Introduction to Computers - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Introduction to Computers PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7cdc38-MjUzY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Introduction to Computers

Description:

Introduction to Computers – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:459
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 87
Provided by: UCOB150
Learn more at: http://uogonline.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Introduction to Computers


1
Introduction to Computers
2
A Desktop Machine
3
A Computer System
User
  • Hardware
  • Software
  • User

Software
Hardware
4
A Computer System (Contd.)
  • In general, a computer is a machine which accepts
    data, processes it and returns new information as
    output.

Processing
Data
Information
5
Software
  • Software is set of programs (which are step by
    step instructions) telling the computer how to
    process data.
  • Software needs to be installed on a computer,
    usually from a CD.
  • Softwares can be divided into two groups
  • - System SW
  • - Application SW

6
Software (Contd.)
  • System Software
  • It controls the overall operation of the system.
  • It is stored in the computer's memory and
    instructs the computer to load, store, and
    execute an application.
  • Examples Operating System (OS), Translators
  • DOS, Windows, Unix etc.

7
Software (Contd..)
  • Application Software
  • They are Softwares written to perform specific
    tasks.
  • The basic types of application software are
  • word processing, database, spreadsheet,
    desktop publishing, and communication.
  • Examples MSOffice, Tally, MSOutlook,
  • ISBS, MODBANKER BANKSOFT

8
Advantages of Using Computers
  • Speed Computers can carry out instructions in
    less than a millionth of a second.
  • Accuracy Computers can do the calculations
    without errors and very accurately.
  • Diligence Computers are capable of performing
    any task given to them repetitively.
  • Storage Capacity Computers can store large
    volume of data and information on magnetic media.

9
History of Evolution Of Computers
  • Two Eras
  • Mechanical Era (Before 1945)
  • Electronic Era (1945 - )
  • Can be divided into generations.
  • First Generation (1945 1954)
  • Second Generation (1955 1964)
  • Third Generation (1965 1974)
  • Fourth Generation (1975 - )

10
Types of Computers
  • On the basis of Computing Power Size
  • Laptop / Palmtop
  • Micro Computer / Desktop
  • Mini Computer / Mainframe
  • Super Computer

11
Language of Computers
  • Computers only understand the electronic signals.
  • Either Current is flowing or not.
  • Current Flowing ON
  • Current Not Flowing OFF
  • Binary Language
  • ON 1
  • OFF 0
  • Bit, Byte, KB, MB, GB

12
Computer Network
  • A Computer Network is interconnection of
    Computers to share resources.
  • Resources can be Information, Load, Devices etc.

13
Types Of Computer Networks
  • On the basis of Size
  • Local Area Network (LAN)
  • Its a network of the computers locally i.e.
    in
  • one room, one building.
  • Wide Area Network (WAN)
  • Its a network of the computers spread widely
  • geographically.

14
Benefits of Computer Networks
  • Information Sharing
  • Device Sharing
  • Load Sharing
  • Mobility
  • Fast Communication
  • Anywhere Anytime Banking

15
Internet
  • Internet is a huge network of computer networks.
  • Internet provides many services
  • Email
  • World Wide Web (www)
  • Remote Login (Telnet)
  • File Transfer (FTP)

16
(No Transcript)
17
(No Transcript)
18
  • End Of Session 1
  • ANY Queries ??????

19
CPU ( Central Processing Unit)
  • The central processing unit (CPU), also
  • known as just a "processor, is the "brain"
  • of your computer.
  • It contains various electronic circuits.

20
VDU (Monitor)
  • This is the television-like screen where the
    results of a computer's tasks are displayed.
  • Monitors come in all sizes, but most commonly
    they are either 15 or 17 inches
  • (measured diagonally from one corner of the
    screen to the opposite corner).

21
Keyboard
  • The keyboard looks like a typewriter.
  • It contains all the letters of the alphabet,
    numbers and some special symbols.
  • It operates like a typewriter keypad, but instead
    of moving an arm, which strikes the paper, it
    sends an electronic impulse to the computer,
    which displays a character on the monitor.

22
Mouse
  • Its a device that is used to control the
    computer.
  • A cable connects the mouse to the computer.
  • When the mouse is moved on a pad, called a
  • mouse pad, the cursor on the screen moves.
  • A cursor is a small symbol displayed on the
  • computer screen (normally a diagonal arrow that
  • is used as a pointer) that shows you what the
  • mouse is referencing on the screen.

23
Printer
  • A printer is designed to output information from
    a computer onto a piece of paper.
  • There are three kinds of printers
  • dot matrix, laser, and inkjet.

