France
    in May
  • Allied forces barely evacuate at Dunkirk across
    the channel
  • Battle of Britain, 1941
  • alone, Britain held against the Nazis air force
  • Germany bombed London nightly
  • Hitler gave up and decided to attack Russia in
    the spring
  • Operation Barbarossa, May 1941
  • Germany hoped to conquer Russia before winter but
    slowed by fighting in Balkans
  • Stalingrad becomes linchpin
  • opened door for US-USSR alliance
  • USSR pushed Germany back before D-Day
  • Four Freedoms Speech, 1941
  • FDR said Americans must help make a world where
    basic freedoms can be expected
  • freedom of speech and worship, from want and fear
  • America First Committee, 1940
  • argued U.S. should protect itself and the western
    hemisphere
  • Europe could deal with its own problems
  • Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allie,
    1940
  • agreed that the U.S. should stay out of war BUT
    should back Britain

14
US Approaches WWII
A day that will live in infamy
  • Cash and Carry, 1939
  • Allies could pay cash and carry away munitions
  • U.S. merchants told to avoid war zones
  • Hitler forced to begin submarine warfare
  • Lend-Lease Act, 1940
  • U.S. lent non-aggressive nations war supplies
    for duration of war
  • expected to get supplies back and lease payment
  • 48 billion over the course of the war
  • 14-20 billion just to Britain
  • Destroyers-for-Bases, 1941
  • British gave U.S. 99-year leases on naval bases
    for 50 destroyers
  • Atlantic Charter, 1941
  • Roosevelt and Churchill planned goals for end of
    war
  • self-determination and UN
  • Reuben James, 1941
  • German sub sank a US destroyer
  • FDR commanded navy to attack Italy and Germany on
    sight
  • US Embargo
  • Japan attacked Peking
  • U.S. placed a trade embargo on war supplies to
    Japan
  • oil, iron ore, fuel, steel, and rubber
  • Pearl Harbor, December 1941
  • Japan wanted to expand and thought a decisive
    defeat would keep the US out of the war
  • Japan was still pretending to carry out
    diplomatic talks in DC
  • six aircraft carriers brought 360 planes to
    attack the naval base
  • 2500 killed, 160 planes destroyed
  • the US fleet was down for six months
  • the US declared war on Japan and its allies

15
American Homefront
  • War Labor Board
  • set ceiling on wage increases
  • Smith-Connally Act, 1943
  • govt. could seize tied-up industries
  • due to rash of walkouts led by John D. Lewis and
    UMW
  • Fair Employment Practices Commission
  • Executive Order 8802 made discrimination in
    hiring illegal
  • A. Philip Randolph threatened massive march on DC
    to protest discrimination in military and
    government jobs
  • Rosie the Riveter
  • symbol of the working woman
  • 6 million went to work (3/4 of all women)
  • the government spent 50 million to build 3,000
    day cares
  • 218,000 in military (WAACS and WAVES)
  • Office of War Mobilization
  • shifted American production to war time
    production
  • War Production Board
  • allocated resources for war effort
  • 40 billion bullets
  • 300,000 aircraft
  • 86,000 tanks
  • 2.6 million machine guns
  • 76,000 ships (one in 14 days)
  • Office of Price Administration
  • froze prices, wages, and rent to fight inflation
  • rationed essential foodstuffs
  • Office of War Information
  • radio, print, and movies promoted the war and the
    purchase of war bonds
  • Voice of America broadcasts spread news to
    foreign allies

16
American Homefront
  • Zoot Suit Riots, 1943
  • a fight between off-duty sailors and Mexicans
    teens in LA escalated
  • the zoot suit was seen as a waste of resources
  • Executive Order 9066, 1942
  • German and Italian immigrants were held in camps
    but were released
  • more than 100,000 Japanese immigrants and
    Japanese-Americans were detained
  • Japanese-Americans were forced to sell (or
    abandon) their homes and businesses
  • Korematsu vs. United States, 1944
  • the Supreme Court upheld the law saying it was a
    pressing public necessity
  • this was a battle between personal freedom and
    national security
  • in 1988, the government gave 20,000 to surviving
    internees
  • 442nd Regimental Combat Team
  • Japanese-Americans were not allowed to enlist
    until 1943
  • a segregated unit fought in Italy and became the
    most decorated unit in American history
  • about 6,000 Nisei served as translators and
    interrogators
  • the precursor to the CIA used them for spy
    missions
  • Navajo Codetalkers
  • 25,000 Native Americans served in military
  • Tuskegee Airmen
  • Tuskegee was a college founded by Booker T.
    Washington
  • this segregated black fighter squadron flew 1500
    escort missions and never lost a single bomber

