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Understanding Verb Forms

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Understanding Verb Forms What are the principal parts of verbs? Regular verbs Irregular verbs Review A Review B – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Understanding Verb Forms


1
Understanding Verb Forms
What are the principal parts of verbs? Regular
verbs Irregular verbs Review A Review B
2
What are the principal parts of verbs?
Verbs change forms to fit different uses, much as
people change clothes to fit different situations.
He wears stripes for the game.
He has worn a uniform before.
He wore a tuxedo for his wedding.
3
What are the principal parts of verbs?
Verbs have four principal parts, each of which
performs a different function.
Base Form
begin
join
Present Participle
is beginn
is join
ing
ing
Past
beg
n
a
join
ed
ed
Past Participle
have beg
n
u
have join
More about participles
4
What are the principal parts of verbs? Participles
When used as part of a verb phrase, participles
follow a helping verb.
Helping Verb
Helping Verb
The movie has begun.
Ken is joining us.
The movie has begun.
Ken is joining us.
Verb Phrase
Verb Phrase
5
What are the principal parts of verbs?
These principal parts are used to form all the
different verb tenses.
Base Form
They always begin on time.
Present Participle
They are beginning now.
Past
They began early yesterday.
Past Participle
They have begun already.
6
What are the principal parts of verbs? Tense
The tense of a verb indicates the time of the
action or state of being expressed by the verb.
Perfect tenses indicate that something happened
or existed before a specific point in time.
Present
Future
Past
Past
Future
Present
Present Perfect
Future Perfect
Past Perfect
Lisa takes ballet lessons.
She has taken lessons for four years.
Lisa will take tap dancing next year.
By June she will have taken dance for five years.
She took an advanced class last summer.
Lisa had taken piano before.
7
Regular verbs
A regular verb generally forms its past and past
participle by adding d or ed to the base form.
Base Form
Past
Past Participle
bake
bake
d
have bake
d
happen
happen
ed
have happen
ed
The present participle is formed by adding ing.
Present Participle
happen
ing
8
Regular verbsAdding ing, -d, or ed
Most regular verbs that end in e drop the e
before adding ing.
dance
danc
ing
Some verbs double the final consonant before
adding ing or ed.
trimm
ing
trim
trim
ed
trimm
9
Regular verbsAdding d or ed
Avoid the common mistake of leaving the d or ed
ending off the past or past participle form.
Grammar Guy Says...
The firefighter risk his life.
Nonstandard
We should have ask for directions.
The firefighter risked his life.
Standard
We should have asked for directions.
10
Regular verbs
A few regular verbs have alternative past and
past participle forms that end in -t.
Base Form
Past
Past Participle
burn
burn
ed
have burn
ed
or
or
burn
t
have burn
t
dream
dream
ed
have dream
ed
dream
t
have dream
t
or
or
11
Regular verbs
Give the correct past or past participle form of
each verb in parentheses.
1. I think you (stir) that batter too much.
2. During the journey the people on the wagon
train had (survive) every sort of hardship.
3. Jamal (use) to work for a messenger service.
4. My dad (burn) his toast at breakfast.
12
Regular verbs
Give the correct past or past participle form of
each verb in parentheses.
1. I think you stirred that batter too much.
Stir is a regular verb. Add ed to form the past
form.
13
Regular verbs
Give the correct past or past participle form of
each verb in parentheses.
2. During the journey the people on the wagon
train had survived every sort of hardship.
Survive is a regular verb. Add ed to form the
past participle.
14
Regular verbs
Give the correct past or past participle form of
each verb in parentheses.
3. Jamal used to work for a messenger service.
Use is a regular verb. Add ed to form the past
form.
15
Regular verbs
Give the correct past or past participle form of
each verb in parentheses.
4. My dad burned his toast at breakfast.
or
4. My dad burnt his toast at breakfast.
Burn has an alternative past form that ends in
-t.
16
Regular verbs
On Your Own
Give the correct form (past, past participle, or
present participle) of the italicized verb, as
indicated in parentheses. 1. A rolling, green
meadow (stretch) before them. (past) 2. The class
is (paint) a mural for the hallway. (present
participle) 3. Have you (revise) your essay yet?
