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Objective 2

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Objective 2 TAKS 10th and 11th grades Home Home Questions from TAKS regarding cell functions : Questions from TAKS regarding DNA: Questions from TAKS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Objective 2


1
Objective 2TAKS 10th and 11th grades Home
slide
Home
Questions from TAKS regarding cell functions
Questions from TAKS regarding DNA
Questions from TAKS regarding genetics
Questions from TAKS regarding classification
Questions from TAKS regarding body systems
Interactive non-TAKS quizzes on the internet
Link to 10th grade study guide Scroll to p.265
for objective 2
Link to 11th grade study guide Scroll to p.310
for objective 2
2
Cell functions
Home
Back to Cell functions
Go to Osmosis
Go to Cell Energy and parts
Go to Cell division
3
Home
Back to Cell functions
4
When a sea urchin egg is removed from the ocean
and placed in freshwater, the egg swells and
bursts. Which of these causes water to enter the
egg? F Coagulation G Sodium pump H Active
transport J Osmosis
Home
Back to Cell functions
Osmosis is the movement of water through a
membrane from cleaner high concentration to
less clean lower concentration. Ocean water
(because of its salt) is the lower concentration.
Freshwater (less salt) is the high
concentration.
34
5
  • 4. Histamine is a polar chemical that can lead to
    an allergic response when it is released by the
    bodys immune system. An antihistamine is a drug
    that can help prevent the allergic reactions
    associated with histamine. An antihistamine is a
    similar molecule to histamine in size, shape, and
    polarity. How does an antihistamine most likely
    prevent the effects of histamine?
  • A It increases the diffusion of histamine across
    the membranes of target cells.
  • B It binds to histamine receptors on the surfaces
    of target cells.
  • C It causes target cells to increase production
    of histamine receptors.
  • D It blocks histamine receptors found in the
    cytoplasm of target cells.

Home
Back to Cell functions
Real histamine
Model histamine
antihistamine
6
Home
Back to Cell functions
7
Home
Back to Cell functions
Which would most likely cause the liquid in Tube
A to rise? F Starch concentrations being equal on
each side of the membrane G Water passing from a
region of lower starch concentration to one of
higher starch concentration H Water and starch
volumes being the same J Solute in the tubes
changing from a higher temperature to a lower
temperature
Starch is a solute.
Osmosis is when cleaner water (in this case
distilled) wants to go through a membrane to
less clean water (in this case,
starchy). Tube B water goes through the
Dialysis membrane toward the Tube A. Water goes
from high concentration to low concentration. Or
if you want to look at it from the solute point
of viewthe water goes from less solute
solution to more solute solution.
The solute (starch) doesnt go through this
membrane.
14
8
Home
Back to Cell functions
The illustration above shows a cell model with
starch solutions both inside and outside the
cell. In which of the following situations will
the solution rise highest in the tube?
9
Home
Back to Cell functions
  • Which molecule provides most of the energy used
    to drive chemical reactions in cells?
  • F DNA
  • G RNA
  • H ATP
  • J ADP

