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World History Chapter 1 Revised August 2014


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Title: World History Chapter 1 Revised August 2014

World History Chapter 1 Revised August 2014
  • 1300-1600
  • European Renaissance and Reformation

Italy Birthplace of the Renaissance
  • Section 1
  • Pages 37-43
  • The Italian Renaissance was a rebirth of learning
    that produced many great works of art and

1. What had happened in Europe during the Middle
Ages that set the stage for the Renaissance?
  • The Black Death, starvation, and warfare had
    overtaken Europe about 1300.
  • These catastrophic events and the enormous loss
    of life may have led to some of the changes of
    the 1300s.
  • Those who survived wanted to celebrate life and
    the human spirit.
  • They questioned the institutions that had not
    been able to prevent war or relieve suffering.
  • The Church

Dark Ages
  • The Dark Ages is a historical periodization used
    originally for the Middle Ages during the 10th
    and 11th centuries, which emphasizes the cultural
    and economic deterioration that supposedly
    occurred in Western Europe following the decline
    of the Roman Empire.
  • Originally the term characterized the bulk of the
    Middle Ages, or roughly the 6th to 13th
    centuries, as a period of intellectual darkness
    between extinguishing the "light of Rome", and
    the rise of the Italian Renaissance in the 14th

Europe 1500
Black Death
  • One of the worst pandemics in human history.
  • Peaked in Europe between 1348 1350.
  • Killed between 75 million to 200 million.
  • 60 of the population
  • Believed to have started in China or central Asia
    around 1346.
  • Carried by rat fleas on merchant ships and spread
    throughout Europe and Asia.
  • World population decreased from an estimated 450
    million to between 350-375 million in the 14th
  • It took 150 years for Europes population to

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2. What was the Renaissance?
  • The term means rebirth, in this case a rebirth
    or revival of art and learning.
  • This movement started in Italy and lasted from
    1300 to 1600.
  • The educated men and women of Italy hoped to
    bring back to life the culture of ancient Greece
    and Rome.
  • The contributions made during this time period
    led to innovative styles of art and literature.

3. What three advantages fostered the Renaissance
in Italy?
  • Began in northern Italy and spread from there.
  • 1--Thriving cities
  • Overseas trade during the crusades led to growth
    of large city-states in northern Italy
  • 2Wealthy merchant class
  • Merchants or business people did not inherit
    social rank, they earned it.
  • These merchants dominated politics.
  • 3Classical heritage of Greece Rome
  • Return to the classics
  • Scholars studied ancient Latin manuscripts
  • Christians, with Greek manuscripts, fled to Rome
    from Constantinople in 1453

The Beginning of the Italian Renaissance
  • 1300s- Black Death, starvation, warfare, caused
    many changes throughout Europe
  • Decrease in population allowed farmers to produce
    more food than needed .
  • Food prices declined-
  • Money could be spent on other things- SUPPLY AND
  • Agricultural Specialization-
  • England- wool Germany- Grain
  • Specialization led to TRADE
  • Regions had to trade for the products they did
    not produce.
  • Northern Italy became centers of commerce
  • Venice, Milan, and Florence
  • Bankers, Traders, Skilled workers or artisans
  • Exchange of ideas led to an intellectual
  • Built up these cities and made them beautiful
  • Knowledge of the Arts
  • Nobles wanted different ways to display their
  • paintings, sculpture, and architecture

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4. Who was the Medici family?
  • The family became wealthy from banking in
    Florence and many other large Italian cities.
  • The family became known for their political
    influence due to their wealth and their generous
    collections of art.
  • Family members included Cosimo, Lorenzo, and
  • The family also produced several popes and two
    queens of France.

5. What was humanism? Where did it come from?
  • Humanism focused on human potential and
  • This renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman
    culture gave rise to increased education.
  • This interest led to the classic teaching of
    grammar, poetry, history, and Latin/Greek.
  • These subjects became known as humanities, thus
    this movement is called humanism.

6. How did humanism influence Renaissance ideas?
  • Humanism focused on people and their
  • Thus, art and thought became more concerned with
    the here and now.
  • Humanists influenced artists and architects to
    carry on classical traditions.

