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Maturing Colonies

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Maturing Colonies Purpose: To gain an understanding of How three distinct cultural regions matured New England Chesapeake (Southern) Middle Important developments in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Maturing Colonies


1
Maturing Colonies
  • Purpose To gain an understanding of
  • How three distinct cultural regions matured
  • New England
  • Chesapeake (Southern)
  • Middle
  • Important developments in colonial society
  • Political
  • Economic
  • Social
  • The evolution of colonial slavery
  • Colonial conflicts grow as population pressure
    grows
  • East Coast elite vs Western frontier
  • Ethnicity
  • Religious
  • Timeframe ca. 1660-1760

2
Population growth always results in cultural
conflict(esp. heterogeneous pop. growth)
3
Natural Increase in the Colonies
New england is credited with inventing
GRANDPARENTS.
4
The chief PURPOSE of the Navigation Acts was to
  1. ensure the prosperity of the colonies
  2. enrich the mother country of England
  3. promote non-enumerated goods
  4. regulate trade between England and the European
    continent

5
The chief PURPOSE of the Navigation Acts was to
  1. ensure the prosperity of the colonies
  2. enrich the mother country of England
  3. promote non-enumerated goods
  4. regulate trade between England and the European
    continent

6
  • In the 18th century, the colonial population grew
    immensely.
  • 1700 250,000
  • 1775 2.5 million
  • Doubled every 20-25 years.
  • Fastest population growth of its time.
  • Much of this growth due to surplus of births over
    deaths natural increase.
  • It was also due to massive immigration (including
    forced immigration)

7
What did the unique environment of New England
invent?
  1. Morality
  2. the family
  3. Grandparents
  4. Tolerance
  5. Crime

8
Your text said that the unique environment of New
England "invented"
  1. Morality
  2. the family
  3. Grandparents
  4. Tolerance
  5. Crime

9
Immigrant Groups
  • Immigration also contributed to population growth
    in the 18th century.
  • English and Welsh were still important, but other
    European groups arrive (Esp. the Middle Colonies)

10
COLONIAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • The Colonial Population 
  • Changing Sources of Immigration 
  • Scotch-Irish (purple)
  • German (mauve)
  • Dutch (blue-green)
  • African (yellow)
  • English (light yellow)

Immigrant Groups In Colonial America
11
Diversity through Immigration
12
Which of the following was NOT a symptom, nor a
cause of growing colonial tensions before 1700
  1. the Glorious Rebellion
  2. Bacon's Rebellion
  3. Slave Revolts
  4. Salem Witch Trials

13
Which of the following was NOT a symptom, nor a
cause of growing colonial tensions before 1700
  1. the Glorious Rebellion
  2. Bacon's Rebellion
  3. Slave Revolts
  4. Salem Witch Trials

14
Social Cleavages Conflict
  • Class Conflict
  • Bacons Rebellion, 1675-6, Western Virginia
  • Western homesteaders vs. coastal town-dwellers
  • Ethnic differences Germans, Dutch, French
  • Slavery
  • Urbanization and Elitism
  • Religion
  • Politics, Economics, Education

15
1. What do we know about class?
  • Different ways to view class
  • Class as control of the means of production
  • Marxist view
  • Erik Wright's view
  • (Skills, ownership, authority)
  • Class as culture and social networks
  • Class as inequalities in wealth and income
  • We can combine these perspectives and define
    class as differences in
  • Economic Capital
  • Cultural Capital
  • Social Capital
  • Human Capital
  • Wealth
  • Class leads to differences in opportunity and
    rewards for the same effort

16
The frontier of colonial society was
  1. the Appalachian Mountains
  2. the Piedmont
  3. always moving west
  4. bounded by rivers

17
The frontier of colonial society was
  1. the Appalachian Mountains
  2. the Piedmont
  3. always moving west
  4. bounded by rivers

18
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19
Tidewater
Piedmont
20
Bacon's Rebellion arose from backcountry
discontent with Governor Berkeley's
  1. Indian policy
  2. lower class opposition to import duties
  3. tidewater discontent with Berkeley's dictatorial
    style
  4. tidewater resentment of the Navigation Acts

21
Bacon's Rebellion arose from backcountry
discontent with Governor Berkeley's
  1. Indian policy
  2. lower class opposition to import duties
  3. tidewater discontent with Berkeley's dictatorial
    style
  4. tidewater resentment of the Navigation Acts

22
Bacons Rebellion
  • 1646 Governor Berkeley agreed to a set border
    with Susquehanna Indian chiefs but was unable to
    enforce it. Illegal English squatters led to
    Indian complaints of encroachment on their land.
  • Because of how the Royal Governors were paid,
    Berkeley relied on his trade monopoly with the
    Indians for his wealth
  • Constant conflict between Natives and squatters
    (escaped Blacks, ex-Indentured Servants, runaway
    servants, malcontents). Berkeley always sided
    with the Indians

23
Nathaniel Bacon
  • Bacon - profligate son of a well-to-do East
    Anglican family, arrived in Virginia in 1674 with
    fortune of 1800
  • related to Berkeleys wife, given a seat on the
    executive council, settled upriver, rather than
    remaining in Jamestown
  • regarded by many of the older settlers in
    Virginia as something of a parvenu/nouveau riche,
    found acceptance in society hard to come by.

24
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25
Bacons Rebellion
  • When war erupted where Bacon resided, local
    frontiersmen called on Bacon to lead them.
  • Bacon had grievances against the old elite, yet
    also well connected, wealthy and a man of status
    himself empathized with local concerns
  • Bacon led the southsiders against Indians,
    ignored Berkeleys order to leave Indians alone.
    Berkeley could not afford to ignore this threat
    to his authority, declared Bacon a rebel, regular
    Virginian militia was sent to stop him, but Bacon
    defeated it and took Jamestown.
  • Bacon supported by most Virginians, troops were
    supplied by local families. Berkeley was
    expelled, and the assembly was called, probably
    with the intention of implementing a wide ranging
    series of political reforms (Bacons Manifesto),
    but Bacon died of dysentery. Without Bacon to
    lead it, his rebellion quickly subsided.

26
New England AGRICULTURE was shaped by all of the
following except
  1. a short growing season
  2. Puritan beliefs
  3. rocky soil
  4. Puritan desire to own small farms
  5. large demand by Europe for its produce

27
New England AGRICULTURE was shaped by all of the
following except
  1. a short growing season
  2. Puritan beliefs
  3. rocky soil
  4. Puritan desire to own small farms
  5. large demand by Europe for its produce

28
Historiography
  • Edmund Morgan instability on frontier, mixing
    of freed servants, blacks, Indians taxes high,
    discontent over spending priorities, so rebellion
    a symbol of class conflict
  • Bailyn, - lower death rates and immigration of
    royalists meant social mobility declining.
    Establishment of FFVs (Fitzhughs, Lees,
    Washingtons, Byrds) meant that even someone of
    Bacons background was excluded.
  • Webb, sees Bacon as popular democratic hero,
    struggling against tyranny failure leads to
    end of American Independence

29
Before 1700, the Chesapeake region was growing by
natural increase
  1. True
  2. False

30
Before 1700, the Chesapeake region was growing by
natural increase
  1. True
  2. False

31
Aftermath
  • English government sent to troops to quell
    uprising, but Virginia at peace long before they
    arrived.
  • London authorities recalled Berkeley,
    acknowledging that he had mismanaged the whole
    situation.
  • New governor implemented some reforms, but also
    hit rebels hard, executing leaders and
    imprisoning others - sending message that
    rebellion was never justified, no matter what the
    provocation.
  • The long term effect for Indians was that the
    frontier was again pushed back.
  • TRANSITION TO SLAVE LABOR.

