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Title: AP Review Topics 2014


1
AP Review Topics 2014
  • Topics requested by the class (plus some topics
    left over from my 2012 and 2013 classes)

2
Renaissance era Humanism
3
Humanism Intro
  • Petrarch father of Humanism
  • Form of scholarship return to the classics of
    Greece and Rome, critical historical scholarship
  • Civic humanism originates in Italian city
    states, brings together humanism with civic
    reform
  • Christian humanism part of Northern Renaissance,
    brings together humanism with Christian teachings

4
Humanist Education
  • Prepares someone for life of action
  • Studies grammar, rhetoric, liberal arts,
    philosophy, poetry, politics, history, etc.
  • Rejected scholasticism
  • Castigliones Book of the Courtier uses humanist
    ideas to show how to be successful at court
  • Florentine Academy revives the study of Plato

5
Christian Humanism
  • Erasmus Prince of the Humanists
  • Spread ideas of classical authors
  • Praise of Folly criticized ignorance of church
  • Used knowledge of classical languages to improve
    understanding of Bible
  • Sir Thomas More Utopia spread ideas of reason
    and tolerance, against ignorance and
    superstition, but not anti-Christian

6
The reformation and counter-reformation
7
Reformation First Steps
  • 1517 Luther posts the 95 Theses
  • Luthers main ideas
  • salvation by faith alone
  • Angry about indulgences (Johann Tetzel)
  • Bible only true source of Christian practice
  • 2 sacraments baptism and holy communion
  • priesthood of all believers Bible in
    vernacular
  • Lutheranism quickly spread throughout German
    states

8
The Reformation Spreads
  • Protestant ideas spread throughout German states
    and into Switzerland (Zwingli)
  • 1520 Luther excommunicated (Leo X)
  • 1524-25 Peasant Revolt
  • 1530 Diet of Augsburg Charles V rejects
    Luthers Confession of Augsburg (statement of
    faith)
  • Civil War in German states between Protestant
    princes (Schmalkaldic League) vs. Catholic
    Hapsburgs
  • 1555 Peace of Augsburg whose region, his
    religion

9
The Reformation Beyond Luther
  • 1534-35 Anabaptists rule Munster
  • Reject infant baptism, taking oaths, bearing
    arms, ties between church/state
  • Crushed (ex. Liberation of Munster)
  • 1536 Calvin publishes The Institutes of the
    Christian Religion
  • Bible only true source of practice, 2 sacraments
  • Predestination salvation only for the elect
  • Strict theocracy set up in Geneva

10
The Anglican Church Under Henry VIII
  • Henry VIII wanted a divorce? couldnt get one?
    creates his own church (with help from Thomas
    Cranmer)
  • Act of Supremacy (1534) king head of church in
    England NOT pope
  • Six Articles defined religious practices (mostly
    Catholic except for authority of Pope)
  • Monasteries were dissolved? land sold to raise
    and win supporters

11
The Anglican Church Edward VI and Mary
  • True Protestant reform under Edward VI
  • 42 Articles defined practice more Calvinist
    ideas introduced
  • Adoption of Thomas Cranmers Book of Common
    Prayer
  • Queen Mary brought back Catholicism and married
    Philip II of Spain
  • Persecution of Protestants (Bloody Mary)

12
Anglican Reformation Elizabethan Settlement
  • Queen Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603)
  • Act of Supremacy
  • Act of Uniformity Book of Common Prayer returned
  • 39 Articles defined church practice generally
    Protestant but still ruled by bishops
  • Elizabethan Settlement some compromise and
    ambiguity? attempting to unite people
  • Opposition remained (Puritans, Catholics)

13
Counter ReformationCouncil of Trent Doctrine
  • Began in 1545
  • Reaffirmed Doctrine
  • No compromise with Protestants
  • Sources for beliefs Bible and traditions
  • Justification through faith and good works
  • Reaffirmed 7 sacraments
  • Reaffirmed veneration of relics/images,
    purgatory, indulgences

