Supervising International Research Students - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Supervising International Research Students PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7cd169-OWQxM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Supervising International Research Students

Description:

The position today Approx 500,000 international students (non-EU) out of a total of about 2.3 million Main markets: China (rate of growth has slowed); India (falling ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:28
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 90
Provided by: Krus52
Learn more at: http://www.euchinadoc.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Supervising International Research Students


1
(No Transcript)
2
Supervising International Research Students
  • Professor John Taylor
  • John.Taylor_at_liverpool.ac.uk

3
Context
  • Rapid expansion in doctoral student numbers
  • Increasing diversity by subject area, by
    institution, by form of delivery
  • Increasing competition
  • Focus on quality
  • Changing student expectations
  • Emphasis on impact

4
Some theory
  • Gatfield (2005) two key criteria
  • Level of support provided close involvement or
    more distant
  • Structure weak controls or highly regulated
  • Institutions are becoming more regulated in their
    approach

5
Some theory Gatfield (2005)
High Support Pastoral Style Low structure and high support Candidate has personal low management skill but takes advantage of all the support facilities that are on offer Supervisor provides considerable personal care and support but not necessarily in a task-driven, directive capacity Contractual Style High structure and high support Candidate highly motivated and able to take direction and to act on own initiative Supervisor able to administer direction and exercises good management skills and interpersonal relationships
Low Support Laissez-faire Style Low structure low support Candidate has limited levels of motivation and management skills Supervisor in non-directive and not committed to high levels of personal interaction Supervisor may appear uncaring and uninvolved Directorial Style High structure and low support Candidate highly motivated and sees the necessity to take advantage of engaging in high structural activities such as setting objectives, completing and submitting work on time on own initiative without taking advantage of institutional support Supervisor has a close and regular interactive relationship with the candidate, but avoids non-task issues
  Low Structure High Structure
6
Some more theory
  • In 2007, Lee, Dennis and Campbell found that the
    following characteristics were most valued by
    students (in order of importance)
  • Mentor for life career development and long-term
    interest
  • Enthusiasm (for the subject), for the students
    project and the student
  • Sensitivity to personal and professional needs
    and circumstances
  • Appreciating individual differences
  • Respect
  • Unselfishness lack of intellectual jealousy
  • Supports others outside their own sphere of
    responsibility
  • Teaching and communication skills

7
What does the QAA say?
  • The QAA provides the UK Quality Code for Higher
    Education (2012) which aims to provide a
    definitive reference point for UK higher
    education providers. This code sets out a range
    of expectations as far as supervision is
    concerned that apply across doctoral programmes
    of all kinds
  • The research student supervisor relationship
    is of paramount importance in all research
    degrees. Higher education providers therefore
    establish systematic and clear supervision
    arrangements. These include providing research
    students with
  • Opportunities for access to regular and
    appropriate supervisory support
  • Encouragement to interact with other researchers
  • Advice from one or more independent sources,
    internal or external
  • Arrangements that protect the research student in
    the event of the loss of a supervisor
  • (p17)

8
The QAA view
  • The responsibilities of supervisors may be set
    out in guidance issued by the institution or by
    any sponsor(s). They may include
  • Introducing the research student to the
    department (or equivalent), its facilities and
    procedures, and to other research students and
    relevant staff
  • Providing satisfactory and accurate guidance and
    advice
  • Monitoring the progress of the research students
    research programme
  • Establishing and maintaining regular contact with
    the research student (guided by the higher
    education providers stated regulations and
    guidance)
  • Being accessible to the research student to give
    advice (by whatever means is most suitable given
    the research students location and mode of
    study)
  • Contributing to the assessment of the research
    students development needs
  • Providing timely, constructive and effective
    feedback on the research students work and
    overall progress with the programme

9
The QAA view
  • Ensuring that the research student is aware of
    the need to exercise probity and conduct his or
    her research according to ethical principles,
    including intellectual property rights, and of
    the implications of research misconduct
  • Ensuring that the research student is aware of
    sources of advice, including careers guidance
  • Helping research students understand health and
    safety responsibilities
  • Providing effective pastoral support and/or
    referring the research student to other sources
    of such support, including student advisers,
    graduate school staff and others within the
    research students academic community
  • Helping the research student to interact with
    others working in the field of research, for
    example encouraging the research student to
    attend relevant conferences and supporting
    him/her in seeking funding for such events
  • Where appropriate giving encouragement and
    guidance to the research student on the
    submission of conference papers and articles to
    refereed journals
  • Maintaining the necessary supervisory expertise,
    including the appropriate skills, to perform all
    of the role satisfactorily, supported by relevant
    continuing professional development opportunities

10
What does Glasgow expect?
  • . Considerations for selecting supervisors may
    include
  • 5.2.1. Primary supervisors are normally
    required to have an equivalent or higher level of
    qualification than the qualification being
    undertaken by the supervised student. Supervision
    by individuals without the required level of
    qualification is subject to ratification by the
    Graduate School Board.5.2.2. Supervisors will
    normally be a member of the academic staff of the
    University or Affiliates of the University.
    5.2.3. Other individuals, such as honorary or
    Affiliate members of staff, may act as
    supervisors subject to ratification by the
    Graduate School Board. These individuals are only
    permitted to supervise higher degree students in
    the capacity of a secondary supervisor.
    Exceptions may be considered by the Graduate
    School Board on a case by case basis. They must
    have the requisite qualifications and the
    ratification of the Graduate School Board.