32
To control their growing slave population the
colonials did all the following EXCEPT
  1. decrease the workload
  2. outlaw reading in many areas
  3. accept the Barbados "Slave Codes"
  4. increase the number of slaves held

33
To control their growing slave population the
colonials did all the following EXCEPT
  1. decrease the workload
  2. outlaw reading in many areas
  3. accept the Barbados "Slave Codes"
  4. increase the number of slaves held

34
2. Emergence of slavery
  • In 1650 there were only 300 slaves in the
    Chesapeake
  • Cheap price of slaves and their lifetime of
    servitude make them attractive
  • No need to give slaves land
  • 1672 African Royal Company

Growth of slavery
  • Bacons Rebellion 1675
  • Success with slaves in the Caribbean
  • By 1700 there 15,000 slaves in the Chesapeake

35
African Population of British Colonies,
1620-1780
36
What do we know about Race?
  • Racial categories have no biological basis
  • Racial categories and racial hierarchies are
    socially constructed
  • Race was socially constructed as a justification
    for existing stratification and discrimination

37
The Noel Hypothesis
  • If two or more groups come together in a contact
    situation characterized by ethnocentrism,
    competition, and a differential in power, then
    some form of racial or ethnic stratification will
    result. (Noel, 1968163)
  • If the contact situation has all three
    characteristics, some dominant-minority group
    structure will be created (Healey 200452).

38
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39
Old Slavery and New
  • Slavery had traditionally existed in Africa,
    especially for criminals, war captives and
    debtors.

40
  • The first Africans arrived in North America in
    1619. Their status was as indentured servants.
  • North American colonies codified slavery by the
    1660s.
  • The new slavery was permanent, race-based, and
    inherited. It was also much harsher than the old
    African slavery.

41
The Slave Trade
  • In the late 15th century, Portuguese took over
    the slave trade, keeping a monopoly until 1600.

42
  • By the end of the slave trade in 1808,
    approximately 10 million Africans had been
    stolen.
  • The transport itself was under incredibly cruel
    conditions.
  • The slave trade was part of the same
    proto-capitalist logic that created colonial
    plantations and mercantilist trade patterns.

43
  • Colonial North American Slavery was different
    from South American and Caribbean because of
    natural increase, esp. after 1720.
  • The main reason was a difference in labor usage.
  • As slaves were increasingly-American born
    (creolization), cultural adaptation occured among
    the slaves.
  • American-born slaves developed a distinct
    African-American culture that involved both
    elements of the slave owners culture and the
    many African cultures slaves were descended from.
  • This process was reinforced by white society that
    defined practically anyone with dark skin as a
    slave.

44
The region that contributed the most value from
exports during this period
  1. Southern
  2. New England
  3. Middle
  4. Western
  5. Texas, one and invisible

45
The region that contributed the most value from
exports during this period
  1. Southern
  2. New England
  3. Middle
  4. Western
  5. Texas, one and invisible

46
Slave Religion
  • Slave took on many aspects of white society, such
    as the English language.
  • They also retained many aspects of African
    cultures.
  • For much of the colonial period, both blacks and
    whites resisted the efforts of a few missionaries
    to convert the slaves to Christianity.
  • Most slaves clung to their traditional nature and
    ancestor oriented beliefs as best as they could
    some were Muslims.
  • Only with the Great Awakening did the slaves
    convert to evangelical protestantism in any
    significant numbers.

47
Slave Families
  • The slave trade shattered families. 2nd and 3rd
    generation slaves strove to rebuild them.
  • The continual threat of sale threatened family
    stability. Thus, slaves also relied on extended
    kinship networks.
  • Where blood relationship did not exist,
    familiarity replaced family.
  • Slave families became an integral part of
    African-American culture, providing comfort and
    dignity in adversity.

