Ali Jamal Battle - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Ali Jamal Battle PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7ca6f0-OGJkY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Ali Jamal Battle

Description:

Ali Jamal Battle A.S. Hashim, MD http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bassorah http://www.ezsoftech.com/islamic/jamal.asp And: http://www.qurannetwork.com/abuturab ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:10
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 54
Provided by: Dr231622
Learn more at: http://islamicbooks.info
Category:
Tags: ali | battle | camels | jamal

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Ali Jamal Battle


1
Ali Jamal Battle
  • A.S. Hashim, MD
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bassorah
  • http//www.ezsoftech.com/islamic/jamal.asp
  • And http//www.qurannetwork.com/abuturab/camel.ht
    ml

2
Sources of Reference
  • Ibn Jarir al-Tabari,
  • Ibn Qutaybah,
  • Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Ali".
  • Madelung,
  • Encyclopaedia of the Holy Prophet and Companions
  • Tabatabaei,
  • Lapidus,
  • The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman
    Empire by Edward Gibbon
  • Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid
  • Dakake
  • Nahj Al-Balagha, Sermon 3
  • Holt, P.M. Lambton, Ann K.S. Lewis, Bernard.
    Cambridge History of Islam.
  • Watt, William Montgomery. Muhammad at Mecca.
    Oxford University Press.

3
In this Slide Show
  • The Gathering Storm
  • Umm Salama Warns Aisha
  • The Howab
  • Mayhem in Basra
  • The Appeal of al-Hasan in Kufa
  • Ali Sends for Negotiations
  • Ali Face to Face with Talha and Zubair
  • Ali Reminds Zubair
  • The Sudden shock
  • Urging the Rebels to Fight
  • Disabling the Camel
  • Digging a Trench for Burial
  • Mourning the Loss
  • Alis Generosity to the Fallen

4
Ali the Khalifa
  • When Uthman was killed, Medina was at the mercy
    of the rebels.
  • The Muhajireen and the Ansaar realized that none
    except Ali could
  • save the city of Medina from being plundered,
  • the people from being massacred,
  • and the government from breaking down,
  • They, therefore, appealed to Ali to take charge
    of the government. 
  • Ali told the Muhajireen and the Ansaar that
  • he would accept their offer if they gave him a
    pledge to obey his orders both in peace and in
    war.
  • They gave him their pledge to obey him, and he
    accepted their offer.

5
Rebellion Rears its Head
  • But only a few days had passed when rebellion
    reared its head in Mecca against the Khalifa
    authority.
  • Ali went into the Mosque, and called upon the
    Muhajireen and the Ansaar
  • to rise in defense of the central government.
  • Their only response was silence.
  • Ali reminded them of the pledge they had given to
    him to obey him and they still did not respond.
  • All his appeals and reminders seemed to fall on
    deaf ears.
  • It was only after many weeks of appeals and a
    great effort that Ali could enlist the support of
    seven hundred volunteers in Medina.
  • This was all that Medina would do for him. He
    left Medina with these volunteers never to
    return.

6
Soon after Uthman
  • Uthman has been killed recently
  • Feeling of agonizing guilt in the land of Islam
    especially in Medina
  • The rebellious from Egypt and Iraq have a heavy
    feeling
  • Ali, though refusing twice, finally agrees for
    his nomination
  • Ali is given allegiance by most Sahaaba and
    others in Medina
  • Ali insists on firing the Benu Umayya Governors
    who were appointed by Uthman, due to their
    corruption.
  • Yala, of Benu Umayya and now the ex-governor of
    Yemen, carries off to Mecca the treasury of Yemen
    after he was fired by Ali.
  • Yala ???? ?? ???? gives to A'isha the treasury
    (sixty thousand Dinars, along with six hundred
    camels) and
  • one camel called Askar ???? , large and
    well-bred, valued at 200 gold pieces.

7
All of them Held a Meeting
  • A'isha was returning to Medina from Mecca after
    Haj,
  • but turned back when she heard the news of
    Uthman's assassination,
  • and the accession of Ali to the Khilaafah.
  • Aisha's two brothers-in-law Talha and Zubair ibn
    al-Awwam,
  • who were considered to be two significant
    Sahaaba, also arrived in Mecca.
  • Uthman's governor in Mecca was ibn Umayr
    al-Hadhrami.
  • Marwan ibn al-Hakam and others of Benu Umayya,
    (Uthman's clan), were staying as al-Hadhramis
    guests.
  • All of them held a meeting.