11
Glasgow guidelines
  • 5.2.3. Other individuals, such as honorary
    or Affiliate members of staff, may act as
    supervisors subject to ratification by the
    Graduate School Board. These individuals are only
    permitted to supervise higher degree students in
    the capacity of a secondary supervisor.
    Exceptions may be considered by the Graduate
    School Board on a case by case basis. They must
    have the requisite qualifications and the
    ratification of the Graduate School Board.
    5.2.4. Where the nominated primary supervisor is
    a probationary lecturer or a member of staff
    supervising a student for the first time, the
    secondary supervisor shall normally be an
    experienced member of the academic staff of the
    University and will have joint responsibilities5.
    2.5. At least one member of the supervisory team
    will be currently engaged in research in the
    relevant discipline(s). 5.2.6. Supervisory and
    other workloads Workloads are set and agreed at
    either School, Graduate School or College level
    as appropriate, with consideration given to the
    maximum number of students it is appropriate for
    staff to supervise in particular disciplines.

12
Glasgow guidelines
  • Responsibilities of the supervisory team
  • 5.6. The roles and responsibilities of the
    members of the supervisory team may vary across
    the Graduate Schools however each Graduate
    School will ensure that supervisory teams assume
    the following responsibilities and that these are
    made clear to the student and to the members of
    the supervisory team
  • 5.6.1. acquiring and maintaining the
    necessary supervisory expertise, including
    periodic attendance at supervisor development
    sessions as required5.6.2. giving guidance
    about the nature of research and the standard
    expected, the planning of the research programme,
    appropriate literature and sources, attendance at
    taught classes and seminar programmes, requisite
    techniques (including arranging for instruction
    where necessary) and the ethos of research

13
Glasgow guidelines
  • 5.6.3. being available to the student if
    they need advice 5.6.4. requesting written work
    as appropriate, and returning such work with
    constructive criticism and in reasonable time
    5.6.5. giving advice on the necessary completion
    dates of successive stages of the work so that
    the whole may be submitted within the scheduled
    time 5.6.6. ensuring that the student is made
    aware of any inadequacy of progress or of
    standards of work below that generally expected
    as soon as the issue arises5.6.7. ensuring a
    written record of all meetings where concerns
    with the nature of supervision, or the students
    progress or behaviour are discussed is kept and
    ensuring that both the student and supervisor
    agree this record

14
Glasgow guidelines
  • 5.6.8. participating in the annual progress
    review process 5.6.9. helping the student to
    interact with others working in the field of
    research, for example, encouraging the student to
    attend relevant conferences, supporting him/her
    in seeking funding for such events and, where
    appropriate, to submit conference papers and
    articles to refereed journals 5.6.10. ensuring
    that the student undertakes appropriate
    subject-specific and generic training, by making
    training opportunities known to the student, and
    by giving advice on how to devise a Personal
    Development Plan (Note this advice may be given
    by the Graduate School rather than the
    supervisory team students should check local
    arrangements with their Graduate School)
    5.6.11. supporting the student in his/her
    training, including incorporating time for
    research and generic training and the
    reconciliation of new skills and knowledge into
    the students research study plan 5.6.12. in
    the case of students whose first language is not
    English, advising on the availability of advanced
    language training, and supporting the student in
    his/her language training

15
Glasgow guidelines
  • 5.6.13. ensuring that the student is aware
    of the Universitys regulations and policies on
    research degrees research misconduct including
    plagiarism complaints appeals discipline
    relevant College ethics policies health and
    safety regulations the Universitys research
    policies IP and Commercialisation policy
    research student handbook sources of funding and
    other relevant information for a research degree
    programme 5.6.14. arranging appropriate
    opportunities for the student to practise
    communication skills, for example seminar
    presentations 5.6.15. ensuring that the student
    is aware of institutional-level sources of
    advice, including careers guidance, health and
    safety legislation and equal opportunities
    policy

16
Glasgow guidelines
  • 5.6.16. providing pastoral support and/or
    referring the student to other sources of such
    support, including student advisers (or
    equivalent), Graduate School staff and others
    within the student's academic community 5.6.17.
    ensuring undocumented absences are reported in
    accordance with the Universitys Attendance
    Monitoring Policy and/or to the Graduate Schools
    in order to comply with any attendance monitoring
    for students on Tier 4 visas (as required
    locally).

17
Working with international students
  • Is there anything special about supervising
    international students?
  • Do the guidelines apply equally to all students?
  • Do international students have any special needs?
  • Do international students have any particular
    expectations?
  • Do the expectations vary depending on previous
    experience (eg a first degree in a UK university)?

18
Case Study 1
  • Safah began her PhD about nine months ago. You
    are the primary/first supervisor the second
    supervisor is currently away on study leave.
  • She arrived with a first degree from a university
    in Pakistan. Privately, you had some doubts
    about supervising her. Not really your subject
    area. Not sure she had the right background.
    Not sure about her English ability. But your Head
    of Department thought it would be good for you
    and for the Department.
  • After nine months her progress has been slow.
    She comes to see you, very upset. She tells you
    about a range of family issues her young son is
    unwell, they have been given notice to leave
    their flat, her mother-in-law does not approve of
    her studying. She wants your help.
  • What do you do?

