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Chapter Three Culture

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Chapter Three Culture What is Culture? The values, beliefs, behavior, and material objects that form a people s way of life. Non Material culture -the nonphysical ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter Three Culture


1
Chapter ThreeCulture

2
What is Culture? The values, beliefs, behavior,
and material objects that form a peoples way of
life.
  • Non Material culture -the nonphysical ideas that
    people have about their culture, including
    beliefs, values, rules, norms, morals, language,
    organizations, and institutions.
  • Material culture tangible things created by
    members of a society.
  • Only humans rely on culture rather than instinct
    to ensure survival.

3
The Components of Culture
  • Although cultures vary, they all have five common
    components
  • (1) Symbols
  • (2) Language
  • (3) Values
  • (4) Beliefs
  • (5) Norms

4
Components of CultureSymbols
  • Symbols anything that carries a particular
    meaning recognized by people who share culture.
  • Not understanding the symbols of a culture leaves
    a person feeling lost and isolated.
  • Symbolic meaning may also vary within a single
    society.
  • Example Tattoos

5
Components of CultureLanguage
  • Language a system of symbols that allows people
    to communicate with one another.
  • Language allows for the continuity of culture.
  • Cultural transmission the process by which one
    generation passes culture to the next.
  • Every society transmits culture through speech.

6
The Sapir-Whorf Thesis
  • Languages are not just different sets of labels
    for the same reality.
  • All languages fuse symbols with distinctive
    emotions.
  • The Sapir-Whorf Thesis people perceive the
    world through the cultural lens of language.

7
Global Map 3-1 Language in Global Perspective
8
Global Map 3-1 Language in Global Perspective
9
Global Map 3-1 Language in Global Perspective
10
Components of CultureValues and Beliefs
  • Values culturally defined standards by which
    people assess desirability, goodness, and beauty
    and that serve as broad guidelines for social
    living.
  • Beliefs specific statements that people hold to
    be true.
  • Values are abstract standards of goodness.
  • Beliefs are particular matters that individuals
    consider true or false.

11
Key Values of United States Culture
  • Equal Opportunity
  • Achievement and Success
  • Material Comfort
  • Activity and Work
  • Practicality and Efficiency
  • Progress
  • Science
  • Democracy and Free Enterprise
  • Freedom
  • Racism and Group Superiority

12
Components of CultureNorms
  • Norms rules and expectations by which a society
    guides the behavior of its members.
  • Most important norms in a culture apply
    everywhere and at all times.
  • Mores norms that are widely observed and have
    great moral significance.
  • Folkways norms for routine, casual interaction.

13
Material Culture
  • Material culture artifacts
  • Every culture includes a wide range of tangible
    human creations.
  • A societys artifacts reflect underlying culture.
  • Material culture also reflects a societys
    technology knowledge that people use to make a
    way of life in their surroundings.

14
Figure 3-1 Recorded Immigration to the United
States
15
Cultural Diversity Many Ways of Life in One World
  • Cultural diversity can involve social class.
  • Many cultural patterns are readily accessible to
    only some members of a society.
  • High culture cultural patterns that distinguish
    a societys elite.
  • Popular culture cultural patterns that are
    widespread.

16
National Map 3-1 Whatll Ya Have? Popular
Beverages across the United States
17
National Map 3-1 (continued) Whatll Ya
Have? Popular Beverages across the United States
18
Subcultures
  • Subculture cultural patterns that set apart
    some segment of societys population.
  • Almost everyone participates in many subcultures
    without having much commitment to any of them.
  • What we view as the dominant culture a set of
    patterns favored by powerful segments of the
    population.

19
Multiculturalism
  • Multiculturalism an educational program
    recognizing the cultural diversity of the United
    States and promoting the equality of all cultural
    traditions.
  • Eurocentrism the dominance of European cultural
    patterns.
  • Afrocentrism the dominance of African cultural
    patterns.

20
National Map 3-2 Language Diversity across the
United States
21
Counterculture
  • Counterculture cultural patterns that strongly
    oppose those widely accepted within a society.
  • In many cultures, counterculture is linked with
    youth.
  • This is the outright rejection of conventional
    ideas.

22
Cultural Change
  • Change in one dimension of culture usually sparks
    change in another.
  • Cultural integration the close relationships
    among various elements of a cultural system.
  • Some elements of culture change faster than
    others cultural lag.
  • Cultural change may be spurred by invention,
    discovery, or diffusion.

23
Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism
  • Ethnocentrism the practice of judging another
    culture by the standards of ones own culture.
  • A particular culture is the basis for everyones
    reality.
  • Cultural Relativism the practice of evaluating
    a culture by its own standards.
  • It requires understanding unfamiliar values and
    norms.

24
Theoretical Analysis of Culture
  • The structuralfunctional paradigm depicts
    culture as a complex strategy for meeting human
    needs.
  • The socialconflict paradigm suggests that many
    cultural traits function to the advantage of some
    and the disadvantage of others.
  • Sociobiology explores ways in which human biology
    affects how we create culture.

25
Culture and Human Freedom
  • Humans cannot live without culture.
  • Culture is largely a matter of habit, and limits
    our choices.
  • Our societys emphasis on competitive achievement
    isolates us from one another.
  • Learning about cultural diversity prepares us to
    use the freedom it offers.
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