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MODERN AFRICA

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modern africa themes/problems geography independence movements case study: south africa (apartheid) development, aids crisis, economics – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MODERN AFRICA


1
MODERN AFRICA
  • THEMES/PROBLEMS
  • GEOGRAPHY
  • INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS
  • CASE STUDY SOUTH AFRICA (APARTHEID)
  • DEVELOPMENT, AIDS CRISIS, ECONOMICS

2
PROBLEMS/THEMES
  • AIDS CRISIS
  • FAMINE/HUNGER
  • CIVIL WAR
  • ETHNIC UNREST/GENOCIDE
  • POVERTY/INEQUALITY OF WEATLTH
  • LACK OF INVESTMENT CAPITAL

3
AFRICAN GEOGRAPHY
  • FEATURES
  • SAHARA DESERT
  • GREAT RIFT VALLEY
  • NILE RIVER
  • KALAHARI DESERT
  • ATLAS MOUNTAINS
  • LAKE VICTORIA
  • CONGO RIVER

4
EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHY
  • FEATURE EFFECT
  • SAHARA DESERTIFICATION
  • DESERT
    ACTS AS A BARRIER TO

  • TRADE AND TRAVEL


  • LACK OF FERTILE FARM LAND
  • NILE RIVER FERTILE VALLEY, SILT

  • OTHER RIVERS WATER FALLS, RAPIDS,
    CATARACTS

  • MAKE TRANSPORTATION
    DIFFICULT BUT

  • SOMETIMES GOOD FOR
    HYDROELECTRIC POWER

5
EFFECTS OF GEOGRPAHY
  • RESOURCES
  • Gold and diamonds in South Africa
    Brought European Powers
  • Rubber and Ivory in the Congo
    during the Age of Imperialism
  • GREAT RIFT VALLEY Made travel and trade
    difficult.

  • Influenced migration forcing people to move

  • in a north-south
    direction.
  • 100
    mile wide canyon

6
EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHY
  • COASTLINE SMOOTH, BAD FOR TRADE
  • LAKES IMPORTANT SOURCE
    OF
  • Lake Victoria FISH, MAJOR
    SOURCE OF
  • Lake Tanganyika PROTEIN IN
    AFRICA
  • Lake Chad
  • Lake Malawi (Nyasa)

7
Algeria 1954-1962
  • French wanted to keep Arab-Berber people from
    winning independence
  • Muslim Nationalists set up the FLN National
    Liberation Front
  • Public opinion in France turned against the war
  • Charles de Gaulle became President in 1958 4
    years later Algeria achieved independence

8
INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS
  • KENYA JOMO KENYATA

9
KENYA AND JOMO KENYATTA
  • The British held Kenya as part of the East Africa
    Protectorate.
  • A secret terrorist organization called the Mau
    Mau existed in Kenya to fight the British! The
    British called a state of emergency against the
    Mau Maus guerrilla activities.
  • The native tribe of Kenya are the Kikuyu.
  • Jomo Kenyatta led the independence movement and
    ended up in jail.
  • Kenyatta and the Mau Mau were successful against
    the British in 1963.
  • Kenyatta became the first president of the free
    Kenya.

10
GHANA AND KWAME NKRUMAH
11
GHANA INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT
  • The British held the territory called the Gold
    Coast.
  • Kwame Nkrumah led the independence movement
  • Nkrumah believed in non-violence.
  • In 1957 The Gold Coast got its independence
    and
  • was then called Ghana.
  • Kwame Nkrumah became Ghanas first President



12
Cold War Regional Organizations
  • New African nations affected by superpowers
  • Supplied with military weapons by superpower they
    supported
  • Conflicts in Ethiopia and Somalia
  • 1963 OAU Organization of African Unity
  • 2001 African Union modeled after the UN

13
UN disaster relief and Military Intervention
  • African nations joined the UN and served on
    peacekeeping missions
  • Focus has been on healthcare, literacy, economic
    problems and racism
  • UN, International Red Cross, Doctors w/o Borders
    deal with famine
  • 2003 Congo and Liberia

