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smart cities

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Title: trapped in an endless hall of mirrors? Author: David Murakami Wood Last modified by: Windows User Created Date: 2/22/2010 5:27:54 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: smart cities


1
smart cities
  • variety and homogeneity

Dr David Murakami Wood Canada Research Chair in
Surveillance Studies, Queens University,
Ontario dmw_at_queensu.ca
2
introduction
  • Policy and press now full of examples of movement
    towards smart cities
  • Business, government, individuals increasingly
    generative of and dependent on, big data
  • Socio-technical context
  • Prehistory of smart cities
  • Variety of smart cities
  • Standards, brands and open platforms

3
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4
my project
  • UBICITY 5 year, 3 country comparative study
  • theoretical attention has been paid to the coming
    of ubicomp / ubisurv and cities often
    apocalyptic / dystopian
  • But critical empirical political economic work on
    aprogress and development of smart city lacking
  • No specific projects that span the range from
    military security-related to smart city
    initiatives
  • Untested assertions on human rights issues, e.g.
    privacy is possible within smart cities
  • vs. warnings of the acceleration of social
    inequality, exclusion and disempowerment from the
    automation of urban life
  • Ned to challenge both the uncritical claims of
    the developers and the critical theoretical
    interventions of scholars

5
foundational assumptions
  • Langdon Winner technological affordances what
    possibilities do technologies open up or limit?
  • Not technological determinism not considering
    unavoidable / inevitable singular trajectories
  • So Im interested in the affordances emerging
    from the combination of ubisurv and big data in
    urban contexts

6
Smart What?
  • Smart Cities
  • Smart Roads
  • Smart Environment
  • Smart Water
  • Smart Metering
  • Smart Grid
  • Smart Shopping
  • Smart Logistics
  • Smart Agriculture
  • Smart Homes
  • Smart Health
  • (partial list from libelium.com)

7
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8
technological trajectories
  • Bigger data more intelligent analytics (c.f.
    Louise Amoore)
  • Distribution and networking to the cloud
    (Vincent Mosco)
  • Augmented Reality
  • Size matters decreasing size, increasing
    capabilities
  • Mobility
  • Biomimetics things are not what they seem
  • Infrastructurization and transformed environments

9
big data
  • Many overlapping meanings
  • Network and automated management of quantities of
    information out of which it would be impossible
    to generate meaning without their being together
  • Quantities of data that can only be stored at
    larger scales (e.g. cloud, data warehouses,
    server farms etc.)
  • Multiple uses at all scales from personal health
    monitoring through urban projects like smart
    cities, to planetary climate and disease
    monitoring
  • Surveillance deeply imbricated in big data
  • Collection and storage of information
  • affordances that big data offers for social
    sorting of people and groups
  • Illusions of total knowledge / accurate
    surveillance / truth

10
augmented reality
  • New term for layering of virtual onto the
    material or recombination
  • Practical selling point for ubicomp
  • Assumes connection of indvidual through handheld
    device (or more direct connection) to an
    information-rich environment
  • Also assumes our bodies are informated (part of
    the environment for others)
  • Information as diffuse and everywhere (c.f. cloud
    computing)
  • Empowering / enabling cities?
  • Combination of AR and Universal Design allows
    richer, extended sensory environments for those
    handicapped by current emphasis on the visual...

11
Matthew Bucklands slick corporate AR world
12
tiny sensors
  • Workable sensors at smaller scales
  • Distributed, wireless, multi-functional
  • Smallest working sensors from Dust Networks,
    Hitachi
  • Motes - Will be seen as big in very short
    time
  • Already moved from 0.2 mm2 to 0.025 mm2
  • Micro Nano?