19
Case Study 2
  • Li Peng is in his fourth year. It has not been
    an easy time. You like him personally, but you
    have had to work very hard to help him, in the
    project design, in facilitating much of the data
    collection and in the analysis. Your
    co-supervisor says that you have done too much
    for him. You think that the end is in sight!
  • He brings you the first three draft chapters of
    his thesis. Many of the ideas are good (and
    reflect your input), but the presentation is weak
    and the English is awful. He is running out of
    time you are running out of patience.
  • What do you do?

20
Case Study 3
  • Joanna is an international student from Germany.
    She has previously studied at Harvard, her
    husband is a very distinguished scholar and she
    works as the head of an organisation representing
    universities in Germany. You have no doubts
    about her ability. However, she sees no need for
    any skills development. She resists showing you
    any work (I know what I am talking about). You
    talk to your Head of Department, but he says not
    to worry (he knows Joannas husband).
  • She shows you the draft thesis. You are very
    concerned and set out all sorts of problems to be
    addressed, but she insists on submitting. A few
    days before the examination is due, the external
    examiner rings you up and says that she is going
    to fail.
  • What do you do?

21
Some particular issues for international research
students
  • What is the role of the supervisor in tackling
    the following issues?
  • Loneliness/isolation distance from home
  • Language difficulties
  • Different styles of learning
  • Plagiarism/academic integrity
  • Student finances
  • Visa problems
  • Family difficulties

22
A crucial question
  • Where do we draw a line between the role of the
    supervisor and the work of student services?
  • Does this differ for international students?

23
Criticality a key problem
  • The Western approach to education is one which
    requires an individual to be critical to
    question texts and ideas, to challenge other
    people, to construct arguments, to have an
    opinion. For international students from a
    non-Western background critique may be an
    unfamiliar concept, something for which they are
    not well-equipped and, consequently, something
    which can be difficult for them to adjust to.
  • Critique may contradict the values emphasised in
    their previous education experience. To disobey
    or contradict what a teacher or supervisor
    recommends could be considered impolite and to
    subject the work of well-known and established
    academics to critical scrutiny could be
    considered disrespectful.
  • Critique may violate codes of language and social
    conduct. In some cultures saving face and
    maintaining political and racial harmony is
    extremely important and hence any criticism of
    ideas has to be offered in a roundabout, indirect
    way rather than the more direct, up front
    approach advocated in Western education.

24
Criticality
  • Critique may be a politically or academically
    dangerous thing to undertake. Some international
    students come from a home culture or situation
    where taking a critical stance, even when abroad,
    is risky and might impact upon their academic
    reputation or have political repercussions.
  • Critique may not take place in their first
    language. International students may readily be
    able to critique in their first language but
    doing so in English may be the problem. When
    writing or discussing in English they may lack
    sufficient ability to express themselves or to
    structure their words with an order that is
    appropriate to the English language and,
    therefore, conveys the meaning they want to get
    across and enables listeners and readers to
    understand what they are saying.
  • Supervisors and tutors may have well-defined
    views of what constitutes good writing e.g.
    critical analysis, evaluation, synthesis, but are
    unable to explain exactly what is meant by these
    terms.
  • (Oxford Learning Institute)

25
Peer support
  • Research shows the importance of peer support.
  • Co-national peers, that is those from their own
    country, are particularly important for emotional
    support. Being able to talk with someone who has
    a shared culture and language is critical when
    one is going through a stressful emotional
    period.
  • Multi-national peers can provide important social
    opportunities, as there is a shared 'sojourner'
    experience which can often help with coming to
    terms with one's new environment. Doctoral
    students often report that it is easier to speak
    and understand English with other international
    students than with domestic students.
  • Host-national peers are important in assisting
    international students to understand how to
    negotiate their new academic environment and, in
    particular, ways of relating with supervisors and
    other staff involved in working with them on
    their research. It is through relationships with
    domestic peers that international students can
    learn the 'tricks of the academic trade.'

26
What do international students want? Some
evidence from Oxford
Satisfied or very satisfied with... Overseas   EU   Home
...subject expertise of supervisors 97 97 97
...level of research activity 94 94 96
...teaching ability of supervisors 92 91 94
...helpful feedback on my progress from my supervisor 88 86 87
...guidance from supervisor on topic selection and refinement 88 84 85
...confidence about managing a research project 87 86 87
...prompt feedback on my work 85 82 86
27
Oxford continued
...understanding the required standard for my thesis 83 78 81
...learning that will get me a good job 76 72 80
...advice and guidance on long-term job opportunties from academic staff 67 63 69
...opportunities to teach 61 64 70
...OVERALL SATISFACTION with learning experience so far 88 90 90
...OVERALL SATISFACTION with all aspects of university experience 89 92 91
28
Some final thoughts
  • Importance of soft skills showing an
    interest
  • If a student has some problems, dont just pass
    them on to somebody else
  • The Universitys guidelines are a minimum
    expectation

