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Essential Question: What are the similarities

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Essential Question: What are the similarities & differences among the Spanish, French, Dutch & British patterns of colonization in America? Warm-Up Questions: – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Essential Question: What are the similarities


1
  • Essential Question What are the similarities
    differences among the Spanish, French, Dutch
    British patterns of colonization in America?
  • Warm-Up Questions
  • What key changes in Europe took place in the 15th
    16th centuries that allowed for overseas
    colonization?
  • How did European exploration in America impact
    native peoples?

2
Motivations for Exploration
  • During the Renaissance, a desire for new trade
    routes to Asia led to an Age of Exploration
  • Led by Spain Portugal, explorers found new
    trade routes, colonies, people to Christianize
  • Colonization in North America led to destruction
    of Indian culture, permanent settlements for
    whites, wealth for European nations

3
Motivation Means of Exploration
  • Means
  • Better ships (caravels)
  • Better navigation tools
  • Astrolabe sextant
  • Magnetic compass
  • Maps with longitude latitude
  • Key Motivation of Explorers
  • A search for new knowledge (Renaissance)
  • The 3 Gs
  • GOLD A desire for wealth, new markets for trade,
    a desire to escape poverty in Europe
  • GLORY A desire by European kings to develop
    large overseas empires or for individual
    explorers to make a name for themselves
  • GOD A desire by European Christians (Catholics)
    to convert people to their faith

4
Voyages of European Exploration
5
Four Key Explorers
Christopher Columbus discovered America looking
for a westward route to India
Samuel Champlain founded Quebec after failing to
find a NW passage to India
Vasco da Gama found India by sailing around Africa
Ferdinand Magellan led the first expedition to
circumnavigate the globe
6
This exploration led to colonies by European
countries
7
America Prior to the Arrival of Europeans
8
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9
America Before the Europeans
These empires were destroyed by the arrival of
Spanish conquistadors
  • Before Columbus discovered America in 1492,
    North America was dominated Native Americans

The Aztecs (in Central America) Incas (in South
America) created large, powerful empires
10
America Before the Europeans
The Plains Indians were hunters gathers but
became mobile hunters after the Spanish
introduced the horse into North America
  • Before Columbus discovered America in 1492,
    North America was dominated Native Americans

11
America Before the Europeans
The Eastern Woodlands Indians lived in small
farming communities were the first contacts
with British settlers in Virginia Massachusetts
  • Before Columbus discovered America in 1492,
    North America was dominated Native Americans

12
Eastern Woodland Cultures
  • Along the Atlantic Coast of North America, Native
    Americans lived in smaller, mobile bands
  • Farming was supplemented by hunting and gathering
  • Eastern woodland Indians were likely the first
    natives to be encountered by English settlers

13
Locations of Major Indian Groups and Culture
Areas in the 1600s
14
When Worlds Collide
  • On the map provided, label and shade trade
    patterns the regions of the world colonized by
    (a) Spain, (b) France, (c) England, (d)
    Dutch during the Age of Exploration

15
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16
Voyages of European Exploration
17
The Columbian Exchange
  • The arrival of Europeans led to the introduction
    of new products between Indians Europeans
    called the Columbian Exchange
  • Indians introduced corn, tobacco, potatoes,
    peanuts to whites
  • Europeans introduced horses, livestock, citrus,
    diseases
  • An estimated 90 of Indians died due to European
    disease

18
The Columbian Exchange
19
The Spanish Colonies in America
20
Spanish Colonies in North America
21
Spanish Colonies in North America
The Spanish government encouraged converting
Indians establishing missions
  • Motivations
  • After Columbus, Spain dominated Central South
    America the SE SW sections of North America
  • Spanish conquistadors explored in search of gold
    silver
  • Missionaries converted Native Americans to
    Catholicism

22
Spanish Colonies in North America
  • Government Royal control
  • Spanish colonies were funded controlled by the
    monarch
  • Viceroys were sent to the colonies to serve as
    governors
  • Economy Desire for wealth
  • Used Indian African slave labor to mine gold
    silver
  • Built encomiendas (plantations) to farm cash
    crops