7. Explain the concept of worldly pleasures to
  • During the Middle Ages, some people had
    demonstrated their piety by wearing rough
    clothing and eating plain foods.
  • Humanists believed you could live a good life,
    filled with fine foods, luxuries, and good music
    without offending God.
  • Most people remained devout Catholics, but held a
    more secular or worldly view of life, concerned
    with the here and now.
  • Church leaders even became more secular, with
    some living in mansions and spending money on

8. Why did church leaders and wealthy merchants
support the arts?
  • It showed their importance by having portraits
    painted and decorating churches and other public
  • They became patrons of the arts by financially
    supporting the artists.
  • Renaissance merchants and wealthy families also
    were patrons of the arts.
  • They demonstrated their wealth by donating
    portraits and art to public places.

9. What was a Renaissance Man and Woman?
  • Writer Baldassare Castiglione wrote a book
    called The Courtier in 1528 that outlined the
    ideal individual.
  • A young man should be charming, witty, and
    well-educated in the classics.
  • He should dance, sing, play music, create art and
    write poetry.
  • Upper-class women also should know the classics
    and be charming.
  • Yet they were not expected to seek fame and had
    little influence in politics.

10. In what ways was Renaissance art
  • Supported by patrons like Isabella d Este,
    dozens of artists worked in northern Italy.
  • d Este could speak many languages and was an
    accomplished musician and dancer.
  • They used realistic scenes images more
  • They used perspective a technique to make
    paintings lifelike and gave an illusion of depth.
  • Distant objects are smaller than foreground

11. Who was Michelangelo Buonarroti? What is he
famous for?
  • Famous artist during the Italian Renaissance.
  • Painting on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in
    Rome, Italy.
  • His Christian-inspired view of God creating the
    stars and planets is only a part of the ceiling.
  • It took him over four years to complete his
  • He often was on 60 foot scaffolding, on his back!

12. Who was Leonardo da Vinci?
  • Da Vinci was a talented painter, sculptor,
    inventor, engineer, scientist and architect.
  • Drew extremely realistic human figures.
  • The Last Supper and Mona Lisa are two of his
    most famous works.
  • He filled notebooks with observations and
    sketches that he incorporated in his art.

Michelangelo(left) Da Vinci (right)
The Last Supper
Sistine Chapel
The Pieta (Virgin Mary with Jesus)
The Creation of Man
Mona Lisa
Baptism of Christ
13. Who were other Renaissance artists?
  • Raphael Sanzio
  • Learned from Michelangelo and da Vinci.
  • One of his favorite subjects was the Madonna and
  • Raphael filled the walls of pope Julius IIs
    library with paintings.
  • Sofonisba Anguissola
  • First woman artist to gain an international
  • She is known for her paintings of her sisters and
    of prominent people.
  • Artemisia Gentileshi
  • Another accomplished artist, she trained with her
  • She painted strong, heroic women.

14. Who was Francesco Petrarch?
  • He was one of many great Renaissance
  • His sonnets (14-line poems) are considered some
    of the greatest in history.
  • Studied the classical writers (Greek Romans
    classical education)
  • Wrote literature in the vernacular, or everyday
    language of the people, instead of Latin.
  • Worried his desire for fame contradicted his
  • Some call him the father of Renaissance writing.

15. What is Machiavelli known for?
  • Niccolo Machiavelli (mahk yah VEL lee)
  • Political philosopher and statesman
  • Described government by the way it actually
    worked (not in lofty ideals)
  • Believed in ruthless behavior to get ahead
  • Better to be feared than loved as a ruler.
  • The end justifies the means is one of the most
    widely known phrases from The Prince , a
    political guidebook.

16. Who were other Renaissance writers?
  • Giovanni Boccaccio
  • Best known for the Decameron, a series of
    realistic, sometimes off-color stories about the
  • Vittoria Colonna
  • Female writer born of a noble family who wrote
    more about personal subjects, not politics.