8
The Circumstances
  • A'isha, was in Mecca for the pilgrimage when the
    third Khalifa, Uthman, was killed.
  • She had expected and wished for either Talha or
    Zubair to succeed him
  • Both Talha Zubair were brothers-in-law of
    Aisha.
  • Her youngest sister was the wife of Talha, who
    was also a cousin of her father.
  • Her oldest sister was a wife of Zubair, whose son
    Abdullah was adopted by Aisha.
  • A'isha was 46 year old, and do you remember how
    she called for killing Uthman only a few months
    back, now that Uthman was killed, she turned
    against Ali?

9
The Gathering Storm
  • A'isha got Talha's and Zubair's support
  • Even though both of them had already given their
    oath of allegiance to Ali when he was nominated.
  • Twelve years earlier both Talha and Zubair had
    been nominated for the Khilaafah by Omar before
    his death,
  • but then, instead, Uthman was chosen for the
    Khilaafah.
  • Uthman had appointed his family members as
    Governors over many regions of the fledgling land
    of Islam.
  • These Governors were fired by Ali. Thus they
    were aggrieved.
  • Benu Umayya did not give allegiance to Ali.
  • A'isha and the aggrieved Benu Umayya to whom
    Uthman had belonged, supported each other against
    Ali.

10
The Gathering Storm
  • The ex-governors of Uthman, and many of Benu
    Umayya had by now joined Aisha.
  • Yala, the ex-governor of Yemen, had carried off
    to Mecca a large sum of treasure when he was
    displaced by Ali.
  • He gave over to A'isha sixty thousand Dinars,
    along with six hundred camels
  • One camel was very large and well-bred, valued at
    200 gold pieces.
  • It was named Askar ????and was especially
    presented for A'isha's personal transportation.
  • A large number of Arabs were also paid to enlist
    in the army, whose fathers and brothers had been
    killed by Ali in defending Islam.
  • And many a discontented Arab flocked under the
    Standard too.

11
In Completing her Preparations
  • Completing her preparations for the
    confrontation
  • A'isha unsuccessfully tried to convince one of
    the previous wives of Muhammad, Umm Salama, to
    side with her.
  • Umm Salama instead tried, and almost succeeded in
    convincing A'isha to abandon her plan
  • but Zubair's son (Abdullah Ibn al-Zubair)
    persuaded her to proceed.
  • A'isha had also tried to persuade another of
    Muhammad's previous wives, Hafsa Bint Omar to
    follow her but Hafsa's brother Ibn Omar stopped
    her from doing so.
  • A'isha mounted on a litter on the camel Askar
    ???? , and marched from Mecca at the head of
    1,000 men.
  • On her right was Talha, and on her left Zubair.

12
Umm Salama Warns Aisha
  • Umm Salama (also wife of the Prophet) reminded
    Aisha
  • of the time when the Prophet had addressed all
    his wives saying
  • that the dogs of How'ab ?????? would bark at one
    of them, who would be part of a rebellious mob.
  • She then warned A'isha not to be fooled by the
    words of Talha and Zubair
  • who would only entangle her in wrong deeds.
  • This advice had a sobering effect on A'isha, who
    almost gave up her plan. However, her adopted
    son, Abdullah bin Zubair, convinced her to go
    ahead.

13
The Rebellious Forces
  • The Rebellious consisted of
  • Aisha, Talha, and Zubair
  • Benu Umayya
  • Quraish people from Mecca, whose loved ones were
    killed by Ali in the battles of Islam
  • Other people from Quraish
  • Mercenaries who were paid Total so far 1,000
  • Bedouins on the way enrolled for the pay Total
    so far 3,000
  • People from Basra, many of whom were employees of
    Zubair Total reached 30,000

14
Who was to Lead the Prayers!
  • A month after the death of Uthman, and during the
    march of the Meccan troops,
  • queries began to arise if either Talha or Zubair
    would appoint himself as Khalifa, in the event of
    a victory.
  • Thus, the position of the Imamah of prayers,
    (correlated to the Islamic Khilaafah), was
    disputed among the troops.
  • But A'isha, seeking to cease the strife, gave
    Shura statement
  • that neither Talha nor Zubair should lead the
    prayer, but Abdullah son of Zubair should lead
    the prayers instead.
  • And so it was later given out that the choice of
    the future Khalifa, (in case of victory of the
    Meccan troops) should be left to the men of
    Medina.