23
Spanish Colonies in North America
  • Society Strictly controlled
  • Viceroys were sent to rule
  • Creoles were white colonists living in Spanish
    colonies had opportunities for land wealth
  • The lack of women led to inter-marriage with
    Indians a mixed-race population (mestizos)
  • Indians African slaves made up the bottom of
    society

24
The French Colonies in America
25
French Colonies in North America
26
French Colonies in North America
Like Spain, the French govt encouraged
converting Indians establishing missions
  • Motivations
  • After Champlains attempt to find a NW passage
    through Canada, he founded Quebec
  • The French crescent included Canada, the
    Mississippi River, New Orleans
  • Missionaries converted Native Americans to
    Catholicism

27
French Colonies in North America
  • Government Royal control
  • The French colonies were strictly controlled by
    royal governors
  • Economy Desire for fur trade
  • Most French colonists profited from the fur
    trade, small-scale farming, or lumbering
  • Society Friendly with Indians
  • Because the French needed furs, they were the
    most friendly with the local Native Americans

28
Dutch Colonies in North America
29
Dutch Colonies in North America
  • Motivations
  • The Dutch established New Amsterdam as a trade
    center
  • Political, Economic, Social
  • To attract settlers, the govt allowed anyone to
    immigrate
  • As a result, New Amsterdam was one of the most
    diverse colonies in North America

30
The English Colonies in America
31
The English Colonies
  • In the 1600s, English settlers arrived in North
    America
  • English colonization differed from Spanish
    French because the English govt had no desire to
    create a centralized empire in the New World
  • Different motivations by English settlers led to
    different types of colonies

32
Migrating to the English Colonies
  • 17th century England faced major social changes
  • The most significantly was a boom in population
    Competition for land, food, jobs led to a large
    mobile population (vagrants?)
  • People had choices could move to cities,
    Ireland, Netherlands, or America (but this was
    most expensive dangerous)

33
British Colonies in North America
34
British Colonies in North America
  • Motivations Many different reasons
  • Economic Escape poverty or gain wealth from cash
    crop farming
  • Religious For religious freedom to escape
    religious persecution
  • Political Fear during the English Civil War
    Glorious Revolution
  • As a result, the British colonies were very
    different from each other were never very
    unified

35
British Colonies in North America
  • Government
  • The colonies differed from French Spanish
    because the British govt had no desire to create
    a centralized empire in America
  • Britain developed a policy called salutary
    neglect in which the colonists could create local
    laws taxes in their colonial assemblies
  • Royal governors were sent by the king, but they
    had little power

36
British Colonies in North America
New England colonies, like Massachusetts, were
closely connected by religion families were
mostly subsistence farmers who had little desire
to make money
Unlike the Spanish French, the British
colonists never made sweeping attempts to
convert, marry, or trade with local Native
Americans, although conflicts over land were
common
  • Economy Society
  • The societies economies of the British
    colonies were dependent upon the reasons people
    settled

Southern colonies, like Virginia, had cash crop
economies, large gaps between rich poor
farmers, slave labor
37
By the early 1600s, Spain, England, France had
large territorial claims in North America (but
these colonies were not heavily populated,
especially in Spanish French claims)
The Spanish French adopted Frontiers of
Inclusion while the British used Frontiers of
Exclusion
These colonial claims came largely at the expense
of the Native Americans already living there
38
Advantages for long-term colonization Disadvantages for long-term colonization
Spain
France
England
39
Closure Activity
  • In order to review the Spanish, French, Dutch,
    British colonies, students will be presented with
    a series of potential immigrants to North
    America. For each person
  • Determine the best colonial region for that
    person to move to
  • Provide a brief explanation that supports your
    decision

40
Potential ImmigrantA poor, unmarried man
looking to make his fortune
41
Potential ImmigrantA person with very
religious beliefs
42
Potential ImmigrantA woman looking for new
opportunities in America
43
Potential ImmigrantA person looking for
political freedom the ability help make laws
44
Potential ImmigrantA Native American looking
for freedom from European control
45
Potential ImmigrantA person who enjoys living
where the action is (a place where something
exciting is always happening)
46
Potential ImmigrantA father looking for safety
security for his family
47
Potential ImmigrantAn entrepreneur looking for
a location to open a business specializing in
shipping
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