  • In the 1400s, the ideas of the Italian
    Renaissance began to spread to Northern Europe.
  • Chapter 1
  • Section 2
  • (pages 46-51)

1.How did the Renaissance spread to northern
  • In the 1200s and 1300s, most cities in Europe
    were in Italy.
  • Italy was divided into city-states.
  • By the 1500s, however, large cities had also
    sprouted in northern Europe.
  • Cities like London, Paris, and Amsterdam had
    began to grow again.
  • England and France were ruled by strong
  • These rulers often bought art and sponsored
    artists and writers.
  • Trade and the Hanseatic League-
  • The Hanseatic League was a merchant organization
    that controlled trade throughout Northern Europe
    from 1200-1400.
  • Also worked to protect its members from pirates
    and other hazards.
  • Trade led to the exchanging of ideas.
  • Travel-
  • Many Renaissance artists moved north and spread
    the techniques of this period.
  • Some Northern artists traveled to Italy for an
  • Others escaped to avoid violent clashes between
    the armies of northern monarchs and the
    wealthy Italian cities.
  • The Printing Press-
  • Helped to spread ideas with printed material.

2. How did the northern Renaissance differ from
the Italian Renaissance?
  • The artists were especially interested in realism
    or realistic art.
  • Depicted real life scenes.
  • There was also an ideal of humanists in the north
    to develop plans for social reform based on
    Judeo-Christian values.
  • This emphasized changing society.

3. How did Albrecht Durers work reflect the
influence of the Italian Renaissance?
  • Traveled to Italy to study in 1494.
  • Durer produced woodcuts and engravings upon his
    return to Germany.
  • He also portrayed classical myths, religious
    subjects, and realistic landscapes.
  • Durers emphasis upon realism influenced the work
    of another German artist, Hans Holbein.
  • Holbein specialized in painting portraits that
    were almost photographic in detail.
  • He emigrated to England and painted portraits of
    King Henry VIII and other royal family members.

4. Who were some of the famous Flemish artists ?
  • Jan van Eyck
  • Area of the Netherlands
  • First great Flemish painter.
  • Also used oils to depict landscapes and domestic
  • His layering of paint allowed van Eyck to create
    a variety of subtle colors in clothing and
  • By 1550 Pieter Bruegel the Elder became famous
    for his depiction of peasant life.
  • He captured scenes from weddings, dances, and

5. Who were the Christian Humanists?
  • Northern humanists were critical of the failure
    of the Christian Church to inspire people to live
    a Christian life.
  • Their focus was Christian Humanists was the
    reform of society.
  • Of particular importance was education, both men
    and women.

6. Who was Desiderius Erasmus? (i RAZ muhs)
  • Erasmus was from Holland.
  • Criticized churchs lack of spirituality.
  • Wanted return of the simple message of Jesus or
    helping others.
  • The Praise of Folly his book ridiculed
    ignorance and superstition among Christians.
  • It also criticized fasting, pilgrimages, and
  • Believed people should study the Bible in order
    to improve society.
  • Advocated a return to the ideals of ancient
    Greece and Rome.

7. Who was Thomas More?
  • Thomas More was a close friend of Erasmus.
  • Published Utopia in 1516.
  • It meant an ideal place.
  • An imaginary place where greed, corruption, and
    war have been weeded out.
  • Executed after refusing to agree that King Henry
    VII was head of the church.
  • Later made a saint by Catholic Church.

8. What qualities made Christine de Pizan unusual
for her time and place?
  • Most families who could afford formal schooling
    usually sent only their sons.
  • She spoke out against the practice of male
    education only.
  • She was one of the first women to be educated and
    to make a living as a writer.
  • She produced many books, including biographies,
    novels, and manuals on military techniques.
  • She frequently wrote about the objections men had
    to educating women.

9. How did the Elizabethan Age reflect the values
of the Italian Renaissance?
  • The mid-1500s were known as the Elizabethan Age,
    after Queen Elizabeth I.
  • 1558-1603
  • She was well educated and spoke several
  • As a queen she did much to support the
    development of English art and literature.