14
Counter ReformationCouncil of Trent Reforms
  • Reforms of the Catholic Church
  • No absenteeism (archbishops and bishops live in
    areas they served)
  • Simony (sale of church offices) outlawed
  • Expansion of seminaries
  • No indulgences in exchange for cash
  • No fees to deliver sacraments
  • Strengthened papal authority? reforms of Council
    not official without papal approval (1564
    approved by Pius IV)

15
Counter-Reformation Jesuits
  • New religious orders in response to Reformation
  • Society of Jesus most influential
  • Started by Ignatius of Loyola
  • Supported
  • Poverty and chastity
  • Disciplined prayer
  • Military organization
  • Strong education
  • Missionary activity converting people to
    Catholicism or getting them back from
    Protestantism

16
The Religious wars
17
Religious Wars France Intro
  • Calvinism grew in France, particularly amongst
    nobility
  • Three decades of war between Catholics and
    Huguenots
  • Henry II died (1559), France dominated by widow,
    Catherine de Medici
  • Guise family led Catholic factions
  • Bourbon family led Huguenots

18
Religious Wars France
  • Warfare between sides began in 1562, uneasy peace
    in 1570
  • 1572 St. Bartholomews Day Massacre renewed
    fighting? War of the Three Henrys
  • Henry of Navarre King Henry IV (r. 1589-1610)
  • Made peace between warring factions
  • Paris is worth a mass.
  • Edict of Nantes (1598)

19
Religious Wars SpainNetherlands
  • Philip II controlled Spain, Spanish Empire,
    Netherlands, Burgundy, Two Sicilies, Sardinia,
    islands in W. Mediterranean
  • Dutch revolted against foreign rule
  • Upset about Catholicism (many Calvinist) and
    Spanish taxation
  • Duke of Alva sent to control Netherlands?
    rebellion continued
  • Spanish rule restored in South
  • Northern provinces formed Union of Utrecht
    (1579), William of Orange (the Silent) led
  • Independence struggle continues, truce in 1609,
    independence recognized 1648

20
Religious Wars Spain vs. England
  • Spanish/ English alliance ended with Marys death
  • Philip wanted to conquer England and free it from
    Protestant control
  • 1588 launched the Spanish Armada
  • Huge loss for Spain? hurt Spanish prestige, step
    in Spains decline

21
Religious Wars 30 Years War (background)
  • Peace of Augsburg only recognized Lutheranism or
    Catholicism
  • Calvinists wanted rights
  • Fighting begins in Hapsburg ruled, Bohemia

22
Religious Wars 30 Years War, Bohemian Phase
  • Bohemian Calvinists worried about Ferdinands
    (Hapsburg, HRE) election as king of Bohemia
  • Defenestration of Prague (1618) Catholic members
    of royal council thrown out window
  • Rebels took control of Prague, demanded Ferdinand
    out, got help from the Palatinate
  • Catholic victory? w/ help from Bavaria,
    Palatinate put under Catholic control

23
Religious Wars 30 Years War, Danish Phase
  • King Christian IV of Denmark and Holstein
    (Lutheran) intervened against Ferdinand II
  • Catholic Victory w/ help of Albrecht von
    Wallenstein Denmark was defeated and pushed out
    of German affairs

24
Religious Wars 30 Years War, Swedish Phase
  • King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden invaded Germany.
  • France comes in too against Hapsburgs
  • Early Swedish victories? Wallenstein defeated but
    Adolphus killed (1632)
  • Forces exhausted, Treaty of Prague signed?
    strengthened Hapsburgs (Catholic Victory)

25
Religious Wars 30 Years War, French Phase
  • France (Cardinal Richelieu) wanted to weaken
    Hapsburgs? gets directly involved in war
  • Eventually France/Protestants won
  • France occupied Bavaria
  • Peace negotiations began 1641.
  • Protestant/French victory

26
Religious Wars Peace of Westphalia (1648)
  • Territory gained for France, Sweden, Brandenburg
  • Independence of Netherlands and Switzerland
  • German states can make own treaties and alliances
  • Recognition for Calvinists
  • Fragmented the HRE
  • Isolated Spanish Hapsburgs
  • France turning into major power

