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The Enlightenment

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The Enlightenment – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Enlightenment


1
The Enlightenment
2
2 Questions
  • 1) Is man good or is man evil? Explain, give
    examples
  • Do not say both
  • 2) Attempt to explain this quote
  • Man is born free but everywhere else he is in
    chains

3
Enlightenment
  • just after Scientific Revolution
  • People begin to reevaluate aspects of society
  • Economics
  • Religion
  • Education
  • Government

4
Enlightenment Definition
  • Enlightenment (mid 1700s) - an intellectual
    movement that stressed reason and thought and the
    power of individuals to solve problems.
  • Also known as Age of Reason

5
Two Views on Government
  • Thomas Hobbes- Leviathan 1651
  • John Locke- Two Treatises on Government

Hobbes
Locke
6
Hobbes
  • Believed all humans were naturally selfish and
    wicked
  • Had witnessed this during English Civil War
  • Without government, man would be in consistent
    war with one another leading to solitary, poor,
    short lives

7
Hobbes
  • In order to escape this, people must enter into
    a SOCIAL CONTRACT with a ruler in exchange for
    law and order.
  • This would allow people not to act on own self
    interest and give ruler total power.
  • In your own words, what does this mean?

8
John Locke- Natural Rights
  • Believed people could learn from experience and
    were reasonable
  • Believed people were naturally good and could
    govern themselves
  • Against an absolute monarchy
  • Believed in NATURAL RIGHTS
  • Life, Liberty, and Property
  • Where have you seen this before?

9
Locke
  • Believed a governments purpose is to protect
    these rights and if a government does not, the
    people have the right to overthrow it
  • Rule by popular consent

Basically if a government does not do what you
want it to do, you have the right to get rid of
it.
10
Other Enlightenment Philosophers
  • Voltaire consistently fought for tolerance and
    freedoms through essays, books, and philosophy
  • I may not agree with a word you say, but I will
    defend to the death your right to say it.

11
Other Philosophers
  • Montesquieu Separation of Powers

12
Montesquieu
  • 3 branches of government
  • Separation of powers
  • Checks and balances

13
Montesquieu Continued..
  • French writer whom believed England had best
    government because power was spread among King
    and Parliament Proposed that the best way to keep
    a government from becoming too powerful was to
    make sure each side never had enough Need each
    other - Checks and Balances

14
Other Philosophers
  • Rousseau he believed the best government was
    that formed by free people.
  • direct democracy
  • People give up freedoms for common good
  • Man is born free, everywhere he is in chains

15
A change for Women
  • Prior belief Education for women was to help
    them be helpful wives and mothers
  • Men dominated marriage
  • Mary Wollstonecraft
  • Used reason to make point that women should be
    equal
  • Education will help them become equal
  • Criticized equality of marriage
  • If all men are born free, then are all women born
    slaves?

16
So what is so important about the Enlightenment?
17
So what is so important about the Enlightenment?
  • Created a greater reliance on logic and reason to
    solve problems as opposed to traditional views
  • People began to not only question government, but
    religion more freely
  • Rise of individualism- people began to use own
    reason to determine right and wrong.
  • Also our role in society
  • Governmental ideas influenced new nations and
    current nations to reconsider government that
    ruled them

18
Enlightened Despots
  • Monarchs who tried to use Enlightenment ideas
  • Still wanted absolute power but tried to please
    the people

19
Fredrick the Great
  • King of Prussia
  • Religious freedom
  • Reduced censorship
  • Reformed justice system

20
Catherine the Great
  • Czarina of Russia
  • Land reform
  • Improved education
  • Expanded the empire
  • Many of her ideas never actually happened

21
Joseph II of Austria
  • Son of Maria Theresa
  • Ended Serfdom
  • Ended censorship
  • Fixed taxes
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