29
(No Transcript)
30
(No Transcript)
31
(No Transcript)
32
(No Transcript)
33
(No Transcript)
34
(No Transcript)
35
(No Transcript)
36
Background
  • Increase in doctoral study more complexity more
    diversity
  • Growth in professional doctorates
  • Increasing levels of quality regulation
  • Changing student expectations

37
Research project
  • Underlying question are there differences in
    the form of supervision required between a PhD
    and a professional doctorate?
  • Some personal experiences PhD/EdD/DBA
  • 5 professional doctorates, 5 different
    universities
  • Interviews (5-7 in each case, students, programme
    directors, supervisors)

38
Some theory Gatfield (2005)
High Support Pastoral Style Low structure and high support Candidate has personal low management skill but takes advantage of all the support facilities that are on offer Supervisor provides considerable personal care and support but not necessarily in a task-driven, directive capacity Contractual Style High structure and high support Candidate highly motivated and able to take direction and to act on own initiative Supervisor able to administer direction and exercises good management skills and interpersonal relationships
Low Support Laissez-faire Style Low structure low support Candidate has limited levels of motivation and management skills Supervisor in non-directive and not committed to high levels of personal interaction Supervisor may appear uncaring and uninvolved Directorial Style High structure and low support Candidate highly motivated and sees the necessity to take advantage of engaging in high structural activities such as setting objectives, completing and submitting work on time on own initiative without taking advantage of institutional support Supervisor has a close and regular interactive relationship with the candidate, but avoids non-task issues
  Low Structure High Structure
39
Some more theory
  • In 2007, Lee, Dennis and Campbell found that the
    following characteristics were most valued by
    students (in order of importance)
  • Mentor for life career development and long-term
    interest
  • Enthusiasm (for the subject), for the students
    project and the student
  • Sensitivity to personal and professional needs
    and circumstances
  • Appreciating individual differences
  • Respect
  • Unselfishness lack of intellectual jealousy
  • Supports others outside their own sphere of
    responsibility
  • Teaching and communication skills

40
The approach of the QAA
  • In 2011, the Quality Assurance Agency in the UK
    issued its guidance on Doctoral degree
    characteristics (QAA, 2011). Here the emphasis
    is on consistency across the range of doctoral
    programmes. The QAA sets out a series of doctoral
    qualification descriptors, as follows
  • The creation and interpretation of new
    knowledge, through original research or other
    advanced scholarship, of a quality to satisfy
    peer review, extend the forefront of the
    discipline and merit publication
  • A systematic acquisition and understanding of a
    substantial body of knowledge which is at the
    forefront of an academic discipline or area of
    professional practice
  • The general ability to conceptualise, design and
    implement a project for the generation of new
    knowledge, applications or understanding at the
    forefront of the discipline, and to adjust the
    project design in the light of unforeseen
    problems
  • A detailed understanding of applicable techniques
    for research and advanced academic enquiry

41
Some background on English higher education
  • 128 universities public universities
  • 2 private universities, but likely to increase
  • Title of university is granted by the Privy
    Council on the recommendation of the Quality
    Assurance Agency. Previously included research
    base previously had to have a minimum of 4000
    students. Now 1000 students.
  • Strong traditions of autonomy
  • Very diverse system
  • Universities operate in a very independent way
    employ staff, own property, can borrow money

42
The QAA (continued)
  • The QAA also provides the UK Quality Code for
    Higher Education (2012) which aims to provide a
    definitive reference point for UK higher
    education providers. This code sets out a range
    of expectations as far as supervision is
    concerned that apply across doctoral programmes
    of all kinds
  • The research student supervisor relationship
    is of paramount importance in all research
    degrees. Higher education providers therefore
    establish systematic and clear supervision
    arrangements. These include providing research
    students with
  • Opportunities for access to regular and
    appropriate supervisory support
  • Encouragement to interact with other researchers
  • Advice from one or more independent sources,
    internal or external
  • Arrangements that protect the research student in
    the event of the loss of a supervisor
  • (p17)

43
The view of the QAA
  • The responsibilities of supervisors may be set
    out in guidance issued by the institution or by
    any sponsor(s). They may include
  • Introducing the research student to the
    department (or equivalent), its facilities and
    procedures, and to other research students and
    relevant staff
  • Providing satisfactory and accurate guidance and
    advice
  • Monitoring the progress of the research students
    research programme
  • Establishing and maintaining regular contact with
    the research student (guided by the higher
    education providers stated regulations and
    guidance)
  • Being accessible to the research student to give
    advice (by whatever means is most suitable given
    the research students location and mode of
    study)
  • Contributing to the assessment of the research
    students development needs
  • Providing timely, constructive and effective
    feedback on the research students work and
    overall progress with the programme

