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Evolution

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Title: Evolution


1
Evolution
  • Bio I
  • Rupp

2
Focusing Questions
  • What is Evolution?
  • Who was Darwin and why is he so important to
    biology?
  • Who are the men that influenced Darwins
    thinking?
  • What are the three main parts of Darwins theory?
  • What evidence is there for evolution?

3
Formation of the Earth
  • Roughly 5 billion years ago
  • Dust and debris collapsed inward on itself
  • Colliding debris formed planets

4
Age of the Earth
  • Approximately 4.6 billion years old
  • Radioactive dating of core samples

5
Alexander Oparin
  • Russian scientist
  • Theory of early Earth
  • Ammonia
  • Hydrogen gas
  • Water vapor and random organic chemicals
  • 1923

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7
Miller and Urey
  • Modeled Oparins theory in the lab
  • Set up a closed system that contained ammonia,
    hydrogen, and water
  • Electrodes simulated lightning
  • Experiments completed in 1953

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9
Sidney Fox and his microspheres
10
Why is Life so Diverse?
  • The answer is Evolution, but what is Evolution?
  • CHANGE OVER TIME!!!!!!
  • It is a theory
  • Well supported explanation
  • There is abundant evidence

11
Who was Darwin?
  • Born on Feb. 12 1809
  • Not a great student, but good at observing life
  • Collected beetles
  • After college received a job as a dinner
    companion on a boat

12
Voyage of the H.M.S. Beagle
  • The Beagle began her voyage in 1831
  • Supposed to be a 2 year voyage, it lasted 5 years
  • Darwin acted as the ships naturalist and
    collected many specimens

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15
Darwins Observations
  • Impressed by how well adapted organisms were to
    their environment.
  • Noticed that grasslands in different areas had
    different species. Why wouldnt all grasslands
    have the same species???
  • Collected many fossils, the preserved remains of
    an extinct organism, and noticed that fossils
    resembled modern day organisms.

16
Fossils and Modern Day Organisms
  • Glyptodont
  • Armadillo

17
Fossils and Modern Day Organisms
  • Giant Ground Sloth
  • Three-toed Sloth

18
The Galapagos Islands
  • Very different climates from island to island
  • Small, low islands were dry without much
    vegetation
  • Large, tall islands received rainfall and were
    lush with vegetation

19
The Galapagos Islands
  • Based on the island habitat the animals would be
    different
  • The best example is the tortoises

20
  • Isabela Island tortoise
  • Hood Island Tortoise

21
Why would the tortoises be different from island
to island?
  • Habitat changes!!!!!!!

22
Darwins Finches
  • Birds differed from island to island also
  • The beaks were specially designed to each island
    to feed on whatever food was available

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26
Shaping Darwins Thinking
  • James Hutton
  • Charles Lyell
  • His work was based in geology
  • Stated that changes in rocks and Earth occur
    slowly
  • Mountains are pushed up
  • Mountains can be buried
  • TIME!!!!
  • Also dealt with geology
  • Stated that processes we can see today probably
    also occurred in the past
  • Again these changes took time
  • TIME!!!!

27
James Hutton
28
Charles Lyell
29
Shaping Darwins Thinking
  • Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
  • Thomas Malthus
  • Naturalist
  • Lamarck developed his own evolution theory with
    three parts
  • Tendency towards perfection
  • Theory of use-disuse
  • Inheritance of acquired traits
  • It was a bad theory
  • Economist
  • If human population increased then there would
    soon be insufficient space and food
  • Could this be true for other species
  • Struggle to survive

30
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
31
Thomas Malthus
32
On the Origin of the Species Darwins Book
  • Published in 1859
  • Showcased Darwins theory of Natural Selection
  • Began the book with easily understood concepts
  • Natural variationdifferences among individuals
    of a species
  • Artificial selectiontraits selected by humans in
    breeding animalsdog breeds as an example

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35
Natural Selection
  • There is a struggle for existence and those
    organisms better suited to the environment win
    the struggle and pass on their genes
  • It is otherwise known as survival of the fittest

36
Descent with Modification
  • Natural selection and natural variation produces
    organisms slightly different than their parents
  • Over time these differences add up to change or
    modifications
  • If you go back far enough in time you will find a
    common ancestor
  • Common descentall organisms came from the common
    ancestor

37
Evidence of Evolution
  • Homologous body structures
  • Vestigial organs
  • Similarity in limbs
  • Shows common descent
  • Limbs that are reduced in size
  • Previously had a function
  • Appendix, tonsils, and tailbone

38
Homologous structures
39
Vestigial structure
40
Evidence of Evolution
  • Fossil record
  • Geographic distribution
  • Showed what organisms used to look like versus
    todays organisms
  • Detailed history of change
  • Different organisms in different areas share
    similarities
  • The differences are due to changes caused by the
    habitat

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42
Geographic distribution
43
Evidence of Evolution
  • Similarities in early development

44
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45
Darwins Conclusions/Summary
  • Organisms differ from one to another
  • Organisms produce more offspring than can survive
  • Organisms must compete for resources
  • The uniqueness of organisms gives them advantages
    and disadvantages in competition
  • Individuals best suited to their environment
    survive and reproduce and pass on their traits
  • Changes in traits causes changes in species over
    time
  • Species alive today descended with modifications
    from a common ancestor
  • All organisms on Earth emerged from a single tree
    of life

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47
Focusing Questions
  • What is Evolution?
  • Who was Darwin and why is he so important to
    biology?
  • Who are the men that influenced Darwins
    thinking?
  • What are the three main parts of Darwins theory?
  • What evidence is there for evolution?
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