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1800-1945: Southern Africa


1800-1945: Southern Africa 1800-1825 internal warfare, depopulation, forced migrations of Bantu mfecane era (crushing era) Caused by population growth & competition ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 1800-1945: Southern Africa

1800-1945 Southern Africa
  • 1800-1825 internal warfare, depopulation, forced
    migrations of Bantu? mfecane era (crushing era)
  • Caused by population growth competition among
    rising military states
  • Creation of new multitribal, multilingual Bantu
    states in modern day Zimbabwe, Mozambique,
    Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania
  • (LEFT) Shaka Zulu, most important military
    leader, practiced total war to est. large Zulu
  • Caused new kingdoms to grow? Lesotho founded by
    King Mosheshwe (in modern day South Africa)

Cape Colony
  • Mfecane nation-building ended by European
  • 1806 British take Cape Colony from Dutch
  • 1835-1841 Great Trek of Boer voortrekers? Dutch
    settlers move north and NE to avoid conflict with
    Xhosa people British
  • Were attacked by Zulus along way
  • 6,000 Afrikaners from eastern Cape NE to southern
    Africa, Natal land above Orange River
  • Afrikaners create Orange Fee State after 1850

Islamic Reform Movements
  • 1800s efforts made by some Islamic states before
    European colonialism took hold
  • Many rural people still pagan, while ruling
    classes urbanites had converted
  • Militant jihad movements firmly est. Islams
    place in Africa

Sokotocapital of Fulani empire established after
1804 in the Jihad led by Usman dan Fodio
Increasing European Influence
  • European penetration limited, just coastal slave
  • 19th century saw English, French German
    explorers map the geography of the continent
  • Seek sources of Nile, Zambezi, Congo wonders of
    Mt. Kilimajaro, Lake Tanganyika fables of

British explorer
  • Dr. David Livingstone, British missionary
  • Asked by The Royal Geographical Society to
    explore the great African watersheds esp. the
    sources of the Nile
  • Tracked down by journalist Stanleyfamous phrase

Christian missionaries
  • Catholic Protestant missionaries increasingly
    arrive in Africa late 1800s
  • Tried to Christianize Africans advocate end of
    remaining slave trade
  • Created schools, brought medicine, some literacy,
    more knowledge to Europe
  • Also gave colonists justification for their
    presence? weapons of imperialism
  • Many missionaries succumbed to malaria, yellow
    fever, sleeping sickness
  • (LEFT) Christian missionary in Tanzania

The Colonial Scramble for Africa
  • Before 1850, only Dutch in Cape French in
  • From 1880s European presence increases

Why colonize to Africa?
  • Popular interest
  • Commercial interest
  • Industrial markets natural resources
  • Intra-European competition for power prestige
  • HOW?
  • Made possible by economic, technological,
    military superiority
  • Steamboats made rivers navigable between
  • French est. direct control, British indirect
  • French conquest of Algeria constituted the 1st
    major European colony in Africa (1830-1847)

The Scramble Continues
  • Leopold II of Belgium Otto von Bismarck of
    Germany followed
  • Italy took Eritrea, Somaliland, Libya, was
    repelled from Ethiopian by their army in 1896
  • Scramble ended by the start of WWI

African Resistance Nationalism
  • Many African states resisted militarily
  • Though European colonial borders were mostly
    arbitrary, nationalist movements grew within
    these boundaries leading to many modern states
  • Use of the common European language aided growth
    of nationalism
  • Some movements used Western religious political
    ideals to combat Western colonialism

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