27
Major figures of the scientific revolution
28
Astronomy opposing the Ptolemaic view
  • Nicholas Copernicus introduces heliocentric
    theory in On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres
  • Tycho Brahe detailed observations of universe,
    didnt support heliocentric, gave notes to Kepler
  • Johannes Kepler heliocentric theory, 3 laws of
    planetary motion (elliptical orbits)

29
Astronomy Galileo
  • Improvements to telescope
  • Evidence of heliocentric theory
  • Moons of Jupiter, rings of Saturn, craters on
    Moon, sunspots
  • Condemned by Catholic Church, books banned by
    Inquisition, ordered to recant
  • While under house arrest, worked on laws of motion

30
Sir Isaac Newton
  • Studies of motion, optics, invented calculus
  • Principia Mathematic (1687)
  • Law of Universal Gravitation
  • Mathematical explanation of gravity
  • Explains planetary motion and the motion of
    EVERYTHING

31
The Scientific Method
  • Francis Bacon
  • Inductive method experimentation, systematic
    observation, collection of data BEFORE coming to
    scientific generalizations
  • Rene Descartes
  • Deductive method reasoning out general law from
    specific cases then applying it to cases that can
    not be observed
  • I think therefore I am

32
A Few More Areas of Science
  • Anatomy and Physiology
  • Rejecting the ideas of Galen
  • Andreas Vesalius detailed anatomical drawings
  • William Harvey heart functions as pump, blood
    circulates
  • Chemistry
  • Robert Boyle Boyles Law (volume/pressure)

33
Major Philosophes of the Enlightenment
34
Philosophes
  • Critics of the Old Regime
  • new ideas on government, economics, religion
  • Proposed ways to improve human condition and
    reform society
  • Believed in supremacy of reason
  • Reason could reveal natural laws
  • Believed in progress

35
Philosophes Foundations
  • Hobbes? social contract
  • Locke? social contract, natural rights, tabula
    rasa

36
Philosophes Voltaire
  • Most well-known philosophe
  • Supported
  • Enlightened Despotism
  • Deism rational approach to Christianity
  • Tolerance

37
Philosophes Rousseau
  • More radical thinker
  • Natural education? learn from direct experience
  • Social Contract
  • All men are born free, but everywhere they are
    in chains
  • Government should be formed based on the general
    will

38
Philosophes Montesquieu
  • No ideal political system (situation varies from
    place to place)
  • Admired British system
  • Separation of powers between branches of
    government with a checks and balance system

39
Philosophes Beccaria
  • Essay on Crimes and Punishments
  • Law and justice should conform to the laws of
    nature
  • Against torture and death penalty
  • Supported quick justice
  • Punishment should work to rehabilitate criminal

40
Philosophes Economics
  • Physiocrats
  • Laissez-faire
  • Land source of wealth (not gold and silver)
  • Only tax should be on land
  • Adam Smith
  • Laissez-faire
  • Mercantilism interferes with natural laws
  • Economic self-interest should regulate economy

41
Wars of the late 17th/ early 18th century
42
Louis XIVs Wars
  • War of Devolution (1667-1668) France invaded Sp.
    Netherlands and Franche-Comte. Louis forced to
    withdraw, but won some land on border of Sp.
    Netherlands
  • Dutch War (1672-1678) Louis invaded Holland,
    Dutch flooded their land to resist, France won
    Franche-Comte and lands on border of Sp. Neth.
  • War of the League of Augsburg (1688-1697) a.k.a.
    Nine Years War, Louis trying to expand to Rhine,
    William of Orange formed alliance against him,
    Louis lost most gains BUT kept Alsace.
  • War of Spanish Succession

43
War of Spanish Succession
  • Spanish king died w/out heir? left crown to Louis
    XIVs grandson Philip of Anjou? Major powers did
    NOT want to see France in control of Spain and
    the Spanish colonies
  • Peace settlements (1713/1714)
  • Philip of Anjou Spanish king BUT successors
    could not also rule France
  • Austrian Hapsburg won Spanish Netherlands and
    land in Italy
  • France lost colonies in North America to England
  • England won land including Gibraltar and won
    Asiento (contract to trade slaves in North
    America)
  • Elector of Brandenburg king of Prussia

