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Animal Science

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Title: Animal Science


1
Animal Science
2
Uses for Animals
  • Food
  • Work
  • Medicine
  • Research
  • Clothing
  • Recreation
  • Companionship
  • Security

3
Uses for Animals
  • What types of animals are used for meat?
  • Cattle (Beef Veal)
  • Swine (Pork)
  • Lamb
  • Goat
  • Poultry

4
Uses for Animals
  • Milk inexpensive source of protein
  • Produced by dairy cows goats
  • Cheese, ice cream, and yogurt
  • Did you know that over 90 of U.S. milk
    production comes from the Holstein breed?
  • What is another protein source that is produced
    by animals?
  • Eggs

5
Uses for Animals
  • What are some areas in which we use animals for
    work?
  • Cultivate land
  • Transportation
  • Control other animals
  • Assist physically mentally handicapped
  • Blind

6
Uses for Animals
  • Medicine Research
  • Animal Behaviors
  • Genetic Tests
  • Organs
  • Future treatment research

7
Uses of Animals
  • Clothing
  • Hides
  • Leather
  • Fibers
  • Wool
  • Mohair
  • Silk

8
Uses of Animals
  • Recreation
  • Horseback Riding
  • Racing
  • Zoos

9
Uses of Animals
  • Companionship
  • Pets
  • Assist with the sick and
    elderly

10
Uses of Animals
  • Security
  • Guard dogs
  • Eliminating pests
  • Ex.-Cats
  • Romans used geese to guard the gates of Rome

11
Uses of Animals
  • By Products
  • Bone
  • Buttons
  • Glue
  • Minerals supplements for
    feed
  • Fat
  • Cooking Oil
  • Cream
  • Soap
  • Makeup

12
The Beef Industry
13
The Beef Industry
  • 1 red meat production industry in the United
    States.
  • Americans eat about 96lb of red meat per year.
  • Many by-products are produced from cattle such
    as gelatin, leather, soap.

14
Beef Cattle Operations
  • Purebred Breeders
  • Cattle of a single breed are raised.
  • Cow-calf Operations
  • Produce feeder calves for slaughter cattle
    producers.
  • Slaughter-cattle (Feedlot)
  • Buy calves from cow-calf operators and raise them
    until they reach slaughter weight.

15
English Breeds of Beef Cattle
16
English Breeds
  • Cattle breeds developed in the British Isles
    (mostly Northern England Scotland).
  • Excellent grazers of native grasses.

17
Angus
  • Black breed
  • Known for excellent meat quality.
  • Marbling

18
Hereford
  • Red with white face
  • Originated in the British Isles.
  • Imported into the United States by Henry Clay in
    1817.
  • Gained acceptance after the 1883 Chicago Fat
    Stock Show.

19
Shorthorn
  • Red, White, or roan (mix of red and white) coat.
  • Excellent milking capability.
  • Been used in the bloodlines of more than 30
    recognized breeds.

20
Galloway
  • Ancient breed which derived its name from the
    Gauls of the Scottish Lowlands.
  • Polled
  • Long, curly hair
  • Performs well on poor land with coarse grasses.

21
Devon
  • One of the oldest breeds in existence.
  • Brought to SW England by the Phoenicians as they
    explored for tin.
  • Romans wrote about them in 55 BC.
  • 1st purebred to reach North America.
  • Known as the Red Rubies

22
Red Poll
  • Polled cattle who are red in color.
  • Developed as a dual purpose breed in England.
  • Believed to have come about from crossing
    Galloways and Devons.

23
Exotic Breeds of Beef Cattle
24
Exotic Breeds
  • Imported into the United States when consumers
    started demanding leaner meat.
  • Exotic breeds have calves that grow faster than
    English breeds.

25
Charolais
  • White to light blonde in color pink skin.
  • Large very well muscled
  • Originated in France.

26
Limousin
  • Light yellow color with lighter circles around
    eyes.
  • Lean carcasses with large loin eye area.
  • Small head with short neck.
  • Originated in France.

27
Simmental
  • White to light straw faces, with dark red bodies.
  • With to light straw faces, with dark red bodies.
  • Most popular breed in Europe.

28
Blonde D Aquitaine
  • Covered with short light colored hair.
  • Well muscled breed that developed in southwestern
    France.
  • Forehead and muzzle are broad, the face
    triangular.

29
Maine Anjou
  • Very red with white markings across the body.
  • Originated in northwestern France.
  • Large, very well muscled cattle.

30
Brahman
  • Light or medium gray coat color.
  • Characteristic hump over shoulder.
  • Large, drooping ears and loose skin.
  • Developed in southwestern USA.
  • Used mostly for crossbreeding.

