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Introduction to Poetry

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Introduction to Poetry In a poem the words should be as pleasing to the ear as the meaning is to the mind. Marianne Moore – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Poetry


1
Introduction to Poetry
  • In a poem the words should be as pleasing to the
    ear as the meaning is to the mind. Marianne
    Moore

2
What is a POEM?
  • Webster says a poem is a metrical composition a
    composition in verse written in certain measures,
    whether in blank verse or in rhyme, and
    characterized by imagination and poetic diction
  • Some poems are very formal, and others are more
    playful. Some are published in beautiful books,
    and others are written on sidewalks.
  • The thing that makes all poems alike is that each
    expresses the writers imagination and feelings
    in a creative way.

3
What is a POEM?
  • Think of the poems youve read in the past. Can
    you remember one youve enjoyed? Now think of the
    lyrics of your favorite song. Now consider the
    following questions
  • What is the most memorable line of the poem or
    song?
  • Are the lines grouped in any particular way?
  • Do any of the lines rhyme?

4
Unit Goal 1
  • Text Analysis
  • Analyze a poems form and structure, including
    free verse, lyric poetry, narrative poetry,
    ballads, and Haiku.
  • Determine the figurative and connotative meanings
    of words and phrases in a text.
  • Analyze the interaction of elements such as
    rhyme, repetition, and alliteration.

5
Unit Goal 2
  • Reading
  • Make inferences and connect ideas between texts.
  • Analyze the structure an author uses to organize
    text

6
Unit Goal 3
  • Writing and Language
  • Write an online feature article.
  • Choose language to eliminate redundancy.
  • Use commas to separate coordinate conjunctions.

7
Unit Goal 4
  • Speaking and Listening
  • Update an online feature article

8
Unit Goal 5
  • Identify the meaning of foreign words used in
    English.

9
Lets Get To It!
10
The Human Brain
  • Divided into 2 parts
  • Each half has its own function

Right Brain Creativity Emotions
Left Brain Logic Reality
11
To clarify . . .
When you are looking at big puffy clouds . . .
Your right brain tells you, Hey! That one looks
like a bunny.
While your left brain tells you . . .
12
Its a cloud, Stupid!
13
So, which half do you use when studying poetry?
  • Here are a few hints
  • Poetry requires creativity
  • Poetry requires emotion
  • Poetry requires an artistic quality
  • Poetry requires logic

Survey says . . .
14
both
15
For the Left Brain
Recognizing certain devices used within a poem
will give the left brain something to concentrate
on.
Well start with the sound devices
16
RHYME
The repetition of sounds at the ends of words
Example hat, cat, brat, fat, mat, sat
Here is another example http//www.youtube.com/w
atch?voGrcdq2viZg
17
RHYTHM
The beat
When reading a poem out loud, you may notice a
sort of sing-song quality to it, just like in
nursery rhymes. This is accomplished by the use
of rhythm. Rhythm is broken into seven types.
  • Iambic
  • Anapestic
  • Trochaic
  • Dactylic
  • Monosyllabic
  • Spondaic
  • Accentual