48
Regional Differences of Slavery
  • Slavery existed in all North American colonies,
    but it varied.
  • Upper South tobacco, gang system
  • Lower South rice, indigo, task system, Caribbean
    slave codes
  • Middle Colonies and New England fewer slaves,
    urban slavery, domestic servants

49
Relative Cost of Slave vs. Free Labor
BUT, one must first be able to afford the initial
costs
50
Slave Society
  • Being captured in the midst of life
  • Auctioned off
  • Middle passage
  • Death and disease on boat
  • Identity stripped
  • By 1750 150,000 slaves in the Chesapeake
  • Huge plantations ensures continued domination by
    FFVs and House of Burgesses (Slavocracy).
  • Emergence of African-American culture

51
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52
3. Urbanization and Elitism
  • The Colonial Economies
  • The Rise of Colonial Commerce. An Emerging
    Merchant Class

The Triangular Trade
53
Although much colonial trade flowed in a
triangular pattern (the New World to England to
West Africa and back), very few ships sailed the
"triangle" as a regular route.
  1. TRUE
  2. FALSE

54
Although much colonial trade flowed in a
triangular pattern (the New World to England to
West Africa and back), very few ships sailed the
"triangle" as a regular route.
  1. TRUE
  2. FALSE

55
Urbanization and Elitism
  • The Colonial Economies  
  • The Southern Economy
  • Tobacco Economy
  • The Souths Cash-Crop
  • Northern Economic and Technological Life
  • Colonial Artisans and Entrepreneurs
  • The Rise of Consumerism
  • Class Differences
  • Persistent Colonial Poverty

Selling Tobacco (American Heritage)
56
Urbanization and Elitism
  • Patterns of Society  
  • Wealth Statistics
  • Richest 10 controlled over 50 of wealth
  • Boston 1700-1775 Poorest 30 controlled 2
  • Power within the cities not countryside
  • Legislative power in towns
  • An Urban Revolution
  • Today's Figures
  • Richest 40 control 68 of wealth
  • Poorest 40 control 15 of wealth

57
Top 10 getting richer
58
Colonial Elites
  • The American Colonies developed a leadership
    group different from Europe.
  • Money was more important than
  • nobility for elite status.

59
  • Elites were native-born, well-off, most often
    merchants or planters.
  • Esp. after 1720, colonial elites displayed their
    status very publicly through status symbols, such
    as clothes.
  • Higher education (Harvard, Univ. Va., and various
    London schools) was also a hallmark of the elite.

60
The Enlightenment in America
  • Some of the elite also served as
    intellectual leaders, taking part in the
    process known as Enlightenment.

Benjamin Franklin
61
  • The Enlightenment stressed reason and empirical
    knowledge, scorning superstition and passion.
  • Thinkers like Isaac Newton in science, and John
    Locke in politics were widely read.
  • Some Enlightenment thinkers also embraced Deism,
    a rational religion.
  • Americans such as Benjamin Franklin contributed
    major achievements.

62
4. Religion
George Whitefield
  • The First Great Awakening
  • In the 1730s through the 1760s, a great religious
    revival spread through colonial America.

63
First Great Awakening
  • First Great Awakening was a reaction by religious
    leaders to the Enlightenment. Religious leaders
    saw the scientific method as a threat to their
    ministries
  • George Whitefield an English evangelist who
    preached with the Wesleysfounders of Methodism
  • Preached in the open airout of need
  • Spoke to an average of 8000 people daily for a
    sold month in 1740
  • Estimates are that he spoke directly to 80 of
    the entire colonial population

64
Division and Discord
  • Great Awakening divided people into the old
    believers and church members and the new
    converts who joined after the revivals
  • In New England, they were known as old lights
    and new lights
  • Old lights considered it all much ado about
    nothing and the new lights often became extreme

65
Aftermath of the G.A.
  • Sharp increase in church membershipespecially
    among the previously unchurched
  • Increases were NOT sustained and the effect of
    the G.A. on church membership leveled off within
    five years
  • Churches reached out to the weaker members of
    society (slaved and NAs)

66
  • This outreach was purely spiritual however and
    G.A. did not condemn slavery or the mistreatment
    of Indians in terms of land claims
  • Led slave owners to include their slaves in bible
    study, family prayer and other forms of worship
  • Majority of slaves accepted Christianity
  • Great Awakening spurred the creation of new
    divinity schoolswere shut out of Harvard and
    Yale
  • Princeton, Brown and Dartmouth were all a result
    of the G.A.
  • New denominations were established, particularly
    Methodist and Baptist