15
The Howab ??????
  • On the way to Basra, the rebel army received news
    that Imam Ali had come out of Medina in their
    pursuit.
  • They decided to leave the main road and proceed
    to Basra through a different route.
  • When they passed through the valley of How'ab the
    dogs of the village barked loudly.
  • A'isha was startled, as if she remembered a very
    important thing. 
  • Worriedly she asked, "What do you call this
    place?" 
  • People got surprised, wondering why, but some of
    them came back to say, "This place is called
    Al-How'ab". 
  • A'isha, to the surprise of all, became very upset
    and demanded to go back to Medina immediately, to
    call it off, to quit! 
  • She recalled what the Prophet had said 26 years
    ago.

16
The Prophet had Said
  • ?? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????
    ????? ?????????
  • ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?
  • ?? ???????   ???? ??? ??? ???????
  • "I wonder who of you will be the instigator of
    the Jamal affair
  • at whom the dogs of How'ab will bark
  • and she will be the one who has deviated from the
    straight path
  • As to you, O Humaira (A'isha)
  • I have warned you in that regard."
  • (Ibn Atheer, Al-Kaamil, Vol. 3, Page 120.  Also
    Book of Al-Imamah and Al-Siyasah)
  •  (Humaira was A'isha's endearing name.)

17
The Howab ??????
  • Aisha then got off her camel, refusing to go any
    further.
  • Talha and Zubair tried to convince her that the
    place was not How'ab
  • But Abdullah Ibn Zubair managed to bring 50 false
    witnesses
  • to testify to this lie, but in vain.
  • Finally, they somehow convinced her that it was
    not Al-Howab, lying through their teeth.
  • It is said they raised a cry that Ali was
    approaching,
  • Thus Aisha quickly remounted and the march was
    resumed.

18
The Howab ??????
  • ???? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ???
    ???? ???????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ???
    ?????? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ???
  • ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ???? ??
    ???? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ??
    ??? ?? ????? ?????? ??????
  • ???? ??? ?? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??
    ????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ???
  • ??? ????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??
    ?????? ????? ??????
  • ?????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???????
  • ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ????? ???
    ??????? ????????
  • ????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????
    ??? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??????
  • ??? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????
    ??? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???
    ?????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ???? ??? ?????

19
The Rumors of Defection
  • When rumors of the defection of Talha and Zubair
    along with others first reached Medina,
  • Ali refused to move against the malcontents
  • so long as no overt act of rebellion threatened
    the unity of the Islamic nation.
  • But shortly after, news arrived of the design on
    Basra.
  • At first, Ali thought that the insurgents had not
    made Kufa, with its greater Bedouin population,
    their object.
  • Ibn Abbas, however, pointed out that Basra was
    really the more dangerous,
  • because fewer of the leading chiefs were there,
    able to curb the people and repress rebellion.

20
The Disturbances in Mecca
  • Meanwhile, Ali had received information about
    Aishas plans from Umm Salama (the wife of the
    prophet),
  • and news of the disturbances in Mecca and Basra
    also came through.
  • Ali made immediate plans to march towards Basra
    but could only raise 900 men with difficulty.
  • The people were reluctant to fight Aisha,
    (considered to be the Mother of the Faithful, the
    widow of the Prophet).
  • Also, the cry for avenging the blood of Uthman
    was too loud, confusing the people.

21
Ali on the Way
  • Ali admitted this and quite concerned
  • He gave orders that his forces which were
    destined for Syria to march instead to Nejd,
  • hoping thereby to intercept the insurgents on
    their way to Basra.
  • A column of 900 men was got together, at the head
    of which Ali marched hastily in pursuit of the
    insurgents
  • but on striking the Mecca road he found that they
    had already passed.
  • Not being equipped for further advance, he halted
    there.
  • Messengers were sent to Kufa, Egypt, and
    elsewhere, demanding reinforcements and for
    these Ali the Khalifa waited before he went
    forward.