31
American Breeds of Beef Cattle
32
American Breeds
  • Developed to withstand the heat and resistance to
    disease and parasites in the South and Southwest.
  • American breeds resulted from crossing Brahman
    cattle from India with English breeds.
  • The result was increased heat tolerance and
    disease and parasite of Brahman and the meat
    quality of the English breeds.

33
Beefmaster
  • Developed in Texas in the 20th century.
  • Approximately ½ Brahman and ¼ Hereford
    Shorthorn respectively.
  • Selection based on the 6 essentials Weight,
    Conformation, Milking Ability, Fertility,
    Hardiness and Disposition

34
Brangus
  • Solid black or red in color.
  • Polled.
  • Good mothering ability feed efficiency.
  • A result of a cross of Brahman and Angus.

35
Santa Gertrudis
  • Developed on the King Ranch in Texas
  • All Santa Gertrudis are descendants of the bull,
    Monkey
  • They were created by crossing shorthorn cows and
    Brahman bulls.

36
Barzona
  • Red cattle with occasional white markings.
  • Developed in Arizona in the 20th century to deal
    with the extremely hot, drought ridden, rocky
    terrain.

37
The Dairy Industry
38
The Dairy Industry
  • Second most important animal enterprise in the
    United States in
    dollar sales.
  • Consumption of milk and dairy products is steady
    now after years of decline.
  • Average Americans use more than 580
    lb of dairy products annually.

39
The Dairy Industry
  • Milk production is not the only income-generating
    part of dairy production.
  • Calves not needed as replacements for the dairy
    herd are sold as veal.
  • Cows no longer profitable are sold for beef.

40
Breeds of Dairy Cattle
41
Holstein
  • Black White
  • Highest average producer of milk.
  • Comprises 90 of all dairy cattle in the U.S.
  • Made the most genetic improvement in recent years.

42
Jersey
  • Light Brown
  • 2nd most popular breed of dairy cattle.
  • Smallest of the dairy breeds.
  • Rank 1 in butterfat production.

43
Guernsey
  • Reddish brown with white underside.
  • Originated on the Isle of Guernsey in the English
    Channel.
  • Produces a yellowish milk due to the high beta
    carotene content.

44
Ayrshire
  • Red White
  • Developed in Scotland in the county of Ayr.
  • Used to be known for it horns, but most calves
    are polled now.

45
Brown Swiss
  • Brown with a light dorsal stripe down its back.
  • Originated in Switzerland.
  • Only been recognized as registered breed since
    1906.

46
The Pork Industry
47
The Pork Industry
  • Swine used to classified into one of three
    groups Lard-type Bacon-type.
  • However, the industry has changed greatly due to
    the demand for leaner pork.

48
Swine Operations-Producers
  • Feeder-pig
  • Maintain large herds of sows that produce 2 to 2½
    litters each year.
  • Market-hog
  • Purchase pigs at 5-8 weeks of age and feed them
    until they reach an age of about 220lb.
  • Purebred
  • Produce high quality boars to improve the genetic
    makeup of a breed or to be bred with crossbred
    sows to increase hybrid vigor.

49
Breeds of Swine
50
Duroc
  • Originated in the United States.
  • Solid red.
  • Drooped ears.
  • Slight dish to the face.
  • Excellent meat type hog.

51
Yorkshire
  • Originated in England.
  • White.
  • Large, erect ears.
  • Known as The Mother Breed.
  • Produces large litters.
  • Bacon-type hog.

52
Hampshire
  • Originated in the United States.
  • Probably the oldest American breed.
  • Black with a white belt.
  • Small, erect ears.
  • Well-known meat breed.

53
Spotted
  • Developed in Indiana.
  • Black and white spots.
  • Efficient feeders.
  • Noted for rapid weight gain.

54
Chester White
  • Originated in Chester County, Pennsylvania.
  • White with drooped ears.
  • Mothering breed.
  • Known to produce large litters.

55
Poland China
  • Originated in the US.
  • Noted for ability to easily gain weight.
  • Quiet dispositions.
  • Black with white snouts, legs and switch.
  • Generally poor mothers.
  • Drooped ears.

56
Berkshire
  • Originated in England.
  • Black with white legs, snout and switch.
  • Once kept at Buckingham Palace.
  • Known for producing high quality meats.
  • Erect ears.

57
Tamworth
  • Originated in Ireland
  • Red in color
  • Bacon-type
  • Deep-sided
  • Well-arched back
  • Erect ears
  • Good mothers
  • Very active

58
Landrace
  • Originated in Denmark.
  • Drooped ears
  • Known for their maternal instincts.
  • White
  • Long
  • Flatter-topped than other breeds.

59
The Poultry Industry
60
The Poultry Industry
  • Poultry is the name given to all
    domesticated birds.
  • Consumption of chicken meat in the U.S. increased
    from 26.4 lb to 81.4 lb per person from
    1975 to 2003.
  • Turkey consumption almost tripled from
    6.5 lb to 17.6 lb per person during that
    same period.
  • Americans also eat 250 eggs per person
    each year.

61
Poultry Industry
  • Poultry production ranks 1st ahead of beef
    swine production in pounds consumed.
  • What are the major types of poultry?
  • Chickens
  • Turkeys
  • Ducks
  • Geese

62
Types Uses of Poultry
  • Chickens
  • Classified as either layers or broilers.
  • Broilers are young chickens grown
    for their meat. (Cornish)
  • Layers are chickens developed to produce huge
    numbers of eggs. (White Leghorn)

63
Types Uses of Poultry
  • Bantams
  • Another class of chickens.
  • Miniature versions of standard breeds.
  • Used primarily for show.

64
Types Uses of Poultry
  • Turkeys
  • 90 of turkeys grown commercially are
    Broad-Breasted White.

65
Animal Nutrition
66
Six Classes of Nutrients
  • Water
  • Protein
  • Carbohydrates
  • Minerals
  • Vitamins
  • Fat

67
Water
  • Largest component of all living things.
  • Regulates body temperature.
  • Dissolves transports nutrients.

68
Protein
  • Builds muscle

69
Carbohydrates
  • Provides energy for animals.
  • Makes up about 75 of most animal rations.
  • Corn and other cereal grains are the major source
    of carbohydrates.

70
Minerals
  • Calcium is one of the major minerals and is found
    in ground limestone.
  • Calcium is needed in poultry feed for eggshell
    development.
  • Minerals are supplied by mineral supplements
    are a primary aid in the development of bones
    teeth.

71
Vitamins
  • Vitamins are needed by animals in minute
    quantities to help all body functions.
  • Also help prevent many livestock diseases.

72
Fat
  • Only small amounts of fat are required.

73
Classes of Feeds
  • Concentrates
  • Roughages

74
Concentrates
  • Low in fiber and high in total digestible
    nutrients (TDN).
  • Cereal grains are the major source of most
    concentrates.
  • Other sources include byproducts of grain and
    animals.

75
Roughages
  • High in fiber and low in TDN.
  • Dry roughage is hay.
  • Green roughages includes the pasture grasses.
  • Silage is a roughage that results from storage
    and fermentation of green crops.

76
Animal Digestive Systems
77
Digestive System of Cattle
  • Cows sheep are ruminants, which means they have
    four stomach compartments.
  • Ruminants can tolerate more roughage in the diet.

78
Digestive System of Cattle
79
Digestive System of Swine
  • Swine are monogastric, which means they have one
    stomach compartment.
  • Have basically the same digestive system as a
    human.
  • Ration must be high in concentrates.

80
Digestive System of Swine
81
Digestive System of Poultry
  • Poultry have no true stomach and can only store
    small amounts of food in its digestive system.
  • Chickens have no teeth. Food is swallowed whole,
    stored in the crop, and passed on to the gizzard
    where it is crushed ground up.
  • Rations must be high in food value.

82
Digestive System of Poultry
83
Tools in Animal Science
84
Candling Light
  • Used to view the interior of eggs to detect blood
    spots and other such defects.

85
Castrator
  • Used to prevent male animals from breeding.

86
Artificial Insemination
  • Artificial vagina
  • Used to collect semen from male animals.
  • Insemination straw
  • Used for the disposition of semen into the female.

87
Dehorner
  • Used to remove horns from cattle.

88
Rectal Thermometer
  • Used to take the temperatures of animals.

89
Syringe
  • Used to give injections or to draw body fluids.

90
V Ear Notcher
  • Used to notch the ears of swine for
    identification.

91
Careers in Animal Science
92
Careers
  • Most entry-level jobs require a high school
    diploma.
  • About 20 of the careers require a college
    degree.
  • Some careers require additional education.

93
High School Agricultural Program
  • A good place to begin career preparation because
    of the total program of..
  • Class/Lab Instruction
  • FFA
  • SAE.

94
Veterinarian
  • Education
  • 4 year college degree
  • Advanced degree with special training (Vet
    School).
  • Perform highly technically skills
  • Embryo transfers

95
Career Trends
  • Largest number of new employment positions in
    agriscience is expected to be scientists
    engineers.

96
Small Animal Industry
  • Is expanding greatly.
  • Used for.
  • Pets
  • Animal research
  • Food
  • Fur

97
Small Animal Industry
  • Technicians growers are needed for.
  • Kennels
  • Pet stores
  • Animal hospitals
  • Etc.
  • Often require college training.

98
Equine Industry
  • Expanding as the interest in horses
    for pleasure show increases.
  • Farriers are needed to shoe care
    for horses feet.
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