67
All of the following characterized the Middle
Colonies except
  1. rapid population growth
  2. political instability
  3. general prosperity
  4. relatively liberal laws
  5. the greatest diversity of the 3 regions

68
All of the following characterized the Middle
Colonies except
  1. rapid population growth
  2. political instability
  3. general prosperity
  4. relatively liberal laws
  5. the greatest diversity of the 3 regions

69
Religion (cont)
  • Middle colonies
  • Most Diverse Protestantism
  • Presbyterian
  • Meyhodist
  • Quaker
  • Baptist
  • Most still had a state (tax) supported church
  • Southern
  • Anglican (state supported)
  • New England
  • Congregational (Non-Denominational)

70
5. Politics, Economics, Education
  • Thomas Paine, Ben Franklin and Thomas Jefferson
    inspired by Enlightenment
  • In politics the Enlightenment inspired by John
    Locke provided concepts like life, liberty and
    property, the concept of popular sovereignty
  • In economics, Enlightenment supported free trade
  • Education was affected by secular rationalism

71
Politics, Economics, Education
  • Emerging Culture  
  • Literacy and Technology
  • Increased Public Education
  • Growing Interest in Science
  • the Enlightenment
  • Presses

72
Politics, Economics, Education
  • New England Colonies Pre-1650
  • Economics - Limits of Geography
  • small farms - rocky soil (90 of people, but only
    10 of production)
  • short seasons
  • manufacturing by hand - skilled craftsmen
  • shipbuilding, timber, furs
  • New England Colonies  Post 1650
  • Economics Growth of Merchant Class and cities
    (Boston)

73
Politics, Economics, Education
  • NE Colonies
  • Politics
  • Never a COMPLETE theocracy, and declining Puritan
    power over time.
  • Town Meetings (miniature Parliaments)
  • Least Diversity
  • Declining importance relative to Middle Colonies
  • Education
  • Effects of Old Deluder Act
  • Public Education for boys girls to about 5th
    grade

74
Politics, Economics, Education
  • Southern Colonies
  • Economics
  • Plantation Society (tiny colony in itself)
  • Large Farms of many square miles (coastal towns
    for shipping)
  • society based on TOBACCO (South's gold
    silver)
  • demanded large areas, used up land, hard on soil
  • Politics
  • sovereign/self sufficient "region
  • House of Burgesses (Elitist and Aristocratic)
  • Education
  • tutors on plantations
  • sons daughters sent to Europe
  • poor public schools

75
Politics, Economics, Education
  • Southern Colonies
  • Religion - Anglican - Church of England
  • Political Control/Mild Theocracy
  • Political
  • Dominant individuals within the plantation system
    controlled government
  • 1st representative government
  • 1619 Virginia -House of Burgesses
  • (Burgess - land/owner)
  • Two house legislation
  • governor appointed in England
  • "Crown Control"

76
Politics, Economics, Education
  • Middle Colonies
  • Politics
  • Representative Democracy
  • Land Ownership was easier to achieve
  • Church influence minimal
  • Economics
  • Bread Basket Colonies
  • Largest cities
  • Banking and commercial center
  • Education
  • Highest literacy
  • Highest degree of public tax supported education

77
Colonial Politics
Virginia state capitol
  • Colonial Elites also came to dominate colonial
    politics through a tradition of deference.

78
  • Political systems varied, but typically included
    a governor, a council and an assembly.
  • A strong tradition of self-government emerged.
  • Voting was limited to property-holding white
    males, but was much more widespread than in
    England because of access to land.

79
Conclusion
  • Overall process of colonial maturity. In only 100
    to 150 years from desperate settlers fighting for
    survival to full-blown complex societies,
    economically dynamic and with a tradition of
    considerable self-government.
  • At same time, a mother-child metaphor was widely
    used for colonial-imperial relationship. Trouble
    is built-in what happens when the child grows
    up?
  • The stage is set for colonial-imperial
    (mother-child) relationship to begin splintering.
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