44
War of Austrian Succession
  • War of Jenkins Ear merged with European war
    (Frederick the Great of Prussia trying to take
    Silesia from Maria Theresa of Austria)
  • Prussia, France, Spain, Bavaria, Saxony vs.
    Austria, Great Britain, Netherlands
  • Colonies Great Britain fighting France in North
    America and India
  • Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)
  • Austria forced to recognize Prussian control of
    Silesia
  • All other major territorial gains returned
  • Maria Theresa recognized as heir to Hapsburg land
  • Confirmed emergence of Prussia as great power
  • Did not settle colonial issues

45
Diplomatic Revolution
  • Prussia allied with Great Britain
  • Austria allied with France (ended traditional
    rivalry between France and Hapsburgs)
  • Russia joined in alliance
  • Old rivalries still remained (Fr/GB, Aus/Pru)

46
Seven Years War (1756-1763) Europe
  • Frederick the Great invaded Saxony (ally of
    Austria)? Frederick said it was a preventative
    war
  • Britain provided financial support (not military)
  • France struggled fighting in Europe and colonies
    simultaneously
  • 1762 anti-Prussian alliance fell apart when
    Russia made peace with Prussia

47
Seven Years War (1756-1763) Colonies
  • a.k.a. French and Indian War
  • Britain initially doing poorly
  • William Pitt the Elder turned things around
  • Aid to Prussia
  • Reorganized military
  • Retained control of the seas
  • Major victories starting in 1757 (Plessy, Wet
    Indies, Fort Duquesne? Pittsburg, Montreal)
  • Treaty of Paris of 1763 British controlled more
    of N. America and India

48
Other major conflicts of the 18th c.
  • Wars of Peter the Great? won land from Sweden
    (Great Northern War)
  • Wars of Catherine the Great? won land from the
    Ottoman Empire
  • Partitions of Poland
  • divided between Russia, Austria and Prussia
  • Division complete by 1794 after Polish national
    revolt led by Thaddeus Kosciuszko
  • American Revolution
  • French Revolution

49
The French revolution
50
French Revolution Causes
  • Old Regime
  • Financial and Administration problems
  • Debt, inefficient bureaucracy
  • Nobility
  • Reasserting authority
  • Failed attempts to tax nobility and reform govt
    spending
  • King called the Estates General in 1789 (hadnt
    met since 1614) to get approval of new taxes

51
French Revolution Estates General
  • Representatives from each estate with demands
    (cahiers)
  • Nobles (2nd estate) want increased power
  • Third Estate wants abolition of privileges of 1st
    and 2nd estates
  • King wants , and wants to vote by estate
  • 3rd estate refused (wanted voting by head)? June
    17, 1789 they declared themselves the National
    Assembly Revolution Begins

52
French Revolution 1st Phase (moderate)
  • Tennis Court Oath vow to write a constitution
  • King ordered 1st and 2nd estates to join
    Assembly, but rumors of mercaneries coming
  • Storming of the Bastille (July 14, 1789)
  • Great Fear peasants begin supporting revolution
  • August 4 Old Regime abolished
  • Declaration of Rights of Man
  • Fall 1789 increased violence (Womens march) and
    more radical clubs forming
  • 1790 Decreased power/ for church, Civil
    Constitution of the Clergy
  • Constitution of 1791 limited constitutional
    monarchy

53
French Revolution Constitutional Monarchy
  • 1791 Constitution
  • Unicameral legislature
  • King could only delay legislation
  • King controlled army and foreign policy
  • Indirect elections (through active citizens and
    passive citizens)
  • 83 departments
  • Full rights for Jews and Protestants
  • Slavery abolished within France