30
10
Home
Back to Cell functions
11
Energy conversion within an animal cell would be
severely limited by removal of the cells A
mitochondria B chloroplasts C plastids D lysosomes
Home
Back to Cell functions
Mitochondria use oxygen and sugar to recharge
ADPs into ATPs (cell energy source.)
Animal cells dont have chloroplasts. Plants do.
Animal cells dont have plastids (for
photosynthesis.)
Lysosomes help with digestion of food recycling.
27
12
Why are photosynthesis and cellular respiration
often considered opposites? F Photosynthesis
produces twice as many ATP molecules as cellular
respiration does. G Water is released during
photosynthesis and consumed during cellular
respiration. H Photosynthesis occurs during the
day, and cellular respiration occurs at night. J
Oxygen is produced during photosynthesis and used
during cellular respiration.
Home
Back to Cell functions
Respiration produces more ATPs than
photosynthesis.
FALSE.
Respiration occurs at all times.
18
13
Which structure regulates gas exchange during the
processes of photosynthesis and respiration? A
Q B R C S D T
Home
Back to Cell functions
Gases go in here!
O2
CO2
11
14
Home
Back to Cell functions
Amino acids are the units of proteins, Lipids are
fats. Your stomach adds the HCl to the food.
Food provides the human body with all of
the following except F calories G amino acid H
hydrochloric acid J lipids
8
15
Home
Back to Cell functions
DNA molecules separate into single strands, which
are then used to construct two identical strands
of DNA. This process ensures that the A
cytoplasm is in equilibrium B mitochondria are
genetically identical to the chloroplasts C
parent cells use little ATP D daughter cells are
genetically identical to the parent cells
21
16
If a cat has 38 chromosomes in each of its body
cells, how many chromosomes will be in each
daughter cell after mitosis? F 11 G 19 H 38 J 76
Home
Back to Cell functions
If it said after meiosis then you would half
the number.
26
17
DNA
Home
Back to DNA
Go to DNA
Go to Protein Synthesis
Go to Mutations
18
In DNA, which of the following determines the
traits of an organism? F Amount of adenine G
Number of sugars H Sequence of nitrogen bases J
Strength of hydrogen bonds
Home
Back to DNA
38
19
Home
Back to DNA
  • Which molecule is most responsible for
  • determining an organisms eye color, body
  • structure, and cellular enzyme production?
  • A Complex starch
  • B Fatty acid
  • C Carbohydrate
  • D Deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA
45
20
Home
Back to DNA
  • All of the following are found in a DNA
  • molecule except
  • A carbon dioxide
  • B deoxyribose
  • C nitrogen
  • D phosphate

The sugar of DNA
The As, Ts, Cs, Gs of DNA
Part of the backbone of DNA
The nitrogenous bases of DNA
The rails of the ladder
33
21
Home
Back to DNA
22
Home
Back to DNA
Which of the following nucleotide base sequences
complements the section of DNA modeled above? F
5'UTCGCA3' G H 5'GCGATT3' J 5'TTUCGC3'
5'TTAGCG3'
As go to Ts. Cs go to Gs.
36
23
Home
Back to DNA
24
Home
Back to DNA
  • This chart shows the results of an experiment
    performed in the 1920s using a bacterial species
    that causes pneumonia in humans. The experiment
    involved several procedures using two different
    bacterial strains, R and S. What is a possible
    explanation for the results in Group 2?
  • A Living S-strain bacteria can transform into a
    pathogenic form of R-strain bacteria.
  • B Living R-strain bacteria are controlled by a
    mouses immune system.
  • C Dead S-strain bacteria can cause disease.
  • D Dead R-strain bacteria can confer resistance to
    S-strain bacteria.

9
25
Home
Back to DNA
26
Which of the following best describes the
question this set of procedures was designed to
answer? A Can a substance from dead bacteria
transform living bacteria? B Can R bacterial
cells survive heating? C Can dead bacterial cells
confer immunity to a living host? D Can bacterial
cells be isolated from a healthy host?
Home
Back to DNA
25
27
 Transcription messenger RNA (m-RNA) copies the
DNA code for the protein that needs to be made.
Home
Back to DNA
  • DNA passes information to RNA during the
  • process of
  • F transcription
  • G active transport
  • H regeneration
  • J osmosis

m -RNA
DNA
34
28
If the template of a strand of DNA is 5'
AGATGCATC 3', the complementary strand will be
F 3' TCTACGTAG 5' G 5' CTACGTAGA 3' H 3'
AGATGCATC 5' J 5' AGACGTCTA 3'
Home
Back to DNA
5' AGATGCATC 3',
Both are DNA. No Us. As go to Ts. Cs
go to Gs.
24
29
Which of these represents the DNA segment from
which this section of mRNA was transcribed? A B
TCUTTG C GAAUCU D UCCTGA
Home
Back to DNA
DNA A T C G mRNA U A G C
ACTAAG
33
30
Home
Back to DNA
31
Home
Back to DNA
32
Home
Back to DNA
  • The assembly of a messenger RNA strand that
    normally begins with UAC has been changed so that
    the newly assembled messenger RNA strand begins
    with UAG. Which of the following will most likely
    occur?
  • A The protein will be missing the first amino
    acid.
  • B The amino acids that make up the protein will
    all be different.
  • C The mRNA will become attached to a ribosome.
  • D The production of the protein will be stopped.