14
Critical Issues
  • Drought and famine desertification, 1980s
    Ethiopia and Somalia
  • Deforestation of Rain Forests
  • AIDS epidemics in South Africa, Ethiopia,
    Nigeria, Kenya and Botswana
  • UN estimated in 2000 over 30 million dies of
    disease

15
Problems to Unity and Stability
  • Civil War
  • Crisis of 1980s
  • One-Party rule
  • Military rule

16
Economic development
  • Socialism or Capitalism
  • Cash Crops or Food
  • Urban or Rural
  • Debt Crisis
  • Soaring oil prices
  • Crushed developing African economies
  • World Bank loans refused
  • Increased unemployment

17
A CASE STUDY SOUTH AFRICAAPARTHEID RISE AND
FALL
  • APARTHEID THE LEGAL SEPARATION OF THE RACES
    RULED IN SOUTH AFRICA FROM 1948--1991

18
THE AFRIKAANER (DUTCH GOVERNMENT)
  • The Afrikaaner govt. gained control of the South
    Africa in 1948
  • They instituted Apartheid!
  • Each group had separate living areas
  • People of color were subjected to certain
    rules/laws!

19
Boer War and Apartheid
20
APARTHEID LAWS/RULES
  • People of color must carry Pass Books around as
    identification.
  • Intermarriage between white people and people of
    color is forbidden.
  • Strikes by black workers were outlawed.
  • Jobs were restricted.
  • Separate public facilities and transportation
    were in existence.
  • Black people had no representation in government.
  • BANTU AUTHORITIES ACT established Bantustans or
    homelands
  • where black people would live
  • Separate educational facilities for white and
    black

       
21
RESISTANCE TO APARTHEID
NELSON MANDELA ----AFRICAN NATIONAL
CONGRESS STEVE BIKO---------------BLACK
CONSCIOUSNESS MOVEMENT ARCHBISHOP DESMOND
TUTU-----PEACEFUL RESISTANCE TO THE AFRIKAANER
GOVERNMENT

22
RESISTANCE TO APARTHEIDTHE ANC AND MANDELA
23
NELSON MANDELA SYMBOL OF RESISTANCE
  • Nelson Mandela was arrested in the 1960s for
    conspiracy against the government. He remained
    in jail for over 20 years. He was released by
    President F.W. deKlerk in 1989. By 1994 Mandela
    became the first black president of South Africa.
    People waited in line for days to vote in the
    first free elections!

24
STEVE BIKO BLACK CONSCIOUSNESS
25

STEVE BIKO Steve Biko was arrested by the South
African police. He was murdered while in custody
in 1977. Thousands showed up for his funeral and
he became a symbol of resistance to the white
oppression. His movement lived on after his
death. The white police officers who beat him
did not answer for their crimes until the
1990s.
Bikos grave
26
Archbishop Desmond Tutu
  • A man of the cloth who spoke out against
    apartheid!Tutu appealed to the worlds nations
    to stop trading with South Africa until it
    cleaned up its human rights record! Many people
    respected this religious figure!

27
THE END OF APARTHEID
  • Many world nations put pressure (economic
    sanctions on South Africa which crippled the
    economy.
  • 1989 F.W. deKlerk became President.
  • 1990 deKlerk lifted the ban on the ANC and
    released Mandela from prison.
  • deKlerk began to repeal the apartheid laws,
    dismantling the system of racial separation.
  • April 1994 was set as the first free elections
    and for a new constitution.
  • In 1994 Nelson Mandela won the presidential
    election hands down!

FW. deKlerk
28
NELSON MANDELA AND F.W.de KLERK
29
CIVIL WAR AND ETHNIC TENSIONIN RECENT TIMES
  • ETHNIC TENSION IN RWANDA BETWEEN HUTUS AND
    TUTSIS LED TO GENOCIDE 1990S
  • CIVIL WAR, DROUGHT, FAMINE IN SOMALIA IN 1992
    LED TO U.S. INTERVENTION (Black Hawk Down)

30
  • THE AIDS CRISIS THE CONTINENT WITH THE MOST
    CASES!
  • South Africa has one of the highest death rates
    due to AIDS

31
AIDS
  • The main problem is education about how AIDS
    spreads as well as the fact that there is a lack
    of money in the African nations to purchase the
    AIDS drugs available in other countries!
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