44
  • Ensuring that the research student is aware of
    the need to exercise probity and conduct his or
    her research according to ethical principles,
    including intellectual property rights, and of
    the implications of research misconduct
  • Ensuring that the research student is aware of
    sources of advice, including careers guidance
  • Helping research students understand health and
    safety responsibilities
  • Providing effective pastoral support and/or
    referring the research student to other sources
    of such support, including student advisers,
    graduate school staff and others within the
    research students academic community
  • Helping the research student to interact with
    others working in the field of research, for
    example encouraging the research student to
    attend relevant conferences and supporting
    him/her in seeking funding for such events
  • Where appropriate giving encouragement and
    guidance to the research student on the
    submission of conference papers and articles to
    refereed journals
  • Maintaining the necessary supervisory expertise,
    including the appropriate skills, to perform all
    of the role satisfactorily, supported by relevant
    continuing professional development opportunities

45
Funding
  • Traditionally a block grant for teaching and
    research.
  • 1986 teaching and research separately
    identified
  • But, major changes in recent years
  • 2012 shift in funding of teaching to fees
  • Research funding increasingly selective between
    institutions Research Assessment Exercise/
    Research Excellence Framework
  • Other sources of funding research, philanthropy
  • Strategic importance of funding

46
An alternative view
  • Harden, Carr and Lhussier (2014) write that
  • In the context of a professional doctorate, the
    research undertaken often takes the shape of
    practice development project. In this, the
    dialogical relationship between a particular
    practice development project and the cultural,
    social, educational and political aspects of the
    environment needs to be made explicit. We
    therefore suggest the supervisory craft required
    to support a professional doctorate candidate may
    be very different to that required for a PhD
    candidate. Professional doctorate students, like
    PhD students, are required to make an explicit
    contribution to knowledge. Their emphasis,
    however, needs to be in processing knowledge that
    is theoretically sound and original and of
    relevance to their practice area (p1)

47
Government
  • Responsibility for higher education rests with
    the Department for Business, Innovation and
    Skills not with the Department for Education
    (BIS)
  • Higher education has a very high political
    profile, especially around the issue of fees
  • Government used to set overall student numbers,
    implemented through the Higher Education Funding
    Council for England (HEFCE), but now the caps on
    recruitment have been lifted
  • Government sets overall shape of higher
    education, but does not plan or control in detail
    universities have a high level of freedom
    within which to act and determine their own
    priorities

48
What is a system?
  • Definitions of a system
  • A set of things working together as parts of a
    mechanism or an interconnecting network a
    complex whole
  • Or
  • A set of principles or procedures according to
    which something is done an organised scheme or
    method
  • Is English higher education a system?
  • Possibly, but only in the loosest sense
  • Is English higher education part of a wider
    education system?
  • Again, possibly, but in an even more loose sense

49
Some views (1)
  • I supervise both PhD and DBA students. I treat
    them in the same way and expect the same from
    both. We often meet as a group and you cant
    tell them apart. It is all about enthusiasm
    showing you are interested in their research,
    helping whenever possible and being there
    whenever they need you. I tell all my DBA
    students to aim to produce papers for top
    conferences and journals, not just the PhDs.
    Ok, their research might be more applied, but I
    supervise all my research students in the same
    way.
  • UK University, DBA supervisor B2

50
Some views (2)
  • For me, a professional doctorate must be based
    in the profession, in the workplace that is what
    it is all about. I am not interested in papers
    for publication in academic journals that nobody
    reads I want students to do research that is
    important for business, for their employer. I
    like them to have two supervisors, one from the
    University, one from the company both equal.
    That way the research is relevant to the
    business.
  • UK University, DBA Programme Director, A1

51
Some views (3)
  • I have a fantastic supervisor. He is a world
    expert in the field and has written lots of books
    and papers. I have worked in business for many
    years I didnt want a supervisor with a
    business background, I wanted a researcher who
    could excite me and inspire me. Thats what I
    wanted most. He has shared his academic expertise
    and has been incredibly supportive.
  • UK University, DBA candidate B5
  • We all talk about our supervisors. They vary a
    lot. Some dont seem to care and you hardly see
    them. Others help you a lot.
  • UK University, DBA candidate, B6

52
Supervising Professional Doctorates
  • Key factors
  • Strength of professional identity
  • Institutional culture

53
Some conclusions
  • The underlying question (PhD or professional
    doctorate) is too simplistic
  • There is no single model of a professional
    doctorate and there is no single approach to
    supervision.
  • Importance of the soft skills span all forms of
    doctorate

54
Some lessons
  • Ability and willingness to work with students who
    are often highly experienced in their field, with
    extensive practical experience and who often
    possess significant self-confidence and a
    willingness to challenge academic conventions
    supervising such students can be highly rewarding
    and stimulating, but , for some staff, it can
    also be threatening.
  • Capacity to work with external sponsors and to
    develop projects that may be based in
    professional practice, but also meet the
    expectations of the academic institution in terms
    of rigour, originality and ethics.
  • Ability to look beyond conventional research
    outputs and forms of impact.
  • Willingness to work as part of a team of
    supervisors that may include professional
    colleagues from outside the academic institution
    who may have very different understandings of the
    nature of the professional doctorate.