22
The Rebels Reach Basra
  • The rebel forces reached Basra, and encamped
    close by.
  • Messages were exchanged, and Uthman ibn Huneif
    ????? ?? ???? , the governor of Basra
  • aware that the cry of vengeance for Uthman was in
    reality a design against his Khalifa, Ali ibn Abi
    Talib,
  • ibn Huneif called an assembly to try the temper
    of the people.
  • Finding from the uproar that the strangers had a
    strong party in the city,
  • ibn Huneif put on his armor, and, followed by the
    larger portion of the citizens, went forth to
    meet the enemy,
  • who, on their side, was joined from the town by
    all the malcontents.
  • A parley ensued. Talha, Zubair, and A'isha all
    three declaimed against the murderers of Uthman,
    demanding their arrest and justice.

23
Al-Basra
  • Distance about 1000 miles
  • 18 overnight stops
  • Distance between overnight stops varies from 35
    to 55 miles
  • The route is across the desert
  • Trip is arduous to say the least

24
Within the Perspective of Kufa
  • Ali sent al-Hasan and Ammar ibn Yasir to Kufa to
    bring reinforcements for him.
  • Kufa mustered 12,000 warriors, and it were these
    warriors who fought in the battle of the Camel,
    and defeated the "triumvirate" of Aisha, Talha
    and Zubair.
  • Mecca, Medina and Basra had left Ali in no
    illusions about what they would do in an
    emergency.
  • But the citizens of Kufa had sent reinforcements
    to him at a most critical moment in Alis career.
  • He could clearly see that if there was war with
    Mu'awiya, he had only the army of Kufa to depend
    upon.
  • It was, therefore, the logic of events that
    influenced Ali's decision to make Kufa the
    capital of the empire.

25
The Protestation of Others
  • The other side were equally loud in their
    protestations against A'isha and her attack upon
    their city.
  • They said it was a shame and a slight on the
    legacy and memory of Muhammad
  • for her to forego the sanctity of the Hijab,
  • and the proprieties of Umm al-Mu'minin ("Mother
    of the Faithful").
  • Ali had been elected and saluted as Khalifa
  • and now Talha and Zubair were violating the
    allegiance
  • which they had been among the very first to swear
    it.

26
The End Result of Protestation
  • Both Talha and Zubair protested that the oath had
    been forced upon them.
  • On this point the controversy turned and from
    words they fell to blows.
  • Night interposed, but fighting was resumed the
    following day
  • and with so serious a loss to Basra that a truce
    was called and agreement come to,
  • on the understanding that the facts should be
    ascertained from Medina.
  • If force had really been put upon Zubair and
    Talha to take the oath,
  • then Uthman ibn Huneif, the governor, would
    retire and leave the city in their hands.

27
Mayhem in Basra
  • The insurgents called on Uthman ibn Huneif to
    evacuate the City according to agreement,
  • Uthman ibn Huneif produced the letter of Ali, the
    Khalifa and refused to evacuate.
  • The letter emphasized that no force was ever
    used.
  • But the insurgents had already obtained a footing
    within the city.
  • Arming themselves, they repaired to the Mosque
    for evening service, and,
  • the night being dark and stormy, were not
    perceived until they had overpowered the
    bodyguard,
  • The rebels entered the adjoining Palace, and made
    a prisoner of the governor Uthman ibn Huneif.
    They killed many guards and took the tools of
    war.
  • To insult the Governor, they removed the hair of
    his eye brows, moustache, and beard.

28
Ali on the Way
  • Finding that the insurgent troops, with A'isha,
    Zubair, and Talha had already passed,
  • Ali halted for a while on the road to Basra,
    waiting for reinforcement, though he was joined
    on his march by certain loyal tribes.
  • To Kufa, Ali addressed a special summons,
  • inhabited as it was by many veterans on whose
    loyalty he might reasonably depend
  • and he added force to the call by promising that
    Kufa should be his seat of government.
  • "See," Ali wrote, "have I not chosen your city
    over all other cities for my own? Unto you do I
    look for succor, if haply peace and unity should
    again prevail as it behooves, among brethren in
    the faith."

29
In Kufa
  • But the summons was at the first unheeded.
  • The City was made up of many factions
  • and from some of these factions the cry of
    A'isha, (demanding revenge for Uthman's blood),
    had already found response.
  • Abu Musa, Kufas Governor, was unequal to the
    emergency.
  • Loyal to the memory of Uthman, Abu Musa sought to
    allay the ferment by a neutral course,
  • and he urged the citizens to join neither party,
    but instead remain at home.
  • A second deputation meeting with no better
    success, Ali bethought him of sending his elder
    son Hasan, in Company with Ammar ibn Yasir, the
    former Governor of Kufa, to urge his cause.