(past participle) 4. The cat (jump) onto the
counter and knocked over a glass of juice.
(past) 5. We are (conduct) a survey. (present
participle)
End of Section
17
Irregular verbs
Some verbs do not fit the regular pattern.
An irregular verb forms its past and past
participle in some way other than by adding d or
ed.
Base Form
Past
Past Participle
m
swim
sw
m
a
have sw
u
burst
burst
have burst
18
Irregular verbs
When forming the past and past participles of
irregular verbs, avoid the common error of adding
d, -ed, or t to the base form.
Grammar Guy Says...
Nonstandard
Standard
We bursted into laughter as soon as we saw the
comedian.
We burst into laughter as soon as we saw the
comedian.
19
Irregular verbsChanging vowels
1. Some irregular verbs form the past and past
participle by changing vowels.
Base Form
Past
Past Participle
nk
drink
nk
dr
have dr
u
a
Other verbs that change vowels Other verbs that change vowels Other verbs that change vowels
become became have become
find found have found
meet met have met
ring rang have rung
20
Irregular verbsChanging consonants
2. Other irregular verbs form the past and past
participle by changing consonants.
Base Form
Past
Past Participle
ma
d
e
make
have ma
d
e
Other verbs that change consonants Other verbs that change consonants Other verbs that change consonants
build built have built
hear heard have heard
lend lent have lent
spend spent have spent
21
Irregular verbsChanging vowels and consonants
3. Some irregular verbs form the past and past
participle by changing both vowels and
consonants.
Base Form
Past
Past Participle
see
s
have s
een
aw
Other verbs that change vowels and consonants Other verbs that change vowels and consonants Other verbs that change vowels and consonants
buy bought have bought
break broke have broken
feel felt have felt
go went have gone
22
Irregular verbsNo change
4. A few irregular verbs make no change at all in
their past and past participle forms.
Base Form
Past
Past Participle
set
set
have set
Other verbs that make no change Other verbs that make no change Other verbs that make no change
burst burst have burst
cost cost have cost
hurt hurt have hurt
read read have read
23
Irregular verbs
Do not use the past form with a helping verb.
Grammar Guy Says...
Nonstandard
Standard
I have never swam in this lake before.
I never swam in this lake before.
Also, do not use a past participle form without a
helping verb.
Nonstandard
Standard
She swum to shore to get help.
She has swum to shore to get help.
24
Irregular verbs
Give the correct past or past participle form of
each verb in parentheses.
1. Aunt Crystal (send) me a postcard from Spain.
2. Dan has (bring) chicken for the picnic.
3. The mother (speak) softly to the small child.
4. Where have I (put) my notebook?
25
Irregular verbs
Give the correct past or past participle form of
each verb in parentheses.
1. Aunt Crystal sent me a postcard from Spain.
The past form of send is sent.
26
Irregular verbs
Give the correct past or past participle form of
each verb in parentheses.
2. Dan has brought chicken for the picnic.
The past participle of bring is brought.
27
Irregular verbs
Give the correct past or past participle form of
each verb in parentheses.
3. The mother spoke softly to the small child.
The past form of speak is spoke.
28
Irregular verbs
Give the correct past or past participle form of
each verb in parentheses.
4. Where have I put my notebook?
The past form of put is put.
29
Irregular verbs
On Your Own
Give the correct form (past or past participle)
of each verb in parentheses. 1. I bought the
tickets even though they ________ too much.
(cost) 2. Greg has finally ________ the answer.
(find) 3. Dad has ________ Rusty to visit the
veterinarian. (take) 4. The girls ________ hats
for the nature hike. (wear) 5. She ________
everything she could to help us. (do)
End of Section
30
Review A
Give the correct form (past, past participle, or
present participle) of each italicized verb, as
indicated in parentheses.
1. Have you ever (fly) a Japanese dragon kite?
(past participle)
2. We (see) three movies last weekend. (past)
3. Bill is (cut) the fabric for the drapes.
(present participle)
4. The pitcher (throw) the ball to the first
baseman. (past)
5. The government class has (go) to observe the
city council in session. (past participle)
31
The End
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