Less Common
Most Used
18
These identify patterns of stressed and
unstressed syllables in a line of poetry.
That means one syllable is pronounced stronger,
and one syllable is softer.
iambic
unstressed
anapestic
stressed
trochaic
dactylic
19
METER
The length of a line of poetry, based on what
type of rhythm is used. It is the rhythmical
pattern in a poem.
The length of a line of poetry is measured in
metrical units called FEET. Each foot consists
of one unit of rhythm. So, if the line is iambic
or trochaic, a foot of poetry has 2 syllables.
If the line is anapestic or dactylic, a foot of
poetry has 3 syllables.
20
(This is where its going to start sounding like
geometry class, so you left-brainers are gonna
love this!)
Each set of syllables is one foot, and each line
is measured by how many feet are in it. The
length of the line of poetry is then labeled
according to how many feet are in it.
1 Monometer
5 Pentameter
2 Dimeter
6 Hexameter
3 Trimeter
7 Heptameter
4 Tetrameter
8 Octameter
there is rarely more than 8 feet
21
She Walks in Beauty I. She walks in beauty, like
the night Of cloudless climes and starry
skies And all thats best of dark and
bright Meet in her aspect and her eyes Thus
mellowed to that tender light Which Heaven to
gaudy day denies.
Reading this poem out loud makes the rhythm
evident. Which syllables are more pronounced?
Which are naturally softer?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
II. One shade the more, one ray the less, Had
half impaired the nameless grace Which waves in
every raven tress, Or softly lightens oer her
face Where thoughts serenely sweet express, How
pure, how dear their dwelling-place.
Count the syllables in each line to determine the
meter.
III. And on that cheek, and oer that brow, So
soft, so calm, yet eloquent, The smiles that win,
the tints that glow, But tell of days in
goodness spent, A mind at peace with all
below, A heart whose love is innocent!
Examination of this poem reveals that it would be
considered iambic tetrameter.
22
Now try this one http//www.youtube.com/watch?vb
F1QzjmeYpY
  • First, count the syllables.
  • Second, divide by two. Remember these groups of
    two are called feet.
  • Third, label the meter.
  • Fourth, listen carefully to the rhythm. Is it a
    rising rhythm or a falling rhythm?

23
ALLITERATION
The repetition of the initial letter or sound in
two or more words in a line.
To the lay-person, these are called
tongue-twisters. Example How much dew would a
dewdrop drop if a dewdrop did drop dew?
24
Lets see what this looks like in a poem we are
familiar with.
Alliteration
Alliteration
She Walks in Beauty I. She walks in beauty, like
the night Of cloudless climes and starry
skies And all thats best of dark and
bright Meet in her aspect and her eyes Thus
mellowed to that tender light Which Heaven to
gaudy day denies.
Alliteration
These examples use the beginning sounds of words
only twice in a line, but by definition, thats
all you need.
25
Onomatopoeia
Words that spell out sounds words that sound
like what they mean.
26
Lets see what this looks like in a poem we are
not so familiar with yet.
Onomatopoeia
Several other words not highlighted could also be
considered as onomatopoeia. Can you find any?
27
Repetition
Using the same key word or phrase throughout a
poem.
This should be fairly self-explanatory, but . .
. at risk of sounding like a broken record . . .
28
(No Transcript)
29
So, which is the repeated key word or phrase?
30
(No Transcript)
31
So, which is the repeated key word or phrase?
Fairly obvious, huh?
32
Refrain
The repetition of one or more phrases or lines at
the end of a stanza.
It can also be an entire stanza that is repeated
periodically throughout a poem, kind of like a
chorus of a song.
33
Phenomenal Woman by Maya Angelou
Pretty women wonder where my secret lies. Im not
cute or built to suit a fashion models size But
when I start to tell them, They think Im telling
lies. I say, Its in the reach of my arms, The
span of my hips, The stride of my step, The curl
of my lips. Im a woman Phenomenally. Phenomenal
woman, Thats me.
Remember this
34
I walk into a room Just as cool as you
please, And to a man, The fellows stand or Fall
down on their knees. Then they swarm around me, A
hive of honey bees. I say, Its the fire in my
eyes, And the flash of my teeth, The swing of my
waist, And the joy in my feet. Im a
woman Phenomenally. Phenomenal woman, Thats me.
Men themselves have wondered What they see in
me. They try so much But they cant touch My
inner mystery. When I try to show them, They say
they still cant see. I say, Its in the arch of
my back, The sun of my smile, . . . The grace of
my style. Im a woman Phenomenally. Phenomenal
woman, Thats me.
Look familiar?
That is refrain.
35
2 More Sound Devices
  • Assonance- the repetition of vowel sounds
    followed by different consonants in stressed
    syllables, as in blade and maze.
  • Consonance- the repetition of similar consonant
    sounds at the ends of accented syllables, as in
    wind and sand.

36
Figurative Language
  • The writing or speech not meant to be taken
    literally. Poets use figures of speech to state
    ideas in new ways.
  • Poets write poems that are usually divided into
    lines and then grouped into stanzas, or verses.
  • Look at the following figurative language types.