27
33
Home
Back to DNA
34
Home
G
A
A
AGA
Back to DNA
Use this chart for the next question.
35
Home
Back to DNA
Mutated has one substitution.
normal
The chain above represents three codons. Which of
the following changes would be expected in the
amino acid chain if the mutation shown above
occurred? F The amino acid sequence would be
shorter than expected. G The identity of one
amino acid would change. H The amino acid
sequence would remain unchanged. J The identities
of more than one amino acid would change.
Only if there had been a deletion of 3 or more
letters.
AGA codes for arginine, and ACA codes for
threonine.
AGA codes for arginine, and ACA codes for
threonine.
This can happen when only one or two letters are
added or deleted.
26
36
Mutations in DNA molecules can occur when F
replication of DNA is exact G a DNA enzyme
attaches to an
RNA codon H RNA codons are replaced by
DNA nucleotides J a change occurs in
DNA nucleotide bases
Home
Back to DNA
Replication
22
37
Home
Back to DNA
38
Home
Ultraviolet radiation can cause mutations in the
DNA of skin cells that have been overexposed to
the sun. This mutated DNA has no effect on future
offspring because F changes in skin cell DNA
are homozygous recessive G mutations must occur
within the RNA codons H offspring reject parental
skin cells J only changes to gamete DNA can
be inherited
Back to DNA
26
39
Genetics and Heredity
Home
Back to genetics
40
Home
Back to genetics
Dad GgBb and Mom ggBB Definitely mom will
give all offspring a B for green
eyes.
According to the table, which of the following
phenotypes would probably occur in all the
offspring from the parents shown above? F Solid
gray fur G Striped gray fur H Green eyes J Blue
eyes
40
41
  • If an organism has the genotype RrSsTtUu, what
    proportion of its gametes will be RSTU?
  • ?½,
  • ?¼,
  • ?1/8,
  • ?1/16.

Home
Back to genetics
RrSsTtUu 24 16 Rr 21 2 RrSs
RrSsTt 22 4 23 8
42
Home
Back to genetics
What is a probable reason why increased uses of
anitbiotics are causing more bacteria to be
resistant to those antibiotics? A The bacteria
get used to an antibiotic. B There are always
individuals in a population that were
created resistant. Those individuals and
their clones are outnumbering the non-resistant
strains.
43
Home
Back to genetics
A pea plant with the genotype TtWW is crossed
with a pea plant with the genotype ttWw. How many
different genotypes can be expressed in the
offspring? F 1 G 2 H 3 J 4
TW
tW


TtWW ttWW
TtWw ttWw
tW
tw
46
44
Home
Back to genetics
45
What trait will most likely be observed in
all offspring of the above set of parents? A
Green feathers B Yellow feathers C Long beak D
Short beak
Home
Back to genetics
The male will ensure that all the offspring green.
Half the offspring will be carriers for yellow.
Half the offspring will have long beaks but will
be carriers for short.
The other half of the offspring will have short
beaks.
53
46
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Back to genetics
47
Home
Back to genetics
48
Home
Back to genetics
49
Coat color in mice varies greatly, ranging from
black to grizzly gray, black-and-white, spotted,
or white. The nucleus from a body cell of a
grizzly-gray mouse is fused with an egg from a
black mouse from which the nucleus has been
removed. The egg begins to divide and is then
transplanted into a female white mouse. What will
be the most likely coat color of the
offspring? F Black G Black with white spots H
Grizzly gray J White
Home
Back to genetics
Egg and sperm from black mice.
Grizzly-gray DNA added
Black mouse fertilized eggs DNA removed.
36
50
The diagram represents the chromosomes of a
person with a genetic disorder caused by
nondisjunction, in which the chromosomes fail to
separate properly. Which chromosome set displays
nondisjunction? F 2 G 8 H 21 J 23
Home
Back to genetics
There should be 2 chromosomes (one from the egg
and one from the sperm) in all the 23 spots.
There are 3 chromosomes instead of two.
22
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