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The Protestant Reformation (1450-1565) Causes of the Reformation 1. Crises of the 14th & 15th centuries hurt the prestige of the Church and clergy Avignon Papacy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The%20Protestant%20Reformation%20(1450-1565)

The Protestant Reformation (1450-1565)
Causes of the Reformation
  • 1. Crises of the 14th 15th centuries hurt the
    prestige of the Church and clergy
  • Avignon Papacy
  • Great Schism
  • People were becoming tired of being dependent on
    the Church and the constraints it enforced
  • 2. Corruption in the Catholic Church
  • Simony-sale of church offices
  • Pluralisman official holding more than one
    office at a time
  • Absenteeisman official not fulfilling the duties
    of an office, but still receiving payment and

  • Corruption contd
  • Nepotismfavoring family members in the
    appointment of church offices
  • Moral decline of the Papacy
  • Pope Alexander VI had affairs and children out of
  • 20 of all priests in Trent kept concubines in
    early 16th century
  • Rodrigo Borgia
  • Clerical Ignorancemany priests were illiterate
  • Sale of indulgences-pay money to the Church to
    absolve ones sins

  • 3. Renaissance humanism
  • Better educated people were more critical of the
  • Growing individualism meant people chafed under
    the power of the Church
  • 4. Political Circumstances were favorable
  • New Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V was young and
    trying to control a vast realm. He also faced
    attacks from France and Ottoman Turks during the
    critical early years of Luthers protest
  • 5. Reformers emphasized piety and a personal
    relationship with God.
  • John Wyclif the LollardsEngland
  • Stressed Bible was sole authority and a personal
    communion with God

  • John HusCzech
  • Similar ideas to Wyclif
  • Burned at the stake for his views
  • ErasmusIn Praise of Folly
  • criticized the corruption of the Church and
    hypocrisy of the clergy
  • 6. Printing Press
  • Invention of movable type was invented in 1450 by
    Johann Gutenberg
  • Helped spread ideas before Catholics could squash
  • Intensified intellectual criticism of the Church
  • Protestant ideals appealed to the urban and the

The Emergence of Protestantism in Europe
  • Luther troubled by the sale of indulgences
  • Dominican friar Tetzel was selling indulgences in
    Wittenberg in 1517
  • Luther posted his 95 theses on the door of the
    castle church in Wittenberg on October 31, 1517
  • What were some of Luthers complaint?
  • Luther slowly but surely is drawn into a heated

  • Pope paid little attention to Luther at first
  • Thought it was a disagreement between Augustinian
    Dominican monks
  • Luther refused to stop his crusade
  • Was protected by Frederick III of Saxony
  • Wanted to reform the church, not create a new one
  • But in defending his views, Luther gradually came
    to the point that he had no other choice than to
    create a new church

  • 1520 Luther published his theology of reform
  • Pope Leo X excommunicated him Luther burned the
    bull that excommunicated him
  • 1521 Diet of Worms
  • HRE Charles V convened this meeting of leaders of
    the empire and demanded that Luther recant
  • Luther refused Here I stand, I can do no
  • Edict of WormsLuther is outlawed as a heretic
  • Luther taken to Fredericks castle where he was
  • Translated the Bible into vernacular
  • Married a former nun

3 Key Ideas of Luthers Theology
  • How is a person saved?
  • Justification by faith alone-salvation could be
    achieved through belief in God, rejected good
    works as the means to achieve salvation
  • Where does religious authority reside?
  • The Bible is the sole authority, not the Church,
    nor the Pope. People could read and interpret
    the Bible on their own
  • What is the Church?
  • Priesthood of all believers who were spiritually
    equal, not a hierarchical Church structure

Protestant Propaganda
  • The Spread of the Reformation

Why did the Reformation Spread?
  • 1. The Emperor was distracted fighting the
    Ottoman Turks and France
  • 2. Luthers stand against the Church emboldened
    other reformers to break with the Church
  • 3. Rulers protected reformers
  • 4. The printing press spread ideas quickly and
    the Church was unable to stop them

  • Very urban, cosmopolitan setting
  • Reformer Ulrich Zwingli Memorialist view of the
  • Zwingli also opposed purgatory, clerical
    celibacy, intercession of the saints, and
    salvation by works
  • The death of Zwingli

Calvin-Geneva (French-speaking)
  • John Calvins leadership in Geneva from 1541-1564
  • Geneva became the model Protestant training
  • Stress on order and rigorous adherence to Gods
  • A Quasi-theocracy
  • Very austere religion practiced in Geneva
  • Self-discipline and the Protestant Work Ethic

(1) Background
  • More of a scholar than Luther
  • More of a systematic thinker than Luther
  • Calvins Institutes of the Christian Religion
  • Early legal training
  • Clear-cut moral directives for living
  • Relied on Scripture primarily for his ideas

(2) Teaching
  • Predestination
  • The Elect
  • The right of rebellion
  • --English Civil War
  • Divine calling to all sorts of vocations
  • The invisibility of the True Church
  • Government serves the Church

Henry VIII-England
  • Henry VIIIs marriage to Catherine of Aragon
  • Henry seeks an annulment
  • Henry creates the Church of England and
    establishes his own supremacy over it
  • A political reformation only at first
  • The six wives of Henry VIII

B. England (cont)
  • The brief reign of Edward VI
  • The rule of Bloody Mary
  • Return of the Marian exiles to England from
  • -- Puritans
  • Queen Elizabeth I-The Elizabethen Religious
  • The attack of the Spanish Armada in 1588
  • -- The Protestant Wind

Radical Reformers-the Anabaptists
  • Desire to return to the primitive, first-century
  • High standard of morality valued and pursued
  • Bitterly persecuted by both Catholics and other
  • Ardent missionaries who were harassed for their

(2) Teaching
  • Free willall can be saved
  • Adult, believer baptism
  • Social and economic equality
  • Pacifism
  • Separation of Church and State
  • Stressed role of the Holy Spirit in the life of
    the believer inner light (Quakers)
  • Simplicity of life and millenarianismliving in
    the last days

  • King Francis I was initially sympathetic to
    Luther as long as his ideas stayed in Germany
  • Protestantism made illegal in France in 1534
  • Persecution of the HuguenotsFrench Protestants
  • St. Bartholomews Day Massacre-1572
  • King Henry and the Edict of Nantes (1598)

Other Parts of Western Europe
  • No Protestant inroads into Spain or Italy
  • Protestantism succeeded only where it was urban
    and supported initially by the nobility
  • After 1540, no new Protestant territories outside
    of the Netherlands
  • Most powerful European nations were Catholic
  • Protestants were feuding with each other

The Counter Reformation
  • Reformation shaped the form and rapidity of the
    Catholic response
  • Council of Trent (1545-1563)
  • The Society of Jesus (Jesuits)1534
  • --Ignatius Loyola
  • The Inquisition
  • The Index
  • Renewed religious emotionalism
  • --Baroque Art
  • Religious warfare

Impact of the Reformation
  • Germany was politically weakened and fragmented
  • Christian Church was splintered in the West
  • 100 Years of Religious Warfare
  • Right of Rebellion introduced by both Jesuits and
  • Popes power increased
  • Furthered societal individualism and secularism
  • Growing doubt and religious skepticism

Impact of Reformation (cont)
  • Political stability valued over religious truth
  • Calvinism boosted the commercial revolution
  • Witch craze swept Europe in the 1600s
  • --Between 1561-1670, 3000 people in Germany,
    9000 people in Switzerland and 1000 people in
    England were executed as witches
  • Possible reasons for this witchcraft craze