55
Thank You
56
(No Transcript)
57
Government steering
  • Government exerts influence over higher education
    by steering rather than by control (except in
    certain areas such as medicine, teacher training)
  • Some levers of Government
  • Funding
  • Competition
  • Performance indicators (naming and shaming)
  • Some examples
  • Research funding for high quality activities
  • Widening participation
  • Working with business and industry

58
Increasing competition and marketisation
  • Common trend across the world
  • English universities are in competition with each
    other and with universities in other countries.
  • Stimulated by the move to fees and by league
    tables and rankings
  • Fees
  • Part of a philosophical debate is higher
    education a public good or a private good? Clear
    shift towards the latter
  • Also, very pragmatic approach how to increase
    numbers of graduates without raising taxes
  • The result is that higher education today is
    demand driven, not supply driven

59
Some consequences
  • Strong focus on the student experience from
    initial contact to alumni
  • Awareness of cost
  • Awareness of the market no more small MA
    programmes! competitor analysis focus on
    strengths finding a niche
  • Importance of brand
  • The search for efficiency the lean
    university new managerialism
  • Focus on quality, and the demonstration of
    quality
  • Issues of market failure

60
New roles and responsibilities
  • Growing recognition of
  • The student experience students as customers
  • Employability
  • Role of universities in regions knowledge
    production and innovation
  • Quality
  • Impact
  • Autonomy with accountability
  • Performance indicators/ measurement of outputs
  • Information for prospective students

61
Universities and their partners
  • Universities cannot work in isolation.
  • Examples of key partnerships of English
    universities
  • Business and industry research, support and
    consultancy, teaching, student experience,
    curriculum
  • Hospitals teaching and research
  • Schools teacher training, qualifications
  • Other universities and colleges teaching,
    research, operations

62
Initial teacher education
  • Two main pathways
  • Postgraduate Certificate (one year, following
    first degree)
  • Degrees in Education (four years)
  • Award of Qualified Teacher Status (QTS)
    programmes accredited by Office of Standards in
    Education and Training (OFSTED)
  • Key issue Government wants more practical
    training (less theory) leading to transfer of
    resources from universities to schools some
    universities are withdrawing from initial teacher
    education

63
Managing change
  • Some key lessons
  • Establish a clear rationale not change for the
    sake of change
  • Leadership at all levels
  • Incentives for universities, for staff
    carrots, not sticks
  • Transitionary arrangements
  • Staff development

64
Some reflections on system change
  • Change needs to be supported by evidence what
    is not working and why how can activities be
    done better what are the advantages?
  • Change needs incentives to encourage different
    parties to work together (normally resources)
    you cant force people to work together.
  • Steering or legislating
  • Dont forget that a system is made up of
    components change needs to be considered as
    bottom up not just top down
  • Encourage and celebrate diversity (possibly with
    some minimum expectations) work with autonomy
    dont fight it (but autonomy also requires
    accountability, financial and quality)

65
Thank you
  • John.Taylor_at_liverpool.ac.uk

66
The position today
  • Approx 500,000 international students (non-EU)
    out of a total of about 2.3 million
  • Main markets China (rate of growth has slowed)
    India (falling) South East Asia (stable), Middle
    East (growing)
  • All levels (pre-degree, UG, PGT, PGR)
  • Mainly in vocational subjects (business/management
    , computing, engineering) medicine restricted in
    UK

67
University strategies
  • Clear overall plans
  • Recruitment targets by department/course
  • Infrastructure market research, international
    offices, overseas offices in key markets
  • The student experience from initial contact,
    residential accommodation, customer focus
  • The learning experience multicultural learning,
    different styles of learning

68
Some specific ideas
  • Developing courses for international demand
  • Financial incentives for recruitment
    university, department, individual
  • Importance of marketing, being out on the road,
    but not just recruitment fairs
  • Importance of good information
  • Competitor analysis
  • Use of agents
  • Speed and flexibility reacting to new
    opportunities, making offers
  • The student experience is critical word of
    mouth is the best marketing
  • Alumni links
  • Role of senior management/leaders

69
Marketing
  • Director of Marketing
  • Approx 25 staff to cover home and international
    activities
  • Highly centralised
  • Website
  • Advertising limited, but can still be important
  • Paper reduced, but can still be important
  • Recruitment fairs limited value
  • Online applications
  • Target one week turnround/ devolved
  • Measuring the student experience from start to
    finish and beyond

70
Some issues
  • It is not all about money!!! International
    students add hugely to campus life
  • Importance of diversity in recruitment
  • Try to avoid over-dependence on certain markets
  • UG, PGT, PGR?

71
Introduction
  • Much has been written about internationalisation,
    but mainly at a macro level (Knight, de Wit,
    Van der Velde).
  • Much less has been written about
    internationalisation at the level of the
    institution or the individual member of staff.
  • This presentation looks at motivation and values
    at institutional and individual levels.
  • Six areas of activity
  • Recruitment of international students
  • Recruitment of international staff
  • Transnational delivery of higher education
  • Student and staff mobility
  • International research collaborations and
    networks
  • Internationalisation at home, including
    internationalisation of the curriculum

72
Research Projects
  • This paper is based on three related research
    projects
  • Strategies for Internationalisation in UK
    Universities
  • Perceptions and Management of Internationalisation
    in UK and US universities
  • Motivations and practices of six UK universities
    in the delivery of transnational higher education
    in China

