Middle%20Ages%20Europe - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Middle%20Ages%20Europe

Description:

Middle Ages Europe Religion dominated medieval society Church was supreme to the state Church was greatest patron of art and literature Medieval art focused on the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:141
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 60
Provided by: DavidB535
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Middle%20Ages%20Europe


1
Middle Ages Europe
  • Religion dominated medieval society
  • Church was supreme to the state
  • Church was greatest patron of art and literature
  • Medieval art focused on the church and salvation

2
Middle Ages Europe
  • Feudalism- decline of Roman Empire, invasions,
    order to chaos
  • Exchange of land and work for protection
  • Agricultural Economy
  • Trade and manufacturing

3
The Great Schism (spilt of the Christian Church)
1054 C.E.
  • Cultural and political differences between the
    eastern and western Roman Empire weakened the
    unity of the Christian Church and led to its
    division.

4
The Great Schism (spilt of the Christian Church)
1054 C.E.
  • Late 700s, Germanic Lombards invasion of Italy
  • Pope asked for help from the Franks, Pope crowned
    the Frankish king, Charlemagne, as the new Roman
    Emperor
  • Eastern Orthodox
  • Patriarch
  • married
  • Greek
  • Constantinople
  • No icons, pix only
  • Roman Catholic
  • Pope
  • celibate
  • Latin
  • Rome
  • icons

5
Crusades
  • Crusades- series of wars fought between
    Christians and Muslims for control of the Holy
    Land (Jerusalem).
  • The Crusades stimulated trade by introducing
    Europeans to Middle Eastern products.
  • Trade encouraged the use of usury (charging
    interest) and new bookkeeping practices (Arabic
    numerals).
  • Constantinople
  • video

6
Hundred Years War
  • 1337-1453
  • Fought between France and England over land and
    hereditary rights.
  • Conflict helped to establish France England as
    nation-states.
  • Professional armies

7
Great (Western) Schism Part Deux 1378-1417
  • Conflicts between kings and popes common
  • Pope moved to Avignon, France
  • New pope moved back, harsh, disliked,
    excommunicated
  • Two popes
  • Council of Constantine

8
Boccaccio's The Decameron
  • Not such were they as in the East, where an issue
    of blood from the nose was a manifest sign of
    inevitable death but in men and women alike it
    first betrayed itself by the emergence of certain
    tumours in the groin or the armpits, some of
    which grew as large as a common apple, others as
    an egg, some more, some less, which the common
    folk called gavoccioli. From the two said parts
    of the body this deadly gavocciolo soon began to
    propagate and spread itself in all directions
    indifferently after which the form of the malady
    began to change, black spots or livid making
    their appearance in many cases on the arm or the
    thigh or elsewhere, now few and large, now minute
    and numerous.

9
Black Death
  • In the 14th century (1347), the Bubonic plague
    decimated the European and Asian populations.
  • unhealthy and unsanitary conditions
  • Results decline in population, scarcity
    (limited) of labor, feudalism weakened, economy
    and trade disrupted, and Church influence
    declined.
  • Peasant revolts in England, France, Belgium,
    Italy- demand for higher wages
  • video

10
The Renaissance
  • New intellectual and artistic ideas that
    developed during the Renaissance marked the
    beginning of the modern world (new ideas,
    innovations, and exploration) .

11
Rise of Italian city-states
  • Much of Europe rural, urban centers in N. Italy,
    by late 1300s some cities 100,000
  • Independent city-states governed by wealthy
    merchant oligarchies
  • Wealthy merchant families dominated northern
    Italian cities

12
Italian City-States
  • Wealth from trade with the Middle East led to the
    rise of Italian city-states.
  • The Italian Renaissance originated in Florence,
    Venice, and Genoa. Why?
  • 1. They had access to trade routes between Europe
    and the Middle East
  • 2. Served as centers to distribute (trade) goods
    to Northern Europe
  • 3. They were initially independent city-states
    (republics)

13
Quattrocento (15th century)
  • Florence became center of Renaissance
  • Wealth based on textile merchants and bankers
  • Medici family dominated Florence during 15th
    century
  • Art shed medieval style, more classical
  • Masaccios Tribute Money

14
Medici Family
  • Wealthy merchants became patrons of the arts,
    helping artists to pay for their works of art.
    The Medici family of Florence was the most famous
    of wealthy patrons.
  • Cosimo and Lorenzo
  • Libraries, churches, art commissions
  • Italian education society became increasingly
    secular. Less emphasis on salvation, more on
    present.

15
Italian Renaissance Humanism
  • Rebirth or revival of Classical learning and
    civic humanism, birth of the modern world
  • Renaissance art and literature focused on
    individuals, worldly matters, and Christianity.
  • Humanism- intellectual movement that
  • Celebrated the individual
  • Stimulated the study of Greek Roman literature
    and culture
  • Was supported by wealthy patrons- display wealth,
    power, fame

16
  • Virtu
  • Renaissance artists- individualism, fame,
    excellence
  • Medieval artists- glory of God, not personal fame
  • Secularism a break from dependence on the RCC

17
Francesco Petrarca Father of Humanism
  • Petrarch
  • Study original classical texts? understand human
    nature
  • Dark Ages
  • Wrote love sonnets
  • Letters

18
Important Writers
  • Boccaccio, The Decameron, prose tales, good
    description of 14th century life
  • Baldassare Castiglione, The Courtier, ideal
    courtier charming, witty, graceful, dance,
    poetry, music. Women educated, but inspire art
    not create it
  • Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Oration on the
    Dignity of Man, celebrated human potential for
    greatness

