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Chapter: The Nature of Science

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Chapter: The Nature of Science Table of Contents Section 3: Communicating with Graphs Section 1: The Methods of Science Section 2: Standards of Measurement Science ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter: The Nature of Science


1
(No Transcript)
2
Table of Contents
Chapter The Nature of Science
Section 1 The Methods of Science
Section 2 Standards of Measurement
Section 3 Communicating with Graphs
3
The Methods of Science
1
What is Science?
  • Science is a method for studying the natural
    world.
  • It is a process that uses observation and
    investigation to gain knowledge about events in
    nature.

4
The Methods of Science
1
Major Categories of Science
  • Science can be classified according to three main
    categories.

1) Life science deals with living things.
5
The Methods of Science
1
Major Categories of Science
2) Earth science investigates Earth and space.
6
The Methods of Science
1
Major Categories of Science
3) Physical science deals with matter and
energy.
7
The Methods of Science
1
Major Categories of Science
  • Sometimes, a scientific study will overlap the
    categories.
  • One scientist, for example, might study the
    motions of the human body to understand how to
    build better artificial limbs.

8
A Systematic Approach
The scientific method is a systematic approach
used in scientific study, whether it is
chemistry, physics, biology, or another science.
It is an organized process used by scientists to
do research, and provides methods for scientists
to verify the work of others.
9
A Systematic Approach
This process always starts with a question to be
answered.
10
A Systematic Approach (cont.)
A hypothesis is a tentative explanation for what
has been observed.
11
A Systematic Approach (cont.)
An experiment is a set of controlled observations
that test the hypothesis.
12
A Systematic Approach (cont.)
An observation is the act of gathering
information.
  • Qualitative data is obtained through observations
    that describe color, smell, shape, or some other
    physical characteristic that is related to the
    five senses.
  • Quantitative data is obtained from numerical
    observations that describe how much, how little,
    how big or how fast.

13
A Systematic Approach (cont.)
A variable is a quantity or condition that can
have more than one value.
  • An independent variable is the variable you plan
    to change.
  • The dependent variable is the variable that
    changes in value in response to a change in the
    independent variable.

14
A Systematic Approach (cont.)
A control is a standard for comparison in the
experiment.
15
A Systematic Approach (cont.)
A conclusion is a judgment based on the
information obtained from the experiment.
  • A hypothesis is never proven, only supported or
    discarded.
  • A model can be used to make predictions.

16
A Systematic Approach (cont.)
The steps in a scientific method are repeated
until a hypothesis is supported or discarded.
17
The Methods of Science
1
Steps of the Scientific Method
  1. Identify the Problem and form a Problem
    Question.
  2. Form a hypothesis.
  3. Perform an experiment to test this hypothesis.
  4. Analyze the data.
  5. Form a conclusion.

18
The Methods of Science
1
Scientific Theories and Laws
  • A scientific theory is an explanation of things
    or events based on knowledge gained from many
    observations and investigations. It is not a
    guess.
  • Just because a scientific theory has data
    supporting it does not mean it will never change.

19
The Methods of Science
1
Scientific Theories and Laws
  • A scientific law is a statement about what
    happens in nature and that seems to be true all
    the time.
  • Gravity is an example of a scientific law.

20
The Methods of Science
1
Scientific Theories and Laws
  • A theory can be used to explain a law.
  • For example, many theories have been proposed to
    explain how the law of gravity works.
  • Even so, there are few theories in science and
    even fewer laws.

21
The Methods of Science
1
Using ScienceTechnology
  • Technology is the application of science to help
    people.

22
The Methods of Science
1
Using ScienceTechnology
  • For example, when a chemist develops a new,
    lightweight material that can withstand great
    amounts of heat, science is used.
  • When that material is used on the space shuttle,
    technology is applied.

23
The Methods of Science
1
Using ScienceTechnology
  • Science and technology do not always produce
    positive results.
  • The benefits of some technological advances, such
    as nuclear technology and genetic engineering,
    are subjects of debate.

24
Section Check
1
Question 1
What are the three main categories of science?
Answer
The three main categories of science are life,
earth, and physical.
25
Section Check
1
Question 2
What is a common way of testing a hypothesis?
Answer
A common way to test a hypothesis is to perform
an experiment.
26
Section Check
1
Question 3
Which of the following is the group in
an experiment in which all conditions are kept
the same?
A. standard B. independent variable C.
experimental D. control
27
Section Check
1
Answer
The answer is D. Conditions are kept the same in
the control group.
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