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CONCEPT MODELING: A Proposed Hybrid Approach to Patent Modeling or e Popovi , Ognjen eki , Veljko Milutinovi – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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A Proposed Hybrid Approach to Patent Modeling
Ðorde Popovic, Ognjen Šcekic, Veljko Milutinovic
What is concept modeling?
  • A way of modeling reality
  • Identifying concepts
  • Identifying relations among concepts
  • Organizing the concepts in a knowledge-base,
    allowing an "intelligent" way to search and
    process this data.
  • Why do we need concept modeling?To make
    electronic resources not only machine-processable,
    but also machine-understandable!

  • How to create a model that has a uniform
    structure, and is powerful enough to capture the
    essence of any concept?
  • How should these models be linked into an
    efficient structure?
  • How can we bridge the gap between natural
    languageand a machine-processable model?

7 Ws PROs and CONs
Ultimate Goal From a specific to a general model!
WHAT associations provide general facts about any
Why start with patents?
  • Described by a very formal, structured language
  • Each patent is a novel concept.
  • Definition of one patent is usually based on
    another one.

Structure of a Patent Document
General info about the patent (can be used for
Which, When, Why, Where, Who and How)
Description not well structured
References to related patents
Claims primary target for What
Abstract of the patent

Conceptual Indexing (1)
  • What is conceptual indexing?
  • New technique for organizing information to
    support subsequent access that can dramatically
    improve your ability to find the information you
    need,with less hassle and with better results.
  • William A.
  • Conceptual indexing combines techniques of
  • Knowledge representation
  • Natural language processing
  • Classical techniques for indexing words and
  • Bridges the gap between natural languageand a
    machine processable model.

Conceptual Indexing (2)
  • Conceptual indexing technology is a combination
  • Concept extractor
  • Identifies phrases to be indexed.
  • Concept assimilator
  • Analyzes a concept phrase to determine
  • its place in the conceptual taxonomy.
  • Conceptual retrieval system
  • Uses conceptual taxonomy to make connections
  • between requested and indexed items.

Figure 1 Main components of a conceptual indexer
Hybrid Approach Indices RDF/OWL
  • Conceptual indices
  • Motivation Use the advantages of one approach
    to eliminate the drawbacks of the other.

Conceptual Indices vs. RDF/OWL
Conceptual indices RDF/OWL ontologies
Major advantages Linear-complexity structures Very expressive and precise
Major advantages Provide basic subsumption relations Based on First-Order Logic
Major advantages Provide built-in knowledgeon low-level concepts Supported by W3C
Major drawbacks Incapability of establishing explicit relations among high-level concepts Great complexity
Major drawbacks Incapability to create precise models Great complexity
Why not use ontologies alone?
  • If we want to use an ontology we have 2 choices
  • Use an existing, well-established ontology that
    might not suite our needs.
  • Create a new ontology which does suit our needs
  • We can create several different
    ontologies,depending on how we want to capture
    the information.
  • Problems arise when we want to merge ontologies.
  • This approach works fine within a closed
    communitywith specific needs
  • There already exists a well-defined basic
    ontology structure.
  • Community members have a good knowledge of how to
    model new conceptsin terms of the existing ones.

Why not use indices alone?
  • For example, let us take the simplest possible
    definition, for a bird
  • bird 1 a creature with wings and feathers
    that lays eggs and can usually fly.
  • Our index might then contain the following
    associationscreature, wings, feathers, eggs,
  • A conceptual index does not offer the possibility
    to state the fact that some birds do not fly!

1 - Word definition taken from Longman Dictionary
of Contemporary English, 3rd edition, 1995.
Hybrid Approach (1)
  • An index of associations represents a simple
    model,similar to what humans have on their
    mindwhen they first think of a bird.
  • Having enough associations, one can create a
    model with a considerable degree of accuracy.
  • RDF/OWL statements provide a means for
    expressing additional (but very important)
    information(e.g. there are birds that cannot
  • We believe this is good enough for most

Hybrid Approach (2)
  • It is important to keep track of how many times a
    term is mentioned,because it affects its
    descriptive power.
  • Example
  • U.S. Patent 6,989,179 Synthetic grass
    sport surfaces, claims section
  • 1. synthetic grass 10
  • 2. playing surface 9
  • These terms represent the essence of what is
    being described!