30
Al-Hasan in Kufa
  • Al-Hasan, son of Ali, was at the top of the
    pulpit, in the Grand Masjid of Kufa
  • and Ammar was seated below him. All had gathered
    before him. And Ammar, the former Governor of
    Kufa was heard saying
  • "A'isha has moved to Busra. By Allah! She is the
    wife of your Prophet in this world and in the
    Hereafter. But Allah has put you to test whether
    you obey him (Ali) or her (A'isha).
  • Thus al-Hasan raised 9,000 men, then other units
    arrived as well, all joining Ali at his camp at
    Dhi Qaar.

31
The Appeal of al-Hasan
  • The appeal of al-Hasan, grandson of Muhammad, had
    the desired effect.
  • A tumult arose, and Abu Musa, unable to maintain
    his weak neutrality, was deposed.
  • The Arab tribes rallied around the loyalists.
  • Soon thousands of men, partly by land, partly by
    river, set out to join Ali, the Khalifa,
  • who, advancing slowly, awaited their arrival.
  • Thus reinforced, Ali was able to take the field
    effectively, and march on the rebellious city.

32
Battle of Jamal
  • A'isha, Talha, and Zubair lead an uprising
  • Ali meets the rebels near Basra
  • Ali negotiates with them to prevent fighting
  • Ali reminds Zubair of a Hadith, Zubair quits the
    rebels
  • Ali sends the Quran to be the judge
  • Person with the Quran is killed by A'isha
    fighters
  • Fighting breaks out, the renouncers lose, battle
    almost over
  • A'isha is suddenly present on a camel urging to
    fight Ali
  • Fierce fighting erupts again, numerous casualties
  • The camel is disabled, the battle abruptly comes
    to an end
  • A'isha sent home in full respect

33
The Prophet had Said to Ali
  • Ali had always remembered what the Prophet had
    told him about 25 years ago, and how his
    prediction was so accurate 
  • The Prophet had said
  •  ??? ??????  ?????????  ??????????  ????????????
  • O' Ali, you will be obliged to fight against
  • The renouncers ?????????
  • The malicious ????????? and
  • The deviants ???????????.
  • (Al-Haakim, Mustadrak, vol. 3, page 139)

34
Face to Face
  • Basra itself was not wholly hostile,
  • and scores of the citizens came out to join the
    camp of Ali.
  • The insurgent army, nearly equaling that of Ali,
  • now marched forth with Talha and Zubair at their
    head,
  • and A'isha herself seated in a well-fenced litter
    of the camel called Askar ???? . Askar was the
    camel given to her by the governor of Yemen who
    was dismissed by Ali.
  • But Ali's thoughts were for peace if possible.
  • The cry of Talha and Zubair was for vengeance
    against the murderers of Uthman
  • and against these, Ali as yet did not deny that
    justice should be dealt. But he was obliged to
    temporize..

35
Ali Sends for Negotiations
  • Ali had in his army great numbers of the very men
    who had risen against Uthman
  • and he felt that to inflict punishment on them
    (as his adversaries required),
  • would for the present be impossible.
  • Holding these views, he halted, still some little
    way from Basra,
  • and sent forward Al-QaQa' (who with other
    leaders of renown had joined him from Kufa)
  • He sent Al-QaQa to expostulate with Talha and
    Zubair.

36
Negotiations
  • Al-QaQa addressed them saying
  • "Ye have already slain 60 men of Basra for the
    blood of Uthman and lo! to avenge their blood,
    6000 more have started up.
  • Where is this internecine war to stop?
  • It is peace and harmony that Islam needs now.
  • Give that, and again the majesty of law shall be
    set up, and the guilty brought to justice."
  • As he spoke, Zubair, Talha and A'isha returned
    word that if these really were the sentiments of
    Ali, they were ready to submit.
  • After several days spent in such negotiations,
    Ali, glad at the prospect of a bloodless
    compromise, advanced.