73
Defining Internationalisation
  • Jane Knight
  • The process of integrating an international,
    intercultural and global dimension into all the
    purposes, functions and delivery of
    post-secondary education (Knight, 2003)
  • Process idea of an evolving, changing activity
  • International implies the involvement of
    different nations and cultures
  • Intercultural implies an impact on the home
    environment
  • Integrating suggests a deep-rooted, broadly
    based activity
  • Purposes and functions an all-embracing
    approach

74
Views of Internationalisation
  • Some traditional views of internationalisation
  • The wandering scholar
  • International movements of students not
    extensive, but nothing new
  • International movements of staff
  • International movements of ideas of higher
    education (UK and Empire Germany in Europe and
    beyond)
  • Collaborative research
  • Erasmus programme started in 1987. Now evolved
    into Erasmus
  • Over 4000 institutions over 6 million
    students have benefited .
  •  

75
Changing motivations
  • . Middlehurst and Woodfield present a series of
    six influences to be considered
  • social and cultural advantages,
  • political factors,
  • economic gains,
  • academic factors (especially quality issues),
  • competitive forces
  • issues of institutional development

76
Example (1)
  • University A, a relatively small,
    research-intensive university emphasises a
    strategic imperative of becoming a top 100
    University worldwide by 2017. To that end, it
    incorporates the following aims within its
    International Strategy
  • To internationalise the educational, cultural
    and social experience of all students, faculty
    and staff irrespective of location such that the
    Universitys contributions to learning, teaching,
    research and enterprise gain real and concrete
    expression in professional and academic
    experience, relevance and international impact.
  • To give the University substantive international
    reach through strategic partnerships with quality
    institutions and public and private research
    funding bodies and other organisations.
  • To promote international influence, reputation
    and visibility through a network of influencers
    in international, national and transnational
    government and non-government organisations.

77
Example (2)
  • University B, a large Russell Group institution,
    has similar aspirations
  • The Universitys strategic aim is to be amongst
    the worlds leading research intensive
    universities. World class universities are
    inherently international in their focus, reach
    and impact. In order to attain this goal, we
    need to
  • a) Achieve an influential world-leading research
    profile create a research culture that attracts
    world class graduate students and distinctively
    translates this into learning opportunities for
    undergraduate students.
  • b) Inspire our students to develop their full
    potential through the delivery of a distinctive
    and inspiring .experience.
  • c) Increase the impact of our activities on a
    local to global scale.

78
Example (3)
  • By contrast, University C is not a strongly
    research-based institution. However, it still
    wishes to operate on the international stage
  • .the University must move beyond a simple
    approach to internationalisation which involves
    basic international recruitment and delivery
    overseas coupled with attempts to
    internationalise the curriculum. A more holistic
    approach is required if the transformation of the
    institution into a truly international University
    is to be achieved.
  • University C also stresses the importance of
    embedding a long-term perspective within
    internationalisation and the need for careful
    commitment of resources
  • In global approaches to education, increasing
    emphasis is being placed on long-term and
    genuinely collaborative partnerships. These can
    operate on a number of levels governmental,
    industrial, commercial and institutional. They
    are dependent on a willing investment of time and
    resources, and a commitment to the development of
    a genuine mutual partnership.

79
Example (3) continued
  • Such an approach also requires a recognition of
    institutional responsibilities
  • In aspiring to a holistic approach to
    internationalisation, the University recognises
    that it must undertake activities at home and
    overseas which advance economic development,
    social cohesion, constructive social mobility and
    cultural understanding. There is a link between
    building a truly international university and
    building international communities in an
    interdependent world that reflects the
    fundamental values of community and freedom of
    expression and enquiry.
  • Note the explicit reference to values.

80
Example (4)
  • Such ideas are also captured by University D, a
    large research-based university and member of the
    Russell Group, in a set of four guiding
    principles
  • Reciprocity Internationalisation is a two-way
    process for the University to realise the full
    benefits of our global reach, we must give as
    much as we get. We believe as a community that
    by working multilaterally rather than
    unilaterally we achieve more in terms of
    teaching, research and knowledge transfer. We
    concentrate our energies on cultivating enduring,
    boundary-spanning relationships that are mutually
    beneficial which applies to students and to
    academic and commercial partners.
  • Commitment Internationalisation is an investment
    for the future and requires a long-term
    commitment to our students, to our staff and to
    our partners globally.

81
Example (4) continued
  • Social and environmental responsibility
    Knowledge is a public good and we recognise that
    we have a responsibility to generate and share
    knowledge for the greater good of society.
    Although we are fundamentally a British
    institution, internationally, we will always aim
    to be sensitive and relevant to local
    circumstances. As an educational institution,
    operating on a global level, we are committed to
    educational capacity development in emerging
    economies, doing so in a way that is
    environmentally sustainable.
  • Quality We seek to maintain the highest
    standards in all that we do.
  • Note again, the reference to values
  • Giving not just taking
  • Sustainability
  • Ideas of public good
  • Partnership

82
Changing Ideas
  • Notions of status and quality, measured or
    perceived at an international level rather than
    within institutions or within national
    boundaries.
  • Expectations of global impact, rather than local
    or national moreover, an expectation, not simply
    a hope or aspiration.
  • Recognition that internationalisation is an
    all-embracing concept that needs to be integrated
    within everything that the university is involved
    with and requiring the active commitment of all
    staff, as distinct from a fringe activity
    involving a few key enthusiasts.
  • Understanding that internationalisation is a
    long-term process that requires institutional
    commitment in order to secure sustainability and
    success, not something that comes and goes
    according to the turnover of staff.