10. Who was William Shakespeare?
  • The most famous writer of the Elizabethan Age.
  • Many people regard him as the greatest playwright
    of all time.
  • Wrote Hamlet, Romeo Juliet, Macbeth.
  • Portrayed personality and human emotions.
  • Deep understanding of human nature.
  • Most widely known author of this time period.
  • From the small town near London, by 1592 he was
    living in London and performing at the Globe

11. Who is credited for inventing the printing
  • Johannes Gutenberg, a German used movable type to
    print books around 1440.
  • Gutenberg improved the system created by the
  • Roots were in China
  • Around 1045, Bi Sheng created movable type, but
    the Chinese writing system was too complicated.
  • Movable type allowed text to be quickly printed
    on both sides of the paper.
  • Hand writing was long and tedious
  • Printing helped to pass ideas on faster.
  • Gutenberg Bible (1282 pages) in1455.
  • 1st book published.

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12. What were the effects of the printing press
on society?
  • Books could be produced more quickly.
  • Easier and cheaper to make books.
  • More books available for the public.
  • Ideas spread quickly.
  • People wanted to learn to read.

13. What was the legacy of the Renaissance in the
  • Changes in the Arts
  • Drew on techniques and styles of classical Greece
    and Rome.
  • Paintings and sculptures portrayed individuals
    and nature in more realistic and lifelike ways.
  • Artists created works that were secular as well
    as those that were religious.
  • Writers began to use vernacular languages to
    express their ideas.
  • The arts praised individual achievement.

14. How did printing and publishing affect social
  • Made more information available to more people.
  • More books prompted an increased desire for
    learning and literacy.
  • Christian humanists attempts to reform society
    changed views about how life should be lived.
  • People began to question political structures and
    religious practices.
  • Published legal proceedings made the laws clear
    so that people were more likely to understand
    their rights.

Section 3 Luther leads the Reformation
  • Pages 449-454
  • Criticism of the Roman Catholic Church led to a
    religious movement called the Protestant
    Reformation and brought changes in religion and
    politics across Europe.
  • Martin Luthers protest over abuses in the
    Catholic Church led to the founding of these
    Protestant churches.

1. What was the Protestant Reformation?
  • Reformation Religious revolution that split the
    church in Western Europe early 1500s
  • Some thought the Catholic Church was too
    interested in worldly pursuits, like wealth
    political power.
  • The Roman Catholic Church had dominated religious
    life since the 10th century.
  • Clergy acted as politicians instead of moral
  • Northern humanists sought emphasis on faith.
  • Catholic church ignored their concerns

2. What was the state of Catholicism in the 1400s?
  • Church was wealthy and powerful.
  • Heavily involved in politics.
  • Had moved away from its spiritual roots.
  • Often financially corrupt and taxed unfairly.
  • The middle class and peasants were taxed heavily.

3. Why did German rulers want to challenge the
political power of the Church?
  • Germany was divided into many competing states,
    making it difficult for the pope or the emperor
    to impose central authority.
  • German merchants resented distant control.
  • New ideas created a reform based on new social,
    political, and economic ideals.

4. What were the criticisms of the Catholic
  • Pope spent extravagantly on personal pleasure.
  • Involved in fighting wars.
  • Involved in drinking and gambling.
  • Pope Alexander VI admitted that he had fathered
    several children.
  • Many popes were too busy pursuing worldly affairs
    to have much time for spiritual duties.
  • Influenced by reformers, people had come to
    expect higher standards of conduct from priests
    and church leaders.

5. Who were the early reformers and what happened
to them?
  • John Wycliffe (England)
  • Early English dissident to Roman Catholic church.
  • Believed the church should give up its earthly
  • Denied that the pope had more authority than the
  • Removed from teaching position.
  • Jan Hus (Bohemia)
  • Priest
  • Preached against the immorality of the Catholic
  • Excommunicated
  • Arrested, tried and convicted of heresy
  • Burned at the stake

6. How did Martin Luthers fears change him?
  • Luther was a monk and a teacher, and all he
    wanted to do was to be a good Christian, not lead
    a religious revolution.
  • Luther decided to take a stand against a friar
    named Johann Tetzel.
  • Tetzel was raising money to rebuild St. Peters
    Cathedral in Rome.
  • He did this by selling indulgences.

