Endocrine System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Endocrine System

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Endocrine System Health Science One – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Endocrine System


1
Endocrine System
  • Health Science One

2
Function of endocrine system
  • Endocrine glands - Secrete chemicals, hormones,
    directly into bloodstream.
  • - Ductless glands
  • Exocrine glands - Secrete substance through a
    duct i.e.Sweat, salivary, lacrimal and
    pancreas.
  • Hormones chemical substances that coordinate
    and direct target organ cells (only specific
    cells respond)

3
Negative Feedback
  • Drop in hormone level triggers chain reaction
  • Blood level of hormone falls
  • Brain gets message and sends out hormone to
    stimulate gland
  • Gland secretes more hormone
  • When blood levels of hormone increase, the brain
    hormones stop

4
Nervous Control
  • In some cases, sympathetic nervous system causes
    direct release of hormone from gland
  • i.e. stress may cause the adrenal medulla to
    secrete adrenaline

5
Pituitary Gland
  • Tiny size of a grape
  • Base of brain
  • Connected to hypothalamus
  • Anterior / Posterior lobes
  • Cranial cavity
  • Master Gland

6
Anterior Pituitary Lobe
  • GH Growth hormone (somatotropin) responsible
    for growth and development
  • Prolactin develops breast tissue, stimulates
    production of milk after childbirth
  • TSH Thyroid stimulating hormone stimulates
    thyroid cells to produce thyroid hormone
    thyroxine (low TSH treated with synthroid)
  • ACTH Adrenocortiocotropic hormone stimulates
    adrenal cortex

7
Anterior Pituitary contd
  • FSH Follicle stimulating hormone stimulates
    growth of follicle and production of estrogen in
    females and sperm in males
  • LH Luteinizing hormone stimulates ovulation
    and formation of corpus luteum, which produces
    progesterone in females

8
Posterior Pituitary Lobe
  • Vasopressin converts to ADH (antidiuretic
    hormone) in the bloodstream, acts on kidney to
    concentrate urine and preserve water in the body
  • Oxytocin released during childbirth causing
    contractions of the uterus

9
Thyroid Gland
  • Thyroid Gland
  • 1. Butterfly-shaped mass of tissue.
  • 2. On either side of larynx, in front of the
    trachea.
  • 3. H-shaped.

10
  • Thyroid stimulating hormone (stimulates
    cellular metabolism) Main hormone Thyroxine
    controlled by secretion of TSH controls rate of
    metabolism
  • Calcitonin controls calcium ion concentration
    in the body prevents hypercalcemia

11
Parathyroid Glands
  • 4 glands size of a grain of rice
  • Attached to posterior thyroid
  • Produce parathormone which helps control blood
    calcium, prevents hypocalcemia.

12
Thymus Gland
  • Endocrine and lymphatic organ
  • Behind (posterior) sternum, above and in front of
    heart
  • Begins to disappear at puberty
  • Produces Thymosin reacts upon lymphoid tissue
    to produce T-lymphocytes

13
Adrenal Glands
  • Adrenal Glands above kidneys
  • Adrenal cortex secretes corticoids
    (anti-inflammatory hormones) and sex hormones
  • Androgens Male sex hormones
  • Adrenalin hormone from adrenal medulla,
    powerful cardiac stimulant, fight or flight
    hormone response to stress

Adrenal Medulla also secretes nor epinephrine
increases BP and heart rate and constricts blood
vessels.
14
Gonads
  • Gonads ovaries in female and testes in male
  • Estrogen Development of female reproductive
    organs, secondary sex characteristics (breasts,
    pubic hair, menstrual cycle)
  • Progesterone Plays a part in the menstrual
    cycle
  • Testosterone Male reproductive organs and
    secondary sex characteristics (chest hair, deep
    voice, increased muscle mass)

15
Pancreas
  • Pancreas abdominal cavity behind the stomach
  • Endocrine and exocrine functions also part of
    digestive system
  • Islets of Langerhans Insulin production.
  • Insulin promotes utilization of glucose by the
    cells lowers blood sugar levels

16
Other hormones
  • Prostaglandins Tissue hormones - can cause
    constriction of blood vessels and muscle
    contractions - can be used to induce labor.

