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Earth Science, 13e


Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Earth Science, 13e

Earth Science, 13e
  • Tarbuck Lutgens

Introduction to Earth Science Earth Science,
13e Chapter 1
  • Stanley C. Hatfield
  • Southwestern Illinois College

Earth Science
  • Encompasses all sciences that seek to understand
  • Earth
  • Earths neighbors in space
  • Earth Science includes
  • Geology literally the study of Earth
  • Oceanography a study of the ocean

Earth Science
  • Earth Science includes
  • Meteorology the study of the atmosphere and the
    processes that produce weather
  • Astronomy the study of the universe

People and the environment
  • Environment
  • Surrounds and influences organisms
  • Physical environment encompasses water, air,
    soil, and rock
  • Term environmental is usually reserved for
    those aspects that focus on the relationships
    between people and the natural environment

People and the environment
  • Resources
  • An important focus of the Earth sciences
  • Includes water, soil, minerals, and energy
  • Two broad categories
  • Renewable can be replenished (examples include
    plants and energy from water and wind)
  • Nonrenewable metals (examples include metals
    and fuels)

People and the environment
  • Population
  • Population of the planet is growing rapidly
  • Rate of mineral and energy usage has climbed more
    rapidly than the overall growth of population
  • Environmental problems
  • Local, regional, and global

People and the environment
  • Environmental problems
  • Human-induced and accentuated
  • Urban air pollution
  • Acid rain
  • Ozone depletion
  • Global warming
  • Natural hazards
  • Earthquakes
  • Landslides

People and the environment
  • Environmental problems
  • Natural hazards continued
  • Floods
  • Hurricanes
  • World population pressures

Scientific inquiry
  • Science assumes the natural world is
  • Consistent
  • Predictable
  • Goal of science
  • To discover patterns in nature
  • To use the knowledge to predict

Scientific inquiry
  • An idea can become a
  • Hypothesis (tentative or untested explanation)
  • Theory (tested and confirmed hypothesis)
  • Paradigm (a theory that explains a large number
    of interrelated aspects of the natural world)
  • Scientific method
  • Gather facts through observation
  • Formulate hypotheses and theories

Scientific inquiry
  • Scientific knowledge is gained through
  • Following systematic steps
  • Collecting facts
  • Developing a hypothesis
  • Conduct experiments
  • Re-examine the hypothesis and accept, modify, or
  • Theories that withstand examination
  • Totally unexpected occurrences

Early evolution of Earth
  • Origin of Earth
  • Most researchers believe that Earth and the other
    planets formed at essentially the same time
  • Nebular hypothesis
  • Solar system evolved from an enormous rotating
    cloud called the solar nebula
  • Nebula was composed mostly of hydrogen and helium

Early evolution of Earth
  • Origin of Earth
  • Nebular hypothesis continued
  • About 5 billion years ago the nebula began to
  • Assumes a flat, disk shape with the protosun
    (pre-Sun) at the center
  • Inner planets begin to form from metallic and
    rocky clumps
  • Larger outer planets began forming from fragments
    with a high percentage of ices

The Nebular hypothesis
Early evolution of Earth
  • Formation of Earths layered structure
  • As Earth formed, the decay of radioactive
    elements and heat from high-velocity impacts
    caused the temperature to increase
  • Iron and nickel began to melt and sink toward the
  • Lighter rocky components floated outward, toward
    the surface
  • Gaseous material escaped from Earths interior to
    produce the primitive atmosphere

Earths Spheres
  • Hydrosphere
  • Ocean the most prominent feature of the
  • Nearly 71 percent of Earths surface
  • About 97 percent of Earths water
  • Also includes fresh water found in streams,
    lakes, and glaciers, as well as that found

Earths Spheres
  • Atmosphere
  • Thin, tenuous blanket of air
  • One half lies below 5.6 kilometers (3.5 miles)
  • Biosphere
  • Includes all life
  • Concentrated near the surface in a zone that
    extends from the ocean floor upward for several
    kilometers into the atmosphere

Earths Spheres
  • Solid Earth
  • Based on compositional differences, it consists
    of the crust, mantle, and core
  • Divisions of the outer portion are based on how
    materials behave
  • Lithosphere rigid outer layer
  • Divisions of Earths surface continents and
    ocean basins

Earths layered structure
Earth system science
  • Earth is a dynamic body with many separate but
    highly interacting parts or spheres
  • Earth system science studies Earth as a system
    composed of numerous parts, or subsystems
  • System any size group of interacting parts that
    form a complex whole

Earth system science
  • System
  • Closed systems are self-contained (e.g., an
    automobile cooling system)
  • Open systems both energy and matter flow into
    and out of the system (e.g., a river system)

Earth system science
  • Feedback mechanisms
  • Negative-feedback mechanisms resist change and
    stabilize the system
  • Positive-feedback mechanisms enhance the system
  • Earth as a system
  • Consists of a nearly endless array of subsystems
    (e.g., hydrologic cycle, rock cycle)

Earth system science
  • Earth as a system
  • Sources of energy
  • Sun drives external processes such as weather,
    ocean circulation and erosional processes
  • Earths interior drives internal processes
    including volcanoes, earthquakes and mountain
  • Humans are part of the Earth system

End of Chapter 1