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Unit 1 Introduction: Translation and Translation Techniques

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Title: Unit 1 Introduction: Translation and Translation Techniques


1
Unit 1 Introduction Translation and Translation
Techniques
By PYSH
2
General Introduction
  • Translatability
  • different in phonetics, lexicology, grammar,
    syntactic structures
  • similar in living patterns.
  • Origin of translation
  • Zhou Dynasty
  • first recorded in West Han Dynasty
  • History 3 periods of climax
  • East Han Dynasty---Tang and Song Dynasty
  • Ming and Qing Dynasty
  • 5.4 period

3
  • Functions of translation
  • a means of cross-linguistic, cross-cultural
    communication
  • an instrument for transmitting culture
  • a technique for improving language acquisition
  • encouraging social development

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4
Definitions of Translation
  • ??????????????????
  • Cross-linguistic transformation of meaning
  • denotative meaning
  • connotative meaning
  • collocative meaning
  • contextual meaning
  • stylistic meaning
  • 1. sun
  • 2. I want my Martini dry.
  • 3. An apple a day keeps a doctor away.
  • 4. soft music/ soft drinks

5
  • Translating consists in reproducing in the
    receptor language the closest natural equivalent
    of the source- language message, first in terms
    of meaning and secondly in terms of style. (
    Eugene A. Nida and Charles R.Taber, 198212)
  • Some terminologies
  • source language
  • target language/ receptor language
  • translator
  • original version
  • translation

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6
Classification of Translation
  • 1. Intralingual / interlingual translation
  • 2. Interpretation, translation, machine
    translation
  • 3. Translation of different genres( sci-tec
    translation, literary translation, etc)
  • 4. Complete translation, adapted translation,
    selective translation, abstract translation , etc

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7
Qualities for a Good Translator
  • 1. Good bi-lingual competence, esp. understanding
    and expressing
  • You cant be too careful.
  • It is five years since he smoked.
  • 2. Broad knowledge
  • Big brother kick bucket
  • Hannibal had us for lunch, Clarice.
  • 3. Translation strategies, techniques
  • 4. Careful and conscientious attitude

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8
Principles of Translation
  • Faithfulness, expressiveness, elegance (???)
    -----?????(Evolution and Ethics)
  • Faithfulness, expressiveness, closeness (???)


    -----???????
  • Spiritual conformity (??)
    -----??
  • Sublimed adaptation (??)
    -----???
  • Excellent translation faithfully reflects all the
    original passage in vocabulary, syntax, even
    punctuation and spelling.
  • faithfulness, smoothness

9
Faithfulness
  • Be faithful to the content
  • 1. Avoid word for word translation
  • 2. Avoid cultural misunderstanding
  • 3. Avoid the misunderstanding of idioms
  • Be faithful to the style

10
1.Avoid word for word translation
  • greatest compensation for wrongful imprisonment.
  • 1.??????????????
  • 2.???????????
  • The chief criminals shall be punished without
    fail.
  • ????????????
  • ?????
  • Didnt you go to see the film last night?
  • No, I didnt.
  • ???????????
  • ??,????

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2.Avoid cultural misunderstanding
  • Love me, love my dog.
  • Every dog has its day.
  • That funny gay often talks horse.
  • He became dissatisfied with modern life and mans
    selfish wish for private wealth, so he went and
    joined a Hippie commune.
  • ???????????????????????????,???????????

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3gt Avoid the misunderstanding of idioms
  • You can not trust him to keep a secret, he is
    sure to spill the beans before long.
  • ??????????,?????????????
  • I am sorry. I will eat my words.
  • ???,????????

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Faithful to the style
  • formalinformal
  • positive/negative
  • humorous/ rigid
  • That man was so rude to me. I wouldnt go back to
    that job for all the tea in China!
  • ????????,???????????????.
  • ?????????,??????,??????????.
  • I am up to my neck in your bullshit.
  • ???????
  • ??????????????

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Process of translation
  • 1. Understanding
  • 1.Understanding the meaning of diction in the
    context
  • 2.Understanding the background
  • 2. expressing and re-expressing
  • 1.Expressing
  • 2.Re-expressing
  • 3. editing

15
1-1.Understanding the meaning of diction in the
context
  • A) Draw a line from A to B.
  • B) The ship crossed the line.
  • C) Cooking is more in your line than mine.
  • D) They were given their marriage lines after the
    registration.
  • E) She bought an overcoat lined with silk.

16
1-2.Understanding the background
  • ?????,
    ?????.
    ?????,

    ?????.
    -----???lt????gt
  • Mournfully, mournfully rolls the long River,
    Saddened, ah saddened, the strangers breast.
    The flowers as they fall, his fate recall,
    As each flutters down
    in the earth to rest
    -----Fletcher

17
  • ??
  • question, problem, trouble, point, issue
  • ???????????,????????.
  • We were on the Long March. Every day we marched a
    hundred li or more.
  • marchwalk
  • lt????????gtmarchwalk as soldiers do, with
    regular and measured steps.
  • lt????????gt to walk with regular,esp.forceful
    steps like a soldier.