54
French Revolution 2nd Phase (radical)
  • 1791 growing counter-revolution, fueled by
    émigrés, King Louis tried to flee
  • Legislative Assembly split into rival factions
  • Girondins dominated wanted to spread revolution
  • Jacobins growing in popularity
  • War with Austria and Prussia? as war dragged on,
    sans-culottes got more radical
  • Summer Tuileries stormed, September massacres
    followed
  • Increasing demands for new elections with
    universal male suffrage
  • Convention elected? Constitution of 1792 made
    France a Republic
  • January,1793 Louis XVI executed

55
French Revolution 3rd Phase (really radical)
  • Growing counter-revolution (especially in Vendee
    region)
  • Committee of Public Safety established, spring
    1793 (led by Danton, Carnot and Robespierre)
  • Jacobins allied with sans-culottes and took over
    government
  • Government instituted price controls, levee en
    masse and the Reign of Terror
  • Robespierre tried to create his Republic of
    Virtue churches closed, calendar changed,
    enemies guillotined

56
French Revolution The End
  • Robespierre overthrown in 1794 (Thermidorean
    Reaction), supporters of Robespierre were
    punished
  • New government Directory
  • New Constitution (1795)
  • 5 executive council
  • 2-house legislature w/ limited franchise (vote)
  • Moderate forces back in power
  • Problems with growing royalist rebellions?
    allowed for the increasing popularity of Napoleon

57
Isms-Conservatism, Liberalism, nationalism
58
Conservative Politics after the French Revolution
  • Support authority of monarchy and aristocracy
  • Dominate European affairs after Napoleons defeat
    (but challenged)
  • Concert of Europe and the congress system works
    to maintain the status quo throughout Europe.

59
Nationalism after the French Revolution
  • Want national borders drawn along the lines of
    national (ethnic) groups
  • Opposed to multi-national states (like Austria
    and Russia) and national groups being split up
    (Italy and Germany)
  • Support popular sovereignty
  • Big areas of nationalist pressure Ireland,
    German states, Poland, Balkan region, Italy,
    Eastern Europe
  • Mostly unsuccessful in early/mid 1800s w/ a few
    exceptions (Greece, Belgium)

60
Liberalism after the French Revolution
  • Want moderate political reform and freer
    economies
  • Inspiration from Enlightenment ideas legal
    equality, freedom of press, getting rid of
    arbitrary power of the government.
  • Support elected parliaments (with narrow
    franchise), written constitutions
  • Support laissez-faire economic policies
  • Mostly unsuccessful in early/mid 1880s except in
    France (1830 Revolution) and Britain (Reform Bill
    of 1832)

61
The Age of Nation States (chapter 22)
62
Crimean War, 1853-1856
  • CAUSES
  • Russian expansionism
  • Ottoman weakness
  • Russia claiming right to protect Orthodox
    Christians within Ottoman lands
  • EXPANSION
  • Russia occupied Ottoman lands (Rumania) and
    Ottomans declared war
  • British and French declared war on Russia to stop
    Russian expansion
  • Piedmont joins Allies too (looking for
    credibility)

63
Crimean War, 1853-1856
  • RESULTS
  • Nicholas I died in 1855, Alexander II sued for
    peace
  • Treaty of Paris (1856) Russia returned land to
    Ottomans, Black Sea neutral, Russia gave up right
    to protect Christians w/in Ottoman Empire
  • IMPORTANCE
  • Concert of Europe destroyed
  • Increased instability in European affairs
  • Showed Ottoman weaknesses (but they did do some
    reforms)

64
Unification of Italy
  • Revolution failed in Italian states in 1848
  • Count Camillo Cavour, PM of Piedmont-Sardinia led
    unification
  • Liberal reforms in P-S (strengthening the
    constitutional monarchy, economic growth,
    diplomatic recognition)
  • Allied with France (Napoleon III) against Austria
  • War w/ Austria (1859) French leave war early.
    P-S wins Lombardy, Austria keeps Venetia
  • Most northern Italian states rebel and vote to
    join P-S. Napoleon III let this happen, and
    Fance won Nice and Savoy (from P-S).

