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The Urinary System

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Title: The Urinary System Author: meryl.bentley Last modified by: Stephanie Bolton Created Date: 11/29/2006 7:10:00 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Urinary System


1
The Urinary System
  • Chapter 17

2
Terminology
  • Nephrology study of the S/F of the kidney
  • Urology
  • Males specialty of male urinary system
    reproductive system
  • Females speciality of urinary system
  • Dialysis (hemodialysis) removal of solutes from
    urine artificially if kidneys are impaired
  • Incontinence lack of voluntary control of
    bladder emptying

3
Dialysis
4
4 Functions of Urinary System
  • Regulate blood volume composition (kidneys)
  • Transportation of filtrate (ureters)
  • Storage of urine (urinary bladder)
  • Discharge of waste/excretion (urethra)

5
Kidneys - 2
  • Sit above waist
  • Back of abdominal cavity (retroperitoneal)
  • Right kidney sits lower than left
  • 4-5 inches long, 2-3 inches wide, 1 inch thick
    bar of soap
  • Surrounded by adipose tissue
  • Hilus where vessels enter/exit

6
Layers of the kidney
  • Renal cortex (bark)
  • Renal medulla (middle)
  • Renal pyramids here
  • Renal pelvis (inner)
  • Funnel-shaped basin for draining urine

7
Basic Functioning Unit of Kidney
  • The Nephron p. 474-475
  • 2 parts
  • Renal corpuscle (cortex) filtration
  • Glomerulus
  • Glomerular (Bowmans) capsule
  • Renal tubules (cortex medulla) reabsorption
  • Proximal convoluted tubule
  • Loop of Henle
  • Distal convoluted tubule
  • Collecting duct

8
The Nephron
9
Did you know
  • Only 1 of what your kidneys filter is excreted
    as urine
  • The other 99 is water and is reabsorbed to
    prevent dehydration
  • Which hormones control this action??

10
Ureters - 2
  • Transport urine from kidneys to urinary bladder
  • Empty posteriorly and inferiorly into urinary
    bladder

11
Urinary Bladder - 1
  • For storage
  • Capacity ¾ quart (600mL)
  • Usually signals start at 150mL full
  • Trigone area made by ureters and urethra
    triangular area with no folds
  • Lots of folds to allow for stretching
  • Do you remember what tissue makes up the urinary
    bladder?

12
Urinary Bladder
13
Urination reflex
  • To empty the bladder urination, voiding,
    micturition
  • Spinal cord reflex
  • Controlled by 2 sphincters (similar to defecation
    reflex)
  • Internal sphincter released involuntarily when
    bladder reaches a certain capacity controlled by
    detruser muscle
  • External sphincter voluntarily controlled to
    release urine when appropriate

14
Urethra - 1
  • Tube that discharges urine from body
  • Terminal end urinary meatus
  • In males, it also dicharges semen

15
Urinalysis
  • Analysis of volume, physical, chemical
    microscopic urine properties
  • Normal characteristics
  • 95 water
  • Volume 1-2L (varies with fluid intake)
  • Color yellow/amber ? clear
  • Turbidity clear/transparent
  • Odor after time, mild ammonia
  • pH 4.6 8.0 (varies with fluid intake)
  • Specific gravity/density 1.001 1.0035
    (slightly more dense than water 1)
  • Normal solutes urea, uric acid, amino acids

16
Urinalysis continued
  • Abnormal solutes
  • Albumin (protein) (proteinuria)
  • Glucose
  • Ketones (ketonuria)
  • Blood (hematuria)
  • Stones

17
Disorders
  • Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) bacterial
    infection in any part of the urinary system
  • Cystitis infection of urinary bladder
  • Nephritis infection of kidney (nephron)
  • Polyuria increased urine production
  • Nocturia increased urine output at night
  • Dysuria painful urination often associated with
    UTIs and STDs
  • Uremia/uremic poisoning toxic levels of urea in
    the blood due to kidney failure
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