17
The War in Europe
  • Germany First
  • FDR agrees that Germany is a larger threat to the
    world
  • Operation Torch
  • US invaded North Africa and captured 275,000
    Germans
  • used North Africa to get to Sicily, then to Italy
  • Casablanca Conference, 1943
  • unconditional axis surrender
  • Teheran Conference, 1943
  • channel invasion, war with Japan, UN, occupation
    of post-war Germany, aid to China
  • Operation Overlord (D-Day), 1944
  • planned by Eisenhowerallied commander
  • 150,000 troops landed on five beaches
  • France and Belgium free by September
  • Battle of the Bulge, 1944
  • Germans tried to push allies back to Antwerp
    using 250,000 troops
  • US held at Bastogne
  • Yalta Conference, 1945
  • focuses on post-war world
  • UN Security Council
  • occupation zones
  • Polands government
  • Soviet declaration of war on Japan
  • V-E Day, May 8, 1945
  • US, France, and Britain pushed from West and
    Soviets from East
  • Potsdam Conference, 1945
  • Truman tells Soviets about bomb
  • discuss situation in Poland

18
The War in the Pacific
I shall return. --Gen. Douglas A. MacArthur
  • Battle of Coral Sea, 1941
  • US turned Japan back from Australia
  • first naval battle where ships never saw each
    other
  • Battle of Midway, 1942
  • US broke Japanese codes and Adm. Nimitz turned
    tide of war
  • sink four aircraft carriers and destroy hundreds
    of planes
  • Leyte Gulf, 1944
  • Gen. MacArthur took the Philippines back
  • Philippines given independence in 1947
  • Iwo Jima and Okinawa, 1945
  • the US decided to only take important islands to
    control the air and the sea
  • 50,000 and 110,000 casualties
  • allowed daily bombing of Japan
  • Manhattan Project
  • US spent 2 billion on Einsteins theory
  • over 100,000 worked on bomb without knowing it
  • first bomb tested at Alamogordo, NM in July 1945
  • Hiroshima, August 6, 1945
  • Enola Gay (B-29) dropped Little Boy
  • exploded 1,900 above the city (100,000,000)
  • 100,000 killed by bomb or sickness from radiation
  • Nagasaki, August 9, 1945
  • second bomb killed 70,000
  • USSR declared war on Japan
  • V-J Day, September 2, 1945
  • MacArthur accepted surrender Japanese keep
    emperor but wrote new constitution

19
Total War
  • Fire Bombing Tokyo, March 9-10, 1945
  • 250,000 buildings destroyed (25 of Tokyo)
  • 83,000 people killed, more than either nuclear
    bomb
  • Technological Innovations
  • Aviation jet aircraft
  • Weaponry atomic bomb, rocketry
  • Communicationradar, sonar
  • Medicinepenicillin, morphine, plasma
  • Cost of War
  • 62 millions casualties (400,000 American dead)
  • 25 million military and 37 million civilian
  • abt. 10 million in Holocaust (5 millions Jews)
  • 70 of European industry destroyed
  • 13 of US population served (16 million)
  • US spent 381 billion on war
  • Final Solution
  • Hitler attempted genocide at Aushwitz and Dachau
  • 6 million Jews terminated in death camps using
    pesticide
  • 78 of Jews in Europe were killed
  • Medical Experimentation
  • Germany and Japan performed unnecessary surgeries
  • Rape of Nanking
  • three days of unrestrained looting and abuse
  • Industrial Bombing
  • U.S. and British bombed industrial sectors
  • British bombed at night despite higher civilian
    casualties
  • U.S. continued daytime raids from England and
    Italy
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