65
Unification of Italy (2)
  • Guiseppe Garibaldi (romantic republican) the
    Red Shirts landed in Sicily (1860) to support
    rebellion.
  • Red Shirts took Sicily and then went to Naples.
  • Piedmont took Papal States (except Rome) and
    Garibaldi gave control of Naples and Sicily to
    Piedmont.
  • 1861 Kingdom of Italy proclaimed
  • 1866 Italy won control of Venetia after
    Austro-Prussian War
  • 1870 Italy took control of Rome, made capital of
    Italy

66
Unification of Germany
  • German Confederation remained after 1848,
    dominated by Austria and Prussia
  • Otto von Bismarck was appointed PM of Prussia
    because King Wilhelm I wanted to reform the
    military and he needed money (and the liberals in
    Parliament wouldnt give it to him).
  • Bismarck used blood and iron (realpolitik) to
    get what he wanted.

67
Unification of Germany (2)
  • Danish War (1864)
  • Prussia allied with Austria to fight Denmark and
    take control of Schleswig and Holstein.
  • Austro-Prussian War/ 7 Weeks War (1866)
  • Prussia uses Schleswig and Holstein to pick fight
    with Austria. Prussia wins, retains control of
    both provinces and PUSHES AUSTRIA OUT OF GERMAN
    AFFAIRS
  • North German Confederation formed (1867),
    established federal council and lower house
    (Reichstag)

68
Unification of Germany (3)
  • Southern German states needed to be convinced
    to join. Problems with France will help this
    process.
  • Bismarck edited a telegram between the French
    ambassador and Wilhelm I? Napoleon III declared
    war.
  • With Franco-Prussian War, southern states join
    with Prussia
  • Prussia wins war, Germany unified, Germany gets
    control of Alsace-Lorraine, Wilhelm crowned
    Kaiser
  • MAJOR changes to the balance of power in Europe

69
France Third Republic
  • After 1860, Napoleon III made some liberal
    reforms w/in France but struggled in foreign
    policy (Italy, Mexico, Prussia). He lost power
    after the Franco-Prussian War.
  • Radicals in Paris started the Third Republic?
    conservatives outside Paris, in 1871 elections
    monarchists won majority of seats, temporary
    power given to Adolphe Thiers
  • Radicals elected their own government The Paris
    Commune

70
France Third Republic (2)
  • Paris Commune was crushed
  • Constitution of Third Republic created a weak
    government w/ most power in the hands of the
    parliament.
  • Multi-party system also contributed to govts
    weaknesses.
  • Threats to the government included the Boulanger
    Affair (attempt to overthrow govt w/ support from
    monarchists) and the Dreyfus Affair.
  • During this period socialists also gained
    influence in France.

71
Hapsburg Empire after 1848
  • Hapsburgs had continued problems with the
    nationalist groups w/in the empire.
  • October Diploma (1860) tried to give more
    authority to assemblies in Hungary and Bohemia?
    wasnt enough for the Magyars. Wanted to go back
    to March Laws of 1848.
  • February Patent (1861) established a parliament
    for the empire? Magyars wouldnt participate.
  • Compromise of 1867 created the Dual Monarchy
  • Unrest continued w/ the other nationalist groups

72
Russia and Alexander II
  • Reforms of Alexander II
  • Emancipation Edict of 1861
  • Elected rural assemblies (zemstvos) handled some
    local affairs (taxation, elementary schools)
  • Legal and judicial reforms (including equality
    before law, trial by jury, public trials)
  • Reduced term of service in military
  • Plans for dumas
  • Suppression of revolt in Poland
  • Growth of radicals and people who wanted more
    reforms? Alexander II assassinated in 1881.