24
Scanner
  • A scanner is a device used to copy an image off
    paper and convert it into a digital image, which
    can be saved as a computer file and stored on a
    hard drive.
  • Scanners can also use a special kind of
    technology called Optical Character Recognition
    (OCR) to read text from paper and save it as an
    editable document file

25
Session 2
  • Inside The CPU Cabinet

26
A Look Inside.
Floppy
CD
27
A Look Inside ..
power supply
CD-ROM drive
floppy drive
cards
hard drive
motherboard
28
A Look Inside
  • Identify all the major components
  • Power Supply
  • Motherboard
  • Memory
  • Card Slots
  • Cards (sound, video, network)
  • CPU, heatsink and fan
  • Drives (floppy, hard and CD-ROM)

29
A Look Inside.
RAM BANK
CPU, Fan, Heatsink
Card Slots (ISA PCI)
30
What these components do.
  • Power Supply (heart) supplies power to all the
    circuitry and devices.
  • Motherboard (body) acts as a manager for
    everything on the computer connects all the
    other components together.
  • CPU Central Processing Unit (brain) this does
    all the work of computing.

31
What these components do..
  • RAM Random Access Memory (short-term memory)
    holds data and program instructions that the
    computer is currently using.
  • Hard Drive (long-term memory) holds all of the
    information that needs to be stored between uses
    of the computer.
  • Floppy and CD-ROM drives (mouth/ears) allow you
    to give data to the computer and take data away
    from the computer.

32
What these components do
  • Card Slots (fingers) Allows other components to
    be added to the computer.
  • Video card (face) Does all of the processing
    necessary to get stuff looking nice on screen,
    quickly.
  • Sound card (vocal cords) Allows sounds from HD
    or CD-ROM to be played.
  • Network Card (telephone) allows computer to
    talk to other computers over a wire.

33
Power Supply
  • SMPS Switch Mode Power Supply
  • Switching Transistors
  • Outputs 5V, -5V, 12 V, -12 V
  • Typical Costs are
  • ATX Rs.700
  • Non ATX Rs.300
  • Usually, SMPS comes with the CPU Cabinet.

34
Motherboard
35
CPU
CU
  • A Single Chip

ALU
Memory Registers
Examples Intel Family Pentium 4, 3, 2,
Pentium,
XEON, Itanium AMD --
Athlon, K62 IBM --
Cyrix Motorola -- 68000
Series
36
RAM
37
Hard Drive
We wont remove this.
38
Floppy Drive
39
CD-ROM Drive
40
Ribbon Cables
polarized
41
Video Card
42
Sound Card
43
Back of Computer
Remove these screws
44
(No Transcript)
45
End of Session 2Queries???
46
CPU
  • The central processing unit or (CPU) is the
    "brain" of your computer. It contains the
    electronic circuits that cause the computer to
    follow instructions from memory.
  • The CPU contains three main parts, all housed
  • in a single package (Chip)
  • Control Unit (CU)
  • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
  • Memory

BACK
47
Session 3
Computer Peripherals
48
Major Peripherals
  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Hard Disk
  • Floppy Disk
  • CD ROM
  • Printer
  • Scanner
  • Joystick

49
Keyboard
  • Keypad contains
  • Alphabets
  • Numbers
  • Special Symbols
  • Function Keys
  • qwert Keyboard (Typewriter Keyboard).
  • On key press it sends a code (ASCII Code) to the
    CPU.
  • Plug N Play device.
  • Typical Cost is Rs.300 Rs.1200

50
Mouse
  • Pointing Click Device.
  • Two / Three Buttons
  • Wheel / Optical Mouse
  • Normally Left Click Select/ Run
  • Right Click Popup Menu
  • Typical Cost is Rs.100 Rs1000

51
Hard Disk
  • Magnetic Memory Device.
  • Non-removable storage device.
  • Several Circular Magnetic Disks are housed in a
    single case.
  • Data is stored as 1s 0s.
  • Typical Capacity is 20 GB -80 GB
  • Typical Cost is Rs.2200 Rs6000
  • Cost/Bit is Low.

52
Floppy Disk
  • Magnetic Memory Device.
  • Removable storage.
  • A single circular mylar plastic disk, coated with
    magnetic material is packed in a protective
    plastic casing.
  • Typical size is 3.5 Capacity is 1.44MB
  • Typical Costs are
  • Floppy Drive -- Rs.300
  • Floppy Disk -- Rs.10

53
CD ROM
  • Optical Device.
  • Removable Storage.
  • Read Only Memory.
  • Typical Capacity is 550 Mb 800MB
  • Typical Costs are
  • Drive -- Rs.1000
  • Disk Rs10 Rs.35
  • Related Terms
  • CD Writer
  • WORM
  • CD RW

54
Printer
  • Output Device, Produces Hard Copy
  • Types
  • Dot Matrix
  • Inkjet
  • Laser
  • Typical Cost Ranges from Rs.3500 Rs.2 lacs
  • Related Terms
  • Impact Non Impact
  • Ribbon, Cartridge, Toner, Duty Cycle
  • Major Vendors in India
  • HP, Cannon, Samsung, TVS, Epson etc.