Martin Luther
  • Monk in search of salvation
  • Felt inadequate with churchs methods
  • Criticized Tetzels indulgences
  • Money for false promises of forgiveness
  • 1517 95 theses (statements) disagreements to
    the Catholic church
  • Wanted to reform church
  • He spread his ideas through pupils
  • Was excommunicated (expelled) from the Church.

7. What was the sale of indulgences?
  • Indulgences were pardons issued by the pope that
    people could buy to reduce a souls time in
  • For many Catholics, the belief was for a dead
    person to work off the sins they had committed in
  • The sale of indulgences was highly criticized by
    many people.
  • Tetzel gave people the impression that by buying
    indulgences, they could buy their way into heaven.

8. How did Martin Luther challenge the Catholic
  • Wrote Ninety Five Theses or disagreements with
    the Church.
  • He posted them on October 31, 1517 on the castle
    doors of Wittenberg.
  • Claimed Christ was the only head of the Church
  • Salvation was done by faith alone, not
  • Someone copied the words and sent them to a
  • Quickly, Luthers name became well-known in
  • Questioned basic beliefs of Catholicism.
  • They were not intended for the common people of
    his parish, but for Church leaders.
  • Thus, they were written in academic Latin.

9. What was Luthers Impact?
  • Luther began the Protestant Reformation.
  • This led to the founding of other Christian
    churches that did not accept the popes
  • Luthers followers and other reformers were
    called Protestants.
  • The Holy Roman emperor (Charles V) handed down
    the Edict of Worms (named after a city).
  • Decreed Luther to be an outlaw and heretic and
    put him on trial in 1521.
  • No one in the empire was to give Luther food or
  • All of his books were to be burned.
  • Luther translated the Bible into German now all
    could read it.
  • He did this while staying in a castle owned by
    Prince Frederick the Wise of Saxony, who had
    disobeyed the Emperor.
  • Upon his return in 1522 he discovered his beliefs
    were being put into practice. Thus he called this
    group Lutherans.
  • By 1530, Lutheranism was a formerly recognized
    branch of Christianity.

10. How did Protestantism spread to other areas?
  • Luthers stand against the Church opened the door
    for others to make differing ideas known.
  • Luther was astonished at how rapidly his ideas
    spread and attracted followers.
  • The word Protestant came from the religious war
    in Germany after Luthers writings, which
    horrified Luther.
  • German peasants were excited and demanded the end
    of serfdom.
  • They were joined by some of Germans princes.
  • These protesting princes became known as
  • Ultimately by 1555 the Peace of Augsburg
    agreement allowed each ruler to decide religion
    for his state.

11. What were the effects of Protestantism in
  • It began with King Henry VIII, as he broke from
    the Catholic Church and formed the Church of
  • Henry VIII had been a devout Catholic as a young
    man and became king in 1509.
  • He originally attacked the ideas of Luther.
  • Pope gave him the title Defender of the Faith.
  • However, he wanted to re-marry and sought an
  • By 1527, Henry had become convinced Catherine
    would bear him no male heirs.
  • He did have a daughter (Mary).

12. Why did Henry VIII need either a divorce or
an annulment?
  • Henry wanted to marry a woman who could give him
    a son.
  • The pope turned down Henrys request to annul his
    marriage to Catherine.
  • The pope did not want to offend Catherines
    powerful nephew, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles
  • Thus, Henry took steps to solve his marital
    problems himself.
  • He called Parliament into session in 1529 and
    asked it to pass a set of laws that ended the
    popes power in England.
  • Reformation Parliament

Henry VIII Causes Religious Turmoil in England
  • 1533 Henry secretly marries Anne Boleyn
  • 1534 Act of Supremacy calls on people to
    recognize Henry as the head of Englands church
  • 1536 Anne Boleyn charged with treason and
  • Gave Henry a daughter (Elizabeth)
  • 1537 Henry marries his third wife, Jane
  • She gave him a son, Edward.
  • Two weeks after Edwards death, Seymour dies.
  • 1547 King Henry VIII dies, having married three
    more times and not having any other children.