37
Ali Face to Face with Talha and Zubair
  • The army of A'isha remained encamped on the
    outskirts of the city.
  • Ali's force, advancing unopposed, halted within
    sight
  • and negotiations for peace went on, evidently
    substantial and sincere.
  • Ali himself approached on horseback and Talha
    with Zubair rode forth to confer with him.
  • "Wherefore have ye risen against me" said Ali
    "did ye not swear homage to me?" "Yea" replied
    Talha "but coerced into it and now we demand
    justice against the murderers of Uthman."
  • Ali replied that he no less than they held the
    murderers of Uthman to be guilty he even cursed
    them in no measured terms, but added that for
    their punishment they must bide their time.

38
Ali Reminds Zubair
  • Ali met Zubair and reminded him of the Prophet
    when 30 years earlier he said
  • You will fight against Ali and to him you are
    atrocious.
  • ??? ??? ??????? ??? ?????
  • ???? ????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??? ???? ????
    ????? ???? ???? ???? ???
  • ????????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?????
  • ??? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??????.
  • Zubair suddenly recalled this.
  • He abandoned his camp despite the attempts of his
    son to do otherwise.
  • Zubair had left some distance, and was killed by
    Amr ibn Jarmouz while he was praying.

39
The Sudden shock
  • Towards morning, a sudden shock changed the
    scene.
  • The besiegers of Uthman, during the night,
    carried their design into execution.
  • Led by them, squadrons of Bedouin lances bore
    down, while yet dark, upon the Basra tents.
  • In a moment all was confusion.
  • Each camp believed that it had been attacked by
    the other
  • and the dawn found both armies drawn up, as the
    conspirators desired, in mortal combat against
    each other.

40
In Vain Ali Endeavors to Hold Back
  • In vain Ali endeavored to hold back his men.
  • The sense of treachery embittered the conflict.
  • It was a strange engagement,the first in which
    Muslims had crossed swords with Muslims.
  • It resembled a battle of the old Arab times, only
    that for tribal rivalry were now substituted
    other issues.
  • Clans were broken up, and it became in some
    measure a contest between the two rival cities
  • "The Benu Rabi'a of Kufa fought against the Benu
    Rabi'a of Basra,
  • the Benu Modhar of the one against the Benu
    Modhar of the other,
  • and so on, with the various tribes, and even with
    families,
  • one part arrayed against the other.
  • The fierceness and obstinacy of the battle can be
    only thus accounted for.

41
Al-Zubair
  • The attitude of the leaders was in marked
    contrast with the bitter struggle of the ranks.
  • Zubair, half-hearted since his interview with
    Ali, left the battlefield, and was killed in an
    adjoining valley.
  • A man named Amr ibn Jarmouz had followed Zubair
    and murdered him while he performed Salat.
  • When they brought to Ali the sword of Zubair, Ali
    cursed the man who took his life
  • Ali called to mind the feats displayed by Zubair
    that wielded it in the early battles of Islam
  • exclaimed"Many a time hath this sword driven
    care and sorrow from the Prophet's brow."

42
Urging the Rebels to Fight
  • Marwan ibn al-Hakam shot his own general Talha
  • who became disabled, and carried into Basra,
    where he died.
  • Bereft of their leaders, the insurgent troops
    retreated to Basra.
  • They were falling back upon the city, when they
    saw Aisha.
  • A'isha on her part, was urging the insurgents to
    fight. She cried out over and over again, "Slay
    the killers of Uthman."
  • The words ran through the retreating ranks,
  • that "the Mother of the Faithful was in danger,"
    and they stayed their flight to help her. As a
    result
  • Long the conflict raged around the camel.
  • One after another of the warriors rushed to
    seize her standard one after another they were
    cut down. Of Quraish, 70 perished by the bridle.

43
Disabling the Camel
  • Ali, perceiving that Aishas camel was the
    rallying-point of the insurgents, he immediately
  • sent one of his captains to disable the camel
    right away, by cutting its legs So done
  • the camel fell with a loud cry, the litter in
    which Aisha was seated was rescued, and
    suddenly
  • the fighting ceased and the insurgents retired
    into the city.
  • The litter, was taken down, and, by desire of
    Ali,
  • It was placed in a retired spot,
  • where A'isha's brother Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr
    pitched a tent for her.