73
Democratic Reform in Great Britain
  • Benjamin Disraeli Conservative Party
  • William Gladstone Liberal Party
  • Reform Bill of 1867 Conservatives gave right to
    vote to most of the urban working class.
  • Gladstones Great Ministry (1868-1874)
  • Civil service reform, expanded public education,
    union rights, secret ballot, judiciary reforms
  • Disraeli in Office
  • Reforms for the working class including Factory
    Act (working conditions), Public Health Act
    (urban sanitation), public housing, more rights
    for unions
  • Reform Bill of 1884 vote for most farm workers

74
The Irish Question
  • Act of Union (1801) united Ireland with GB.
    After Catholic Emancipation (1829) there were
    more Irish Catholics in House of Commons?
    increasingly vocal about home rule for Ireland.
  • Home rule most strongly opposed in northern
    Ireland (Ulster Protestant majority).
  • Several home rule bills were proposed by
    Gladstone? defeated.
  • 1914 Liberals pass home rule bill? couldnt be
    enforced b/c of opposition in Ulster. Irish
    nationalist begin arming and forming a militia

75
Major changes in womens roles and the feminist
movements
76
Women and the Reformation
  • Protestants tended to move away from medieval
    view of women as temptress
  • Favored more education of women (literacy) for
    role as pious housewives, educating children in
    religion
  • Some women found Biblical passages that alluded
    to their equality w/ men

77
Women and the Scientific Revolution
  • Women excluded from most higher learning and from
    scientific societies
  • A few instances of women involved in sciences
    (patrons, working alongside husbands)
  • Greater intellectual freedom for women in artisan
    crafts
  • Most women barred from science/medicine until
    late 1800s

78
Women and the Industrial Revolution
  • w/ commercialization and mechanization of
    agriculture some of womens traditional roles
    over production were changing? hurt womens
    ability to earn from the land
  • Mechanization in textiles also changed womens
    jobs? move to factory
  • 19th c. domestic service major employer of
    women
  • Big changes (1) womens work home work (2)
    not associated w/ new tech. (3) view that womens
    income only extra

79
Women and the Enlightenment
  • Helped promote ideas of Enlightenment (ex.
    Madame Geoffrin)
  • Some philosophes argued for expanded education
    for women but still maintained traditional roles
  • Some (Montesquieu) believed women were not
    naturally inferior. Some (Diderot) did not see
    reform of womens roles as necessary.
  • Rousseau womens sphere separate, educated only
    as subordinates
  • Mary Wollstonecraft Women need education to
    men? not allowing this hinders progress for
    humanity.

80
Women and the French Revolution
  • October 1789 Womens March
  • Olympe de Gouge Declaration of the Rights of
    Woman (1791)
  • Increased of female revolutionary societies
    (Reign of Terror period) initially welcomed.
  • Became more radical more control of food prices,
    wanted to wear cockade (revolutionary symbol) on
    caps, brawled with women they thought werent
    revolutionary enough
  • October 1793 govt banned all womens societies
  • Also 1973 banned from army, sitting in
    Convention
  • Believed they could not be active citizens

81
Political Feminism
  • Growth of liberalism didnt necessarily mean more
    rights for women.
  • John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor used liberal
    ideas to argue for more rights for women.

82
Womens Suffrage Movement Britain
  • National Union of Womens Suffrage Societies/
    Millicent Fawcett
  • women should get vote through Parliament by
    proving their respectability and responsibility
  • Womens Social and Political Union/ Emmeline
    Pankhurst
  • Suffragettes
  • More radical tactics
  • Vote extended after WWI

83
Political Feminism The Continent
  • France few women argued for the vote until early
    1900s, rejected violent action, didnt get vote
    until after WWII
  • Germany laws forbid female participation in
    politics, organizations in early 1900s focused on
    improving womens social conditions (ex.
    Education, public health), earned vote after WWI

84
Antifeminism
  • Late 19th c. w/ growing influence of biology?
    more arguments of biological inferiority of women
  • Reinforced traditional roles for women
  • Some thinkers did argue for increased education
    for women (Darwin, Huxley)
  • Some see Freud as showing women as incomplete
    human beings
  • Social scientists portrayed women as more
    creatures of feeling and emotion than intellect

85
20th c. Feminism
  • Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex (1949)?
    explored the way her life was different because
    she was a woman.
  • Argued that women had social and economic
    disadvantages
  • Feminists focused on social problems faced by
    women (ex. Spousal abuse)? 20th c. Feminism less
    political (than 19th c.) more social movement and
    critique of society
  • Emphasis on women controlling their own lives
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