  • Henry VIII- 1509-1547- Anglican
  • Edward VI- (Henrys son) 1547-1553 Anglican
  • Only 9 years old and constantly sick.
  • Adult advisors were protestants and introduced
    Protestant reforms.
  • Mary I- (Henrys daughter) 1553-1558- Catholic-
    No Children
  • Daughter of Catherine of Aragon.
  • Returned the English Church to the rule of the
  • Her efforts met with considerable resistance.
  • Many Protestants were executed.
  • Elizabeth I- (Henrys daughter)- 1558-1603-
  • Daughter of Anne Boleyn
  • Determined to return her kingdom to
  • 1559Anglican Church set up with Elizabeth as the
  • Allowed concessions to both Protestants and

13. What other challenges did Elizabeth face?
  • Elizabeth allowed priests to marry and deliver
    sermons in English, this appeased Protestants.
  • She kept some of the trappings of the Catholic
    service, like the rich robes.
  • However, Protestants wanted more changes, while
    some Catholics tried to overthrow her.
  • Money was also a problem, and Elizabeth looked to
    an American empire as a new source of income.

The Reformation Continues
  • Section 4
  • Pages 61-66
  • Many Protestant churches began during this
    period, and many Catholic schools are the result
    of reforms in the Church.

1. What was the basis of Huldrych Zwinglis
church in Switzerland?
  • Zwingli was a Catholic priest in Zurich.
  • He was influenced both by the Christian humanism
    of Erasmus and by the reforms of Luther.
  • He openly attacked abuses in the Catholic Church
    in 1520.
  • He called for a return to the more personal faith
    of early Christianity with believers having more
  • Zwingli was killed in 1531 in a bitter war
    between Swiss Protestants and Catholics.
  • Zwinglis church was a theocracy in which
    government and the church are joined together.
  • No separation of church and state.

2. Who was John Calvin and what did he believe?
  • Calvin was a law student in France when Zwingli
  • Created his religion called Calvinism.
  • Believed men and women are sinful by nature.
  • Emphasized predestination
  • God knows who will be saved, even before people
    are born.
  • Thus, nothing humans could do would change their
    predestined end.
  • The elect would be saved.
  • Published Institutes of the Christian Religion in
  • It was a summary of Protestant theology

3. What did Calvinist believe?
  • Calvin settled in Geneva, Switzerland and was
    asked to lead the city of 20,000.
  • The city was ran according to strict rules.
  • Everyone attended religion class.
  • No one wore bright clothing.
  • No one played card games.
  • Authorities would imprison, excommunicate, or
    banish those who broke such rules.
  • Anyone who preached different doctrines might be
    burned at the stake.
  • Many Protestants believed Calvins Geneva was a
    model city of highly moral citizens.

Five Points of Calvinism
  • The five points of Calvinism, which can be
    remembered by TULIP are
  • Total depravity (or total inability) As a
    consequence of the Fall of man, every person born
    into the world is enslaved to the service of sin.
    According to the view, people are not by nature
    inclined to love God with their whole heart,
    mind, or strength, but rather all are inclined to
    serve their own interests over those of their
    neighbor and to reject the rule of God. Thus, all
    people by their own faculties are morally unable
    to choose to follow God and be saved because they
    are unwilling to do so out of the necessity of
    their own natures.
  • Unconditional election God's choice from
    eternity of those whom he will bring to himself
    is not based on foreseen virtue, merit, or faith
    in those people. Rather, it is unconditionally
    grounded in God's mercy.
  • Limited atonement (or particular redemption or
    definite atonement) The death of Christ actually
    takes away the penalty of sins of those on whom
    God has chosen to have mercy. It is "limited" to
    taking away the sins of the elect, not of all
    humanity, and it is "definite" and "particular"
    because atonement is certain for those particular
  • Irresistible grace (or efficacious grace) The
    saving grace of God is effectually applied to
    those whom he has determined to save (the elect)
    and, in God's timing, overcomes their resistance
    to obeying the call of the gospel, bringing them
    to a saving faith in Christ.
  • Perseverance of the saints (or preservation of
    the saints) Any person who has once been truly
    saved from damnation must necessarily persevere
    and cannot later be condemned. The word saints is
    used in the sense in which it is used in the
    Bible to refer to all who are set apart by God,
    not in the technical sense of one who is
    exceptionally holy, canonized, or in heaven.