83
Changing Ideas
  • Recognition that internationalisation requires
    the investment of scarce resources (not least
    senior management time) and a recognition of
    opportunity cost, and that, with such
    recognition, comes the need for prioritisation
    between competing claims (both between
    internationalisation and other claims on
    institutional resources and between competing
    demands within the internationalisation agenda)
    and for evaluation of the outcomes from such
    investments (including the use of performance
    indicators and pursuit of value for money).
  • Acceptance of the breadth and massive potential
    of international contacts, including
    international governments and business, a vision
    that now extends well beyond simply contacts with
    other universities, staff and students
  • Acknowledgement of institutional
    responsibilities, including an ethical dimension
    to internationalisation in higher education.
  • Recognition of the need to ensure that high
    quality is maintained throughout the whole
    spectrum of internationalisation activities.

84
Importance of Strategy
  • With such changes has come a need for
    universities to exercise some degree of oversight
    with respect to internationalisation, to
    encourage, foster and shape activity, but also to
    regulate, to monitor and to ensure the effective,
    appropriate use of resources. As a result,
    internationalisation now commands a key position
    within the leadership and management of most
    higher education institutions.

85
Leadership of internationalisation
  • In the context of internationalisation, some
    particular qualities of leadership are required
  • A clear vision of the meaning and importance of
    internationalisation.
  • Excellence as a communicator, able to convey the
    importance of internationalisation within the
    institution and to other stakeholders, and able
    to explain the universitys aims and objectives,
    and policies, to diverse, and often critical,
    audiences both at home and abroad.
  • The ability to inspire others who might be
    sceptical of the importance of internationalisatio
    n or who might simply feel overwhelmed by other
    pressures on their time and resources or by
    conflicting expectations.
  • A strong sense of imagination, able to envisage
    the shape and form of substantial international
    developments.
  • A willingness to take calculated risks on new
    undertakings and an acceptance that not every new
    initiative will succeed, or succeed to the level
    originally anticipated.
  • A sense of ambition for the institution.
  • The ability to network with others, both inside
    and outside the university, both at home and
    abroad.

86
Governance Example (1)
  • University E, a large multidisciplinary, research
    intensive institution, is typical
  • The breadth of the Universitys existing and
    potential international activity necessitates
    strategic leadership to co-ordinate different
    strands and provide a clear focus for
    development. Resources will need to be directed
    where they are most effective and this will
    require a selective approach. The Vice-Principal
    will chair an International Board which will
    oversee the international portfolio of activities
    including the implementation of actions arising
    from this Strategy. The Board will provide
    strategic direction to and central coordination
    of activities, ensuring that the appropriate
    support mechanisms, services and policies are in
    place, and coordinating the communication of
    these activities. The Board will also oversee
    the Universitys involvement in .international
    networks and manage a seed fund available to
    Schools and Corporate Services to facilitate the
    development of links and international activities
    within the overall framework. This could include
    travel grants, administrative support or staff
    buyouts. The Boards will delegate responsibility
    for delivering the various parts of the Strategy
    to different leads

87
Example (1) continued
  • The Board will set up a number of time-limited
    international Region Working Groups to review
    activity and potential for each global region and
    developing a regional plan, encompassing student
    recruitment, collaborative provision, research
    links, communications and other activities. The
    Board will be responsible for determining
    priority markets based on the plans provided by
    the Working Groups and for overseeing the
    implementation of these plans.
  • Representatives of academic Schools and
    Corporate Services will be involved in the
    International Board and the International Region
    Working Groups and it is anticipated that the
    former will lead the International Region Working
    Groups. The Board will discuss with Schools the
    idea of establishing a network of School
    champions in the delivery of the International
    Strategy. Any initiatives or developments must be
    sensitive to existing arrangements and
    investments by Schools
  • Ideas of control, planning, selectivity

88
Example (2)
  • University F, another large research-led
    institution, tackled issues of management and
    organisation as follows
  • An International Steering Group will be
    established to direct the development of
    internationalisation action plans and to monitor
    progress against the strategic objectives. Key
    indicators of progress are currently under
    consideration in the light of the indicators
    currently reported to Senate and Court the
    purpose of the internationalisation suite of
    indicators will be to provide faculties with a
    more sensitive framework for self-evaluation.

89
Example (2) continued
  • Regional action plans will be developed in the
    year ahead. The Regional Champions convene
    Working Groups .to review activity and identify
    and coordinate potential opportunities and areas
    for development in each global region. Regional
    Working Groups will act as a source of advice for
    staff, especially related to academic business
    development, identification of potential
    strategic partnerships with targeted institutions
    and to facilitate activities which will build the
    profile of the university in key markets. For
    the University fully to capitalise on
    international opportunities, effective
    communication channels need to exist between the
    Faculties, Services and the Regional Champions.
    Deans have been asked to consider the optimal
    mechanisms to progress this work in a coordinated
    manner
  • Again, ideas of control, targets
About PowerShow.com