17
Endocrine Disorders - Dwarfism
  • Hypofunction of pituitary in childhood
  • Small size, but body proportions and intellect
    normal
  • Sexual immaturity
  • Rx Early diagnosis, injection of growth hormone

18
Gigantism
  • Gigantism
  • Hyperfunction of pituitary Too much growth
    hormone
  • In preadolescence Overgrowth of long bones
    leads to excessive tallness

19
Acromegaly
  • Hyperfunction of pituitary too much growth
    hormone in adulthood
  • Overdevelopment of bones in face, hands and feet
  • Attacks cartilage so the chin protrudes -
    lips, nose and extremities enlarge
  • Rx drugs to inhibit growth hormone radiation

20
Before
  • After

21
(No Transcript)
22
Hyperthyroidism
  • Overactive thyroid gland
  • Too much thyroxin leads to enlargement of gland
  • Symptoms Consuming large quantities of food but
    lose weight nervous irritability
  • Goiter Enlargement of gland
  • Exophthalmos Bulging of eyeballs
  • TX Partial or total removal of gland, drugs to
    reduce include thyroxine radiation

23
Hypothyroidism
  • Not enough thyroxine
  • May be due to lack of iodine (simple goiter)
    fixed with iodized salt
  • Other cause inflammation of thyroid which
    destroys the ability of the gland to make
    thyroxine
  • Sx Dry, itchy skin dry and brittle hair,
    constipation, muscle cramps at night.

24
Tetany
  • In hypoparathyroidism, decreased calcium levels
    affect functions of nerves
  • Sx Convulsive twitching develops, person dies of
    spasms in the respiratory muscles, seizures
  • Rx Vitamin D, calcium and parathormone.

25
Addisons Disease
  • Adrenal glands dont produce enough cortisol or
    aldosterone (steroid hormones)
  • Sx muscle weakness, darkening of skin
    (hyperpigmentation), salt craving, irritability,
    hair loss, depression, weight loss, n/v/d,
    hypoglycemia, low BP

Steroid abuse liver damage, heart disease,
testicular changes, breast growth in males
26
Diabetes Mellitus
  • Cause Decreased secretion of insulin
  • Sx-Polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia, weight loss,
    blurred vision, and possible diabetic muscles.
  • If not treated, excess glucose in blood
    (hyperglycemia) and secreted in urine
    (glycosuria)
  • If too much insulin given, blood sugar can get
    too low (hypoglycemia) and person can develop
    insulin shock.
  • Type II diabetes is not insulin-dependent Most
    common, usually familial, occurs later in life,
    usually treated with diet.
  • Test for diabetes Blood sample at home, normal
    blood sugar is 80-100 mg. screeningurinalysis

27
Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)
  • Causes Too much food, too little insulin or
    diabetes medicine, illness or stress.
  • Onset Gradual, may progress to diabetic coma.
  • Symptoms Extreme thirst, frequent urination,
    dry skin, hunger, blurred vision, drowsiness, and
    nausea.
  • What can you do? Take blood glucose tests, and
    if over 250 mg/dL for several tests, call your
    doctor.

28
Hypoglycemia(Low Blood Glucose)
  • Causes Too little good, too much insulin or
    diabetes medicine, or extra exercise.
  • Onset Suddon, may progress to insulin shock.
  • Symptoms Shaking, fast heartbeat, sweating,
    anxious, dizziness, hunger, impaired vision,
    weakness fatigue, headache, and irritablility.
  • What can you do? Drink ½ glass of orange juice
    or skim milk, or eat several hard candies, test
    your blood glucose if symptoms dont stop call
    your doctor, within 30 minutes after symptoms go
    away, eat a light snack (a ½ peanut butter or
    meat sandwich and a ½ glass of mik.

29
Endocrine Terminology
  • 1. Thyroxine Regulates body metabolism
  • 2. Adrenalin Stimulates the heart to beat
    faster
  • 3. Parathyroid Regulates use of calcium
  • 4. Parathormone Control use of calcium
    phosphorus
  • 5. Insulin Secreted by pancreas
  • 6. Calcitonin Affects neuromuscular functioing,
    blood clotting, and holds cells together
  • 7. Estrogen Governs reproduction and fertility
  • 8. Oxytocin Causes the uterus to contract
    during labor
  • 9. Gonad Sex gland
  • 10. ACTH Hormone secreted by the pituitary gland

30
Endocrine Terminology Cont.
  • 11. Acromegaly Enlargement of bones of the
    extremities.
  • 12. Adenectomy Removal of any gland.
  • 13. Adenoidectomy Removal of the adenoids.
  • 14. Adrenogenic Originating in the adrenals.
  • 15. Dwarfism Condition of being abnormally
    small.
  • 16. Endocrine Ductless to secrete within.
  • 17. Endocrinotherapy Treatment with endocrine
    preparation.
  • 18. Exocrine To secrete through a duct.
  • 19.Goiter Enlarged thyroid gland.

31
Endocrine Terminology Cont.
  • 20. Goitrogens Any substance that causes a
    goiter.
  • 21. Lymphycytopenia Deficiency of lymph cells.
  • 22. Pancreatolysis Breakdown of the pancreas.
  • 23. Parathyrotoxicosis Poisonous condition of
    the parathyroid.
  • 24. Pinealoma Tumor of the pineal gland.
  • 25. Pituitarigenic Originating in the
    pituitary.
  • 26. Thyroadenitis Inflammation of the thyroid
    gland.
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