4. What lasting influence did the Anabaptists
  • Anabaptists beliefs influenced the Amish,
    Mennonites, Quakers, and Baptists of today.
  • Believed that people who were baptized as
    children, should be baptized as adults.
  • Old enough to decide to be Christian.
  • Anabaptists comes from the Greek words that mean
    baptize again.
  • Believed in separation of church and state.
  • Refused to fight in wars.
  • Believed in sharing their possessions.
  • Both Protestants and Catholics persecuted them.

The Catholic Reformation- Attempts At Reform
  • AKA the Counter-Reformation
  • Goals
  • Reforms/return to spirituality.
  • Stop spread of Protestantism.
  • Helping Catholics to remain loyal.

5. How did Jesuit reforms help the Catholic
Church keep its members from becoming Protestant?
  • Ignatius of Loyola
  • After being injured fighting in a war, Ignatius
    thought about his past sins and life with Jesus.
  • From 1522 through 1540, Ignatius gathered
  • In 1540, the pope created a religious order for
    his followers called the Society of Jesus.
  • Members were called Jesuits.
  • Jesuits concentrated on three activities.
  • Founding schools throughout Europe.
  • Convert non-Christians to Catholicism.
  • Used missionaries around the world
  • Stop the spread of Protestantism.

6. Why did the Catholic Church feel the need for
reforms, and what did church leaders do?
  • Protestantism was reducing Catholic membership,
    thus the need for reforms.
  • Church leaders
  • Investigated allegations of church corruption.
  • Supported the Jesuits.
  • Used inquisition.
  • Called Council of Trent.

7. What two popes were responsible for the
Counter-Reformation? What did they do?
  • Paul III (1534-1549) took four steps.
  • Directed a council of cardinals to investigate
    indulgence selling and other abuses.
  • Approved the Jesuit order.
  • Used the Inquisition to seek out heresy in papal
  • Called the Council of Trent.
  • Paul IV carried out the councils decrees.
  • In 1559, he had officials draw up a list of books
    considered dangerous to the Catholic faith.
  • This list was known as the Index of Forbidden
  • Books were burned by the thousands.

8. What reforms were passed by the Council of
  • Council of Trent (Italy) met from 1545 to 1563.
  • Churchs interpretation of the Bible is final.
  • Any Christian who subs his/her interpretation is
    was a heretic.
  • Christians needed faith and good works for
  • The Bible and Church tradition were equally
    powerful authorities for guiding life.
  • Indulgences were valid expressions of faith, but
    selling indulgences was banned.
  • Addressed clergys corruption.
  • Regulated priests training.
  • Curbed financial abuses.

Reaction to Council of Trent
  • Some found Protestantism appealing
  • Many found Catholic ceremonies comforting
  • Liked beautiful churches
  • Liked authority of priests
  • Believed salvation gained through good works
  • Many Catholics felt renewed energy and confidence.

9. What methods did the Catholic Church use to
stop the spread of Protestantism?
  • Spreading Catholicism through mission work and
    education reforms of the Council of Trent
  • Inquisition put people on trial
  • For witchcraft, being Protestant, and breaking
    Church law
  • Spanish Inquisition much harsher
  • Imposed religious uniformity
  • Carried out executions and other punishments
  • In addition to the term being used for the
    historical events, the word "inquisition" refers
    to the tribunal court system used by both the
    Catholic Church and some Catholic monarchs to
    root out, suppress and punish heretics.
  • The Spanish Inquisition was just one of several
    inquisitions that occurred between the 12th and
    19th centuries.

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10. What is the legacy of the Reformation?
  • Protestant churches flourished and new
    denominations developed.
  • The Roman Catholic Church became more unified.
  • Both Protestants and Catholics gave more emphasis
    to the role of education in promoting their
  • Women, hoping to see their status increase, found
    themselves still limited to the concerns of home
    and family.
  • As the Catholic Churchs moral and political
    authority declined, individual monarchs and
    states gained power.

11. Overall, what were the effects of the
  • Many Protestant sects developed
  • Church leaders reformed the Catholic Church
  • Religious intolerance and anti-Semitism increased
  • Religious conflicts spread across Europe

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