18
The process of understanding
  • first reading , general reading for main idea,
    theme, background
  • second reading, careful reading for details
  • final reading for stylistic features, spirit

19
How to understand
  • 1)contextual analysis
  • The slums offered an ugly contrast to the
    classical grandeur of official Washington.
  • The baseball season opens this afternoon and I
    suspect that most of official Washington are out
    at the field, including the president and many of
    the members of the Cabinet.
  • John is now with his parents in New York it is
    three years since he was a high school teacher in
    Washington.
  • She didn't attend the meeting because she wanted
    to.
  • 2)logical analysis
  • The old man informed us that his wife had
    thirteen children, one in every month of the year
    and one over besides.

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2-1.Expressing
  • Express the content and in the meantime keep the
    original form mainly including structure
    arrangement, image, figure of speech,etc.
  • ?????????,?????????
  • Six years have passed by in a flash/ in a twinkle
    since I came to the city from the countryside.

21
  • Keep the original content, sacrificing the form.
  • ????????,????????,????????,??????,
    ????????????
  • There was a village called Zhangjia Village,
    where lived Carpenter Zhang, who had a good wife,
    nicknamed little Moth, who gave birth to a girl
    called Ai ai.

22
Practice
  • Creation
  • ????????
  • Prefer to face the powder, rather than powder the
    face.
  • ?????,??????
  • Be man of men, be soul of souls.
  • ????????
  • Boundless forest sheds leaves shower by shower.

23
2-2. Re-expressing
  • 1. Improving Chinese readability
  • Cotton feels soft.
  • ?????????????????
  • Even if you go there, there wouldn't be any
    result.
  • ?????,?????????????????
  • 2. Getting rid of the bound of original words
  • Any person not leaving litter in this basket will
    be liable to a fine of ?5.
  • The cathedral was built in Spanish Gothic style.
  • Distance from the event should make the memories
    less painful.
  • His irritation could not withstand the silent
    beauty of the night.
  • 3. Mastering some skills

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3. Editing
  • ????,????,?????,?????????????????
  • ????,????,??????????????????,?????????
  • ??????,????,???????.

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Translating Methods
  • Literal translation
  • Free translation
  • Transliteration

26
Literal Translation
  • In the course of translation, not alter the
    original sentence pattern, structure, image,
    figures of speech.
  • It takes sentences as its basic units and takes
    the whole text into consideration.
  • It strives to reproduce both the ideological
    content and the style of the original works.
  • The translation should be smooth, natural and
    acceptable.

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27
Free Translation
  • Translate the content, without paying attention
    to the formal correspondence and the translation
    should be smooth, natural and acceptable.
  • It is a supplementary means to mainly convey the
    meaning and spirit of the original without having
    to reproduce its sentence patterns or figures of
    speech, images, etc.

28
Literal or Free Translation?
  • Valuable left in full view can be open invitation
    to theft.
  • ????????????,??????????
  • ???????????,?????
  • A gift is the key to open the door closed
    against.
  • ???????????????????
  • ?????????,????????
  • Every life has its roses and thorns.
  • ?????????????,?????
  • ??????????,?????

29
  • It means killing 2 birds with one stone.
  • Dont teach your grandmother to suck eggs.
  • Never offer to teach a fish to swim.
  • Dont display your axe at Lu Bans door.
  • Hitler was armed to the teeth when he lunched
    WWII.
  • Dont shed crocodile tears.
  • There is no pot so ugly it cant find a lid.
  • Barbara was born with a silver spoon in her
    mouth.
  • Cast pearls before swine. ?????

30
Transliteration
  • 1. Pronunciation
  • Yin, Yang, logic, Gongfu, Taichi, kowtou
  • 2. Names and places with special meaning and
  • implication
  • typhoon, model, hacker
  • 3. Similar meaning and similar pronunciation for
  • trademarks or brand names
  • Kodak Pentium Apple Cadillac Haier Xerox
  • 4. Abbreviations , acronyms (international
  • practice)
  • Gallup Poll OPEC

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Eight Skills of Translation
  • 1. Diction
  • 2. Amplification
  • 3. Omission
  • 4. Repetition
  • 5. Conversion
  • 6. Restructuring
  • 7. Negation
  • 8. Division

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  • Definition (D) of Translation (T)
  • T means the conversion of an expression (E) from
    one language (L) into another. To say it plainly,
    T is an art to reproduce the exact idea of the
    author by means of a L different from the
    original. From the D of T, we know that the
    original thought of the E must be kept as far as
    possible, nothing can be added to or taken away
    from the original work. Accuracy (A) is the
    1st indispensable quality of T. The translator
    must cautiously stick to the authors idea. Words
    selected sentences constructed must be such as
    to convey (????) the exact original thought. A
    is to make the thought definite exact, while Ee
    is to make the T vivid attractive.
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