Hybrid Approach (3)
  • However, this is only because we know what
    synthetic grass and playing surface are!
  • ? At some level, we need to have some
    intrinsic, built-in knowledge-base of basic
  • All the other concepts can then be described in
    terms of these basic concepts.
  • Solution Conceptual indexers are equipped with
    a knowledge base of basic terms.

Patent Model Conceptual Index
  • A patents Claims section is scanned and
    processedby a conceptual indexer.
  • The result is a descriptive index, associated
    with the patent (it size is approx. 1-5 of the
    full text).
  • This index can be seen as an ordered list of the
    patents WHAT associations (terms, phrases,
    sentence fragments).
  • An entry in the descriptive index contains a
    low-level concept,and the number of its

Patent Model RDF/OWL
  • For a different application, a different RDF/OWL
    model needs to be devised.
  • For describing patents this model could be used
    to capture explicitly stated information
  • Patent number and other numbers (? WHICH)
  • Inventor, examiner, attorney, (? WHO)
  • Date when the patent was filed (? WHEN)
  • Explicit references to similar patents (? WHICH)
  • etc
  • Each W can have multiple sub-categories that are

Patent Model Creation
Figure 2 Creation of a patent model Claims
section is processed by the conceptual indexer to
produce an index associated with the
patent. Additional information about the concept
is captured by RDF/OWL statements,into a
predefined, application-specific structure.
Patent Model Result
Figure 3 Patent model WHAT associations are
contained in a descriptive index. Other Ws are
expressed through RDF/OWL statements.
Patent model Big Picture
  • Descriptive indices are re-processed by the
    Conceptual indexer,to form the system index.
  • Each entry in the system index retains links to
    the descriptive indices it originates from,and
  • This structure allows us to
  • Perform quick searches of the existing patents
  • Add/remove patents easily

Figure 4 Top-level scheme
Patent Model Patent Relations
  • Two ways of establishing relations among patents
  • Via RDF/OWL statements, using automated reasoners
  • ? Problem Referential integrity Consistency
  • Via System index (implicit links)
  • ? Problem Inexact, based on probability

Patent Model Implicit Links (1)
  • Descriptions of similar concepts (patents)
    usually make a frequent use of similar or even
    same terms.
  • By determining overlapping terms we
    createdynamic, implicit links among similar
  • The number of such implicit links can be used to
    express similarity among concepts.
  • The algorithm for determining the similarity
    needs to be tweaked empirically.

Patent Model Implicit Links (2)
  • For exampleWhen describing two different
    vaccines we would probably make a frequent use
    of terms like vaccine, inactivated antigens,
    immune response, etc.

Advantages Drawbacks
  • Advantages
  • Reduced complexity (a great reduction of direct
    links between concepts)
  • Fast search and retrieval (as the result of
    using indices)
  • Scalability
  • Drawbacks
  • Use of indices implies loss of precision

  • Our idea is still in the first stage of
  • Its key advantages areits general applicability
    and reduced complexity.
  • Further research is needed to explore the
    quality and feasibility of the proposed solution.
  • However, we expect that the combination of
    OWL/RDF structures and indices might produce a
    satisfactory performance/exactness ratio.

  • W. A. Woods, L. A. Bookman, A. Houston, R. J.
    Kuhns, P. Martin, S. Green, "Linguistic
    Knowledge Can Improve Information
    Retrieval",Proc. of the Applied Natural Language
    Processing Conference (ANLP-2000),Seattle, 2000.
  • O. Scekic, P. Bojic, "An Overview of OWL and its
    Role in Semantic Web Architecture",YU-INFO 06,
    Kopaonik, SerbiaMontenegro, 2006.
  • Boris V. Dobrov, Natalia V. Loukachevitch,
    Tatyana N. Yudina, "Conceptual Indexing Using
    Thematic Representation of Texts,Scientific
    Research Computer Center of Moscow State
    University, Moscow, 1998.
  • S. Omerovic, D. Savic, S. Tomazic,"A Survey of
    Concept Modeling",Faculty of Electrical
    Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
    (to appear).
  • William A. Woods, Conceptual Indexing A Better
    Way to Organize Knowledge, Technical report,
    Sun Microsystems Laboratories, 1998.
  • http// U.S. Patent office

A Proposed Hybrid Approach to Patent Modeling
Ðorde Popovic Ognjen
Šcekic Veljko
Milutinovic popajce_at_ptt.yu
Thank you !