55
Scanner
  • Input Device, Converts a hard copy into a
    computer file.
  • Used to Scan Signatures, Photographs etc.
  • Optical Device.
  • Typical Cost Rs.4000 Rs.75000
  • Major Vendors in India
  • HP, Umax, Cannon
  • Nowadays Scanners with OCR produces editable
    documents.

56
End of Session 3
  • Queries???

57
Session - 4Overview of Operating System
58
What is Operating System
  • OS is system software, which may be viewed as
    collection of software consisting of procedures
    for operating the computer.
  • It provides an environment for execution of
    programs (application software).
  • Its an interface between user computer.

59
Computer Machine (Hardware)
60
Types of OS
  • Multiprogramming OS
  • Multitasking/Multiprocessing
  • Multiuser OS
  • Time Sharing OS
  • Real Time OS
  • Distributed OS

61
A Second Classification
  • This Classification is based on the type of
    interface Operating System provides for the user
    to work in.
  • Character User Interface (CUI)
  • The User has to type the commands on the
    command prompt to get the work completed.
  • Ex. DOS, UNIX.
  • Graphical User Interface (GUI)
  • The User need not type any commands. He/She
    just point and clicks on the desired Icon to get
    the work done.
  • Ex. Windows (9X, XP, NT, 2000), Linux.

62
Functions of OS
  • File Management
  • Memory Management
  • Process Management
  • Device Management

63
Types of Processing
  • Serial Processing
  • The job is processed at the time when it
    is submitted.
  • Batch Processing
  • The similar jobs are bunched together and
    are kept for processing at an later time.

64
MS-DOS Overview
  • MS-DOS is an acronym for MicroSoft Disk Operating
    System
  • It is a CUI based operating system.
  • It provides user with a command prompt (generally
    called as C\) where various command could be
    typed.
  • When one operates in the DOS environment, one
    interacts with the command interpreter, which
    interprets the commands given by user.
  • It provides an environment for execution of
    various application programs like MS-Word,
    MODBANKER, ISBS etc.

65
What is Command
  • It is a string of characters which tells the
    computer what to do.
  • When one types commands to a computer, one is
    conversing with the operating system's command
    interpreter.
  • For example, to copy a file called file.txt from
    the 3-1/2" floppy drive to the hard drive, one
    could type
  • C\gt copy a\file.txt c\
  • The word "copy" is a DOS command which causes
    files to be copied from one location to another

66
Entering the DOS Environment
  • If the OS is DOS then the system will directly
    show prompt (C\gt)
  • If the OS is windows one must either terminate
    the Windows environment, or open a DOS shell
    within the Windows environment.
  • Ist Method Terminating Windows Environment
  • Select Restart in MS-DOS Mode from Shut Down
    in Start Menu.
  • IInd Method Opening DOS Shell in Windows
  • Select StartgtProgramsgtAccessoriesgtCommand
    Prompt (XP)
  • StartgtProgramsgtAccessoriesgtMS-DOS Prompt (98)

67
Files and Directory
  • Files
  • A file is a collection of Records.
  • It is the smallest unit of File System (Storage)
    in a computer.
  • Any document created using computer is a file.
    This document could either be a letter, any excel
    sheet, any image or even a database.
  • Directory
  • A collection of files is directory (in DOS) or
    folder (in Windows)
  • It is analogous to the Office Folder which
    contains various documents.
  • A directory/folder eases the management of
    related files/ documents, like the various
    circulars related to personnel could be placed in
    a directory called personnel and all the
    circulars related to loans could be placed in a
    directory called loans.

68
Filenames in DOS?
  • The filename in DOS have the following format.
  • ltnamegt.ltextgt
  • It has two parts the name and the extension.
  • The name could be of 8 characters and the
    extension of 3 characters.
  • The filename can contain alphabets and numbers.
    It cannot contain any special character other
    than underscore (_) and also no spaces.

69
Organization of files in DOS
  • The DOS file system is a hierarchical file
    system.
  • Files are collected into directories, and
    directories may contain both files and other
    directories.
  • There is always a directory which is not
    contained by any other, called the root which is
    represented by the backslash '\' character.

70
Organization of files in DOS (Contd.)
  • Concept of Path Every file can be specified by
    enumerating all of the directories between the
    root and it, separated by the backslash '\'
    character, and appending the file name to the
    end.
  • The drive which contains the root is specified at
    the head of the path, separated from the root by
    a colon ('')
  • The hard drive is most commonly known as the C
    drive, and the floppy drives are usually called
    A(3-1/2 inch) and B (5-1/4 inch).