19
Niccolo Machiavelli 1469-1527
  • Renaissance political philosopher
  • Observed city-states rulers and created
    guidelines for obtaining and maintaining absolute
    power
  • Pessimistic view of man, believed people
    ungrateful untrustworthy
  • Urged rulers to study war, be ruthless and
    pragmatic

20
Machiavellis The Prince 1513
  • Early modern treatise on government that
    supports
  • absolute power of the ruler
  • the end justifies the means
  • one should do good if possible, but do evil when
    necessary

21
Architecture
  • Less Gothic, more classical,
    domes, arches, columns
  • Leon Battista Alberti
  • Filippo Brunelleschi

22
  • Sculpture- classical, nude
  • Pyramid configuration
  • Perspective- illusion of depth
  • Classical forms Christian subjects
  • Reject hierarchical scaling

23
Cinquecento- 16th century High Renaissance in
Rome
  • Chiaroscuro- blending of light and dark volume,
    depth
  • da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael
  • Late Renaissance Mannerism- unnaturalistic

24
Compared to Medieval
25
Compared to Medieval
26
Transition from Medieval Art
27
Renaissance Art
  • Leonardo da Vinci- Mona Lisa The Last Supper

28
  • Michelangelo- statue of David ceiling of the
    Sistine Chapel

29
Michelangelos Sistine Chapel
30
Renaissance spreads to Northern Europe
31
Northern Renaissance
  • With the rise of trade, travel, and literacy, the
    Italian Renaissance spread to northern Europe.
    The art and literature changed as people of
    different cultures adopted Renaissance ideas.
  • Growing wealth in Northern Europe supported
    Renaissance ideas.
  • Northern Renaissance thinkers merged humanist
    ideas with Christianity.

32
Different from Italian Renaissance
  • Should not be considered an appendage to Italian
    art..but, Italian influence was strong.
  • The differences between the two cultures
  • Italy ? humanism, emphasis on the revival of the
    values of classical antiquity.
  • Northern Europe ? change was driven by religious
    reform, the return to Christian values, and the
    revolt against the authority of the Church.
  • More princes kings were patrons of artists.

33
N. Ren. Art
  • Oil painting, reality, details
  • Everyday objects disguised symbols
  • Jan van Eyck, Arnolfini Wedding
  • Dog fidelity
  • Discarded shoes religious ceremony
  • Bare feet helps fertility
  • Marriage license

34
N. Ren. Art
  • Albrecht Durer
  • Absorbed Italian Renaissance ideas
  • Woodcuts, self-portraits
  • Hans Holbein the Younger
  • Realism

35
Northern Renaissance Writers
  • Desiderius Erasmus 1466-1536
  • Dutch Christian Humanist
  • In Praise of Folly (1511) a satire of greedy
    merchants and church corruption
  • Wrote in Latin as opposed to vernacular
  • Reform church, not destroy it

36
Northern Renaissance Writers
  • Sir Thomas More (1478-1535)
  • English Humanist
  • Utopia (1516) (meaning nowhere)- depiction of a
    perfect ideal society
  • Religious toleration, humanist education,
    communal property

37
Renaissance Writers
  • William Shakespeare
  • English poet and playwright
  • Wrote sonnets, plays, essays

38
More Northern Renaissance Writers!
  • Michel de Montaigne- French, essay as
    literary genre, Essais, skepticism, anecdotes
  • Francois Rabelais- French, Gargantua and
    Pantagruel, condemned church corruption
  • Miguel de Cervantes- Spanish, Don Quixote,
    first modern novel

39
Spread of ideas
  • Johannes Gutenberg invented the moveable type
    printing press, Bible 1456
  • Gutenbergs printing press helped to
  • Increase literacy and the production and sale of
    books
  • disseminate Renaissance Reformation ideas
  • Difficult to suppress dissention

40
Decline of Italian city-states
  • Economic decline
  • Loss of most Asian trade routes
  • textile competition from NW Europe
  • Rise of Atlantic economy
  • Political problems
  • Quarreling city-states
  • Foreign invasion (France, Spain)

41
Women in the Renaissance
  • Querelle des femmes- debate about women, nature,
    role in society
  • Castigliones Courtier - perfect court lady
    should be educated, talented in arts but not
    active in politics or art, attractive ornament
  • Christine de Pizan- First Feminist, wrote history
    of famous women to refute myths, The City of
    Ladies

42
  • Isabella DEste- most famous Renaissance woman,
    art patron
  • Her life illustrated that the most acceptable
    role for a well-educated woman was to become a
    patron of the arts
  • 1536 Titian
  • Literacy increased

43
Caterina Sforza
44
Isabella I
45
Mary Tudor
46
Elizabeth I
47
Catherine de Medici
48
2004 AP Euro Exam FRQ
  • Analyze the influence of humanism on the visual
    arts in the Italian Renaissance. Use at least
    THREE specific works to support your analysis.

49
Botticelli, Pallas and the Centaur
50
Titian, Allegory of Prudence
51
Eyck, Arnolfini Wedding
52
Donatello, Mary Magdalene
53
Michelangelo, La Pieta
54
da Vinci, flying machine drawings
55
Masaccio, Madonna and Child with Angels
56
Bruegel, Netherlandish Proverbs
57
Durer, Erasmus of Rotterdam
58
Holbein, The Ambassadors
59
Raphael, Madonna del Baldacchino
About PowerShow.com