37
Simile
  • A comparison between two usually unrelated
    things using the word like or as.

Examples Joe is as hungry as a bear. In the
morning, Rae is like an angry lion.
38
Lets see what this looks like in a poem we have
never seen before in our lives
Simile
  • Ars Poetica
  • By Archibald MacLeish
  • A poem should be palpable and mute as a globed
    fruit,
  • Silent as the sleeve-worn stone
  • Of casement ledges where the moss has grown
  • A poem should be wordless
  • As the flight of birds.

Simile
Simile
39
Metaphor
  • An implied comparison between two usually
    unrelated things.

Examples Lenny is a snake. Ginny is a mouse
when it comes to standing up for herself.
The difference between a simile and a metaphor
is that a simile requires either like or as
to be included in the comparison, and a
metaphor requires that neither be used.
40
When it comes to using a metaphor device in
poetry, a poet can either make the entire poem a
metaphor for something, or put little metaphors
throughout the poem.
  • The following poem is one big metaphor.

41
Hyperbole
  • An exaggeration for the sake of
  • emphasis.

Examples I may sweat to death. The blood bank
needs a river of blood.
42
Personification
  • Giving human characteristics to inanimate
    objects, ideas, or animals.

Example The sun stretched its lazy fingers
over the valley.
43
Symbol
  • A word or image that signifies something other
    than what is literally represented.

Examples Dark or black images in poems are
often used to symbolize death. Light or
white images are often used to symbolize life.
44
Imagery
  • Using words to create a picture in the readers
    mind.

45
Forms of Poetry
46
Free Verse
Poetry that follows no rules. Just about
anything goes.
This does not mean that it uses no devices, it
just means that this type of poetry does not
follow traditional conventions such
as punctuation, capitalization, rhyme scheme,
rhythm and meter, etc.
Fog The fog comes on little cat feet. It sits
looking over harbor and city on silent
haunches and then, moves on.
No Rhyme No Rhythm No Meter This is free verse.
47
Allusion
A reference to another piece of literature or to
history.
Example She hath Dians wit (from Romeo and
Juliet). This is an allusion to Roman mythology
and the goddess Diana. The three most common
types of allusion refer to mythology, the
Bible, and Shakespeares writings.
48
Other Forms of Poetry
  • Narrative- poem tells a story in verse.
    Narrative poems often have elements similar to
    those in short stories, such as plot and
    character.
  • Haiku- a three line Japanese poem verse form.
    The first and third lines each have 5 syllables
    and the second line has 7 syllables. So, 5-7-5.

49
Other Forms of Poetry
  • Lyric- poem expresses thoughts and feelings of a
    single speaker, often in highly musical verse.
    This may be why words to songs are called lyrics.
  • Ballads- songlike poems that tell a story, often
    dealing with adventure and romance. Again, in
    music most love songs are called ballads.

50
Other Forms of Poetry
  • Concrete- poems shaped to look like their
    subjects. The poet arranges the line to create a
    picture on the page.
  • Limericks- humorous, rhyming, five-line poems
    with a specific rhythm pattern and rhyme scheme.
    Ex-There was an Old Man in a boat, Who said, 'I'm
    afloat, I'm afloat!' When they said, 'No! you
    ain't! He was ready to faint, That unhappy Old
    Man in a boat.
  • Rhyming Couplets- pairs of rhyming lines, usually
    of the same meter and length

51
Poetry should be read aloud!
  • Poetry Outloud National Champion 2009
    http//www.youtube.com/watch?v6SJeGjAzvs8
  • An Evening of Poetry, Music and the Written Word
    at the White House, President and First Lady
    Obama http//www.youtube.com/watch?vcUfekqAJHeI
  • James Earl Jones reciting from Othello by
    Shakespeare http//www.youtube.com/watch?vDJybA1e
    mr_gfeatureSeriesPlayListp1ECEA36D759093A1
  • Billy Collins, The Dead with animation
    http//www.youtube.com/watch?viuTNdHadwbk
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