71
Organization of files in DOS (Contd.)
circulars
loans
personnel
officer.txt
new.dat
january
february
retire.txt
abc.txt
rest.txt
Fig. Hierarchical Structure of Files
72
Some DOS Commands
  • dir Listing of all the directories.
  • C\gt dir
  • cls Clears the screen.
  • C\gt cls
  • copy con Creates a file.
  • C\gt copy con ltfilenamegt
  • lt Write your Contents Heregt
  • Press Ctrl-Z (Z) to finish writing.
  • Ex C\gt copy con test.dat
  • Lets Make UCO a top class Bank.
  • Ctrl-Z (Z)
  • 1 file(s) copied. (A Message will be shown on
    the system)
  • This will create a file named test.dat having
    some data.

73
Some DOS Commands (Contd.)
  • edit Edits a file.
  • C\gt edit ltfilenamegt
  • This will open a editor window where the
    contents of file can be seen. These contents
    could also be edited here and on saving, the
    contents of file will change.
  • type Displays the content of a file.
  • C\gt type ltfilenamegt
  • This will display the contents of file on the
    computer. The contents of file could only be
    viewed but could not be changed, as in the case
    of edit.

74
Some DOS Commands (Contd.)
  • md Make Directory.
  • C\gt md (directory namegt
  • This will create a directory with the specified
    name.
  • cd Change Directory.
  • C\gt cd (directory namegt
  • This will change the directory from current
    directory to the specified directory.
  • rd Remove Directory.
  • C\gt rd (directory namegt
  • If the directory is needed to be removed
    permanently from the computer, use this command.
    For this command to be executed it is necessary
    that the directory should be empty and user
    should be on a directory above it.

75
Some DOS Commands (Contd.)
  • copy Copies a file.
  • C\gt copy ltsourcegt ltdestinationgt
  • This will copy the file from the source location
    to the specified destination. The command creates
    a copy of the file on the destination i.e. the
    file would be found on both the location.
  • move Moves a file.
  • C\gt move ltsourcegt ltdestinationgt
  • This will move the file from the source location
    to the specified destination. The file from the
    source location would be removed and would be
    moved to the destination.

76
Some DOS Commands (Contd.)
  • ren Renames a file.
  • C\gt ren ltold filenamegt ltnew filenamegt
  • This will change the name (rename) of the file
    to a new name as specified.
  • del Deletes a file.
  • C\gt del ltfilenamegt
  • This will delete the file permanently from the
    system.

77
Overview of Windows
  • Windows is an GUI based operating system.
  • It is also developed by Microsoft Corporation,
    which is headed by Mr. Bill Gates.
  • Over the years the Microsoft have evolved various
    versions of Windows. Win95, Win98, Win2000, Win
    ME, Win NT, Win XP.
  • It gives user a handy environment where he
    doesnt have to remember and learn the syntaxes
    of various commands as is the case in DOS.
  • The user can just point and click on the Icons
    provided to him on the screen.

78
Folders and Documents
  • Folders are a way to organize your documents
    within drives in Windows as are the directories
    in DOS.
  • A document is each thing that you create on a
    computer. A document can be made using any type
    of software.

79
End of Session 4
  • Queries???

80
QUIZ
  • 1. Name any four devices of a Computer.
  • Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner, Light Pen.
  • 2. What is the job of CPU?
  • Central Processing Unit controls and coordinates
    all the activities of the computer.

81
QUIZ
  • 3. What is the unit of measuring the speed of the
    processor?
  • Mega Hertz or Kilo Hertz ( No. of CPU
    Cycles/second)
  • 4. What is a computer network?
  • It is interconnection of computers to make a
    LAN,MAN or WAN.

82
QUIZ
  • 5. Name any three storage devices.
  • Hard Disk, Magnetic Tape, Compact Disk.
  • 6. What is command to create directory?
  • C\gtMD ltltdir-namegtgt

83
QUIZ
  • 7. What is Internet?
  • It is the network of networks.
  • 8. What are different types of printers?
  • Dot Matrix Printer, Inkjet
  • Laser

84
QUIZ
  • 9.What is the use of Scanner?
  • It is used to copy the real image on paper to
    be stored as digital image in the computer.
  • 10. Why Operating system is required?
  • It is required to provide the interface
    between the user and the computer.

85
QUIZ
  • 11. What is the difference between Primary
    Storage and Secondary Storage?
  • Primary Storage is temporary storage, fast
    and costly.
  • Secondary storage is permanent, slow and
  • cheap.

86
QUIZ
  • 12. What is MODEM. Why it is required?
  • It is Modulator Demodulator. It is used to
    connect the PC to the Internet using Analog
    Telephone Lines.
  • 13. What is the maximum length of file name in
    DOS?
  • First Name- 8 characters, Last Name- 3
    characters.

87
QUIZ
  • 14. What is the command in DOS to see the
    contents of the file?
  • C\gt TypeltltFile Namegtgt
  • 15. What are the two types of Software?
  • Systems Software
  • Application Software
About PowerShow.com