44
Digging a Trench for Burial
  • Later a great trench was dug, and into it the
    dead were lowered, friends and foes alike.
  • Ali, encamped for three days without the city,
    himself performed the funeral service.
  • It was a new experience to bury the dead
  • slain in battle not against the infidels, but
    believer fighting against believer, brother
    against brother.
  • Instead of cursing the memory of his enemies, Ali
    spoke hopefully of the future state of such as
    had entered the field, on whatever side.
  • When they brought him the sword of Zubair he
    cursed the man who took his life
  • and calling to mind the feats displayed by the
    man that wielded it in the early battles of
    Islam, exclaimed"Many a time hath this sword
    driven care and sorrow from the Prophet's brow."

45
Mourning the Loss
  • The Muslims might well mourn the memory both of
    Talha and Zubair,
  • remembering how they defended at the peril of
    their own lives
  • Their fall, and that of many of the Companions,
    was a loss to the Ummah itself,
  • because it left the Quraish seriously weak in the
    struggle.
  • yet to be fought out between them and those Arab
    tribes responsible for all the misunderstanding
    and Uthman's murder.
  • Ali declared a general amnesty for all the rebels
  • In this battle Ali restrained his men from taking
    any war booty
  • and all property found on the battle ground was
    gathered in the mosque of Basra, from where the
    owners could claim their possessions

46
Alis Generosity to the Fallen
  • The bearing of Ali was generous towards his
    fallen foe.
  • Having entered the city, he divided the contents
    of the treasury amongst the troops which had
    fought on his side,
  • promising them a still larger reward "when the
    Lord should have delivered Syria (Mu'awiya) into
    his hands.
  • But otherwise he treated friends and foes alike,
  • and buried in oblivion animosities of the past.
  • Marwan and the adherents of the house of Benu
    Umayya were set free.
  • They fled to their homes, or else went to join
    Mu'awiya against Ali.

47
A'isha Taken Back in Respect
  • Aisha was taken back to Medina in full respect,
    since she was the Prophet's wife, the mother of
    the faithful. 
  • Many guardians were sent with her, about 30 of
    whom were special. 
  • The guardians were under the leadership of her
    own brother, Muhammad son of Abu Bakr. 
  • Aishas brother, Muhammad son of Abu Bakr was on
    Ali's side
  • and had fought against her! 

48
A'isha Discovers then
  • After a few weeks of hard travel A'isha arrived
    in Medina, tired and emotionally drained. 
  • She discovered then that the about 30 guards who
    were close in her service,
  • who looked like men, were actually women dressed
    in men's clothes! 
  • It was out of respect for her, being the
    Prophet's wife, that Ali had ordered such special
    arrangement! 
  • How clever, even at such circumstances! 
  • A'isha had complained to her friends that Ali put
    that many guards (men) close to her. 
  • Hearing that, the guards disclosed their
    identitythat they actually were females but
    dressed like males. 
  • Seeing that, A'isha fell in Sujood thanking Allah
    for Ali's favor to her.

49
The Only Class Dissatisfied
  • The only class dissatisfied was that of the
    slaves and rabble,
  • who murmured at having no share in the treasure,
  • nor any chance of plunder
  • since with the just and fair Ali at the helm,
    plunder was ruled out.
  • These, gathering into marauding bands, occasioned
    much disquietude to the Khalifa,
  • and hastened his departure from the city, with
    the view of checking the mischief they were bent
    on.

50
In Sermon 22, Ali about the Renouncers
??? ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ???????.
About those who renounced their pledge to him Beware! Satan has started to instigate his parties and has collected his forces So that inequity may reach the extreme and the wrong may come back to its position. By Allah they have not put a correct blame on me, nor have they done justice between me and themselves.
51
In Conclusion
  • Ali and the Battle of Jamal
  • Umm Salama Warns Aisha
  • The Howab
  • Mayhem in Basra
  • Ali Sends for Negotiations
  • Ali Face to Face with Talha and Zubair
  • Ali Reminds Zubair
  • The Sudden shock
  • Urging the Rebels to Fight
  • Disabling the Camel
  • Digging a Trench for Burial
  • Alis Generosity to the Fallen

52
Finally we quote the Quran
By the Token of Time Verily Man is in loss, Except those who believe and do good works, and exhort one another to Truth and exhort one another to patience. ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????
53
THANK YOU
  • Be in Gods Care
  • Dr. A.S. Hashim
About PowerShow.com