Top Early prototype smart dust mote on US
penny (UC Berkeley Smart Dust project) Below
Hitachis RFID powder (2009(
13
mobile monitoring

From the skies over the Gulf to the streets of
Liverpool UAVs (right r/c helicopter camera
military (PA) left - Predator drone aircraft
(USAF)
14
wearable computing
Google Glass
15
x-ray spex
  • Body-scanners have spread rapidly
  • Terahertz wave scanning shown in theory to work
    in much smaller devices and output is good
    enough for video
  • Portable T-wave scanners being tested by NYPD in
    2013 (theory to practice in just 4 years)

16
biomimetics
  • Growth of RC and autonomous robot surveillance
    systems
  • Biomimetics Robotic devices that mimic natural
    systems
  • Development largely funded by military research
    (US DARPA, Israel)
  • Snakes, birds, insects
  • Concept is to move to independent mobility
  • Even prototypes in use are difficult to tell from
    their natural model

Top Technions snake bot Below AeroVironments
Nano Hummingbird robot
17
hidden drone, swarming robot

Upward-falling payloads, sea-launched UAVs
(right, US Navy) Co-operating drones (left,
GRASP Lab UPenn)
  • Robots can be anywhere, waiting
  • Can work together and learn

18
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19
prehistory of smart cities
  • Information Society
  • Creating a virtual city
  • Websites for cities
  • Online portals
  • Recombination bring the virtual city into the
    material cyber-cities, digital cities etc.
  • Kiosks as material portals to the cyber-city
  • Local internet provision in libraries and schools
  • Online public transport timetables and live
    signage

20
smart cities
  • Three different, related uses of smart city
  • From European spatial planning - rational and
    sustainable city
  • From major computing companies (predominantly
    IBM, Cisco, SAP, Siemens, Hitachi) - information
    management tools applied urban systems
  • Modernizing discourses, often related to
    nationalism (c.f. Putrajaya, Indian projects)

21
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22
smart cities
  • Second use of the term relies on ubiquitous
    city
  • combination of ubiquitous computing and urban
    management
  • characterized by pervasive wireless networks and
    distributed sensor platforms - Internet of
    Things
  • Monitoring flows from traffic to sewerage
  • Providing information real-time or in
    anticipation of risks
  • Claimed underlying purposes mainly generic social
    goods, e.g. Conviviality, environmental
    sustainability, innovation or safety / security.

23
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24
varieties of smart cities
  • Advanced whole-city projects like Rio de
    Janeiros Smart City project, directly sponsored
    by IBM
  • central control room bringing in data from
    multiple sources,
  • Mayor, Eduardo Paes claims he can manage the city
    from anywhere in the world
  • vs. smart city initiatives are at relatively
    early stage in Canada no advanced project

25
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26
varieties of smart cities
  • The levels and scale of smartness in these
    projects varies often unimpressive in practice
  • But increasingly ambitious proposals
  • Return of the ideal city e.g. Masdar (UAE)
  • new Indian PM Modis call for 100 smart cities
    across India
  • Securing major corporate involvement is in itself
    viewed as a marker of success in the competition
    for status in the world city network

27
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28
open platforms?
  • Smart Cities are not politcally neutral
  • Increasing interest in open platforms and open
    data
  • But also 1 Corporate walled gardens and
    brandscapes
  • But also 2 - increasing state control of public
    open access
  • Examples range from extending lawful access
    legislation through active web censorship to
    redesign of the net

29
standardizing smart cities
  • Various attempts to standardize smart cities
  • Rankings (e.g. Mercier) mania for ranking
    global cities
  • Prizes (annual Smart City Awards etc.)
  • Branded standards
  • IBM, Intel, Microsoft CityNext
  • ISO 37120 2014 - Sustainable development of
    communities indicators for city services and
    quality of life
  • City Protocol Society

30
ISO 37120
  • Previous studies found multiple indices used
    few in common
  • Leads to development of ISO standard
  • 46 core indicators (smart cities shall)
  • 54 supporting indicators (smart cities should)
  • 3rd party verification of data and audit process
  • Profile indicators (population, size, GDP, city
    type) provide a set of comparable interactions

31
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32
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33
infowar or cooperation?
  • connection or disjuncture between national
    security and corporate content creation vs. open
    source / open access movement?
  • Wikileaks / Snowden place transparency and
    accountability in same field as surveillance and
    control
  • Anonymous - active reassertion of anti-state and
    anti-corporate visions
  • Hacker and Maker spaces ? smart city hacking
  • Post-9/11 tendency to badge openness as as a
    threat
  • C21st - politics of information is / will be
    vital
  • Will corporations and states recognise the
    importance of participatory making?
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