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Interpreting and Integrating Assessment Data for Instruction

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Interpreting and Integrating Assessment Data for Instruction Supervisors of School Psychologists Presented by: Ellen Fleishman Jeff Kirsh Beth Krieger – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Interpreting and Integrating Assessment Data for Instruction


1
Interpreting and Integrating Assessment Data for
Instruction
Supervisors of School Psychologists
  • Presented by
  • Ellen Fleishman
  • Jeff Kirsh
  • Beth Krieger
  • Aminah Lucio
  • Joel Seltzer
  • 2009-2010

2
Purpose
  • IDEIA seeks to assure the link between assessment
    and instruction.
  • The purpose of psychoeducational assessments in
    the schools is to explore and systematically
    study aspects of the students academic skill
    development, intellectual functioning, strengths
    and weaknesses in cognitive/learning processes
    and social/adaptive functioning.

3
Evaluations Assess
  • Academic Achievement
  • Reading
  • Math
  • Written expression
  • Communication
  • Other
  • Social-emotional, behavioral and adaptive
    functioning
  • Overall Cognitive Functioning
  • Reasoning
  • Perceptual-motor skills
  • Language
  • Executive function
  • Visuo-spatial skills
  • Memory

4
Special Education Eligibility Criteria
Disability Classifications
  • Autism
  • Deaf-blindness
  • Deafness
  • Hearing impairment
  • Emotional disturbance
  • Learning disability
  • Mental retardation
  • Multiple disabilities
  • Orthopedic impairment
  • Other health impairment
  • Speech or language impairment
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Visual impairment

5
Learning Disability IDEIA definition
  • According to Section 300.7b(10) of the
    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
    (IDEIA), specific learning disability (SLD) is
  • General, i.e., a disorder in one or more of the
    basic psychological processes involved in
    understanding or in using language, spoken or
    written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect
    ability to do the following
  • Listen
  • Think
  • Speak
  • Read
  • Write
  • Spell
  • Mathematical calculations

6
Learning Disability IDEIA definition
  • Inclusive Definition includes conditions such
    as perceptual handicaps, brain injury, minimal
    brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental
    aphasia.
  • Exclusive Definition does not include learning
    problems that are primarily the result of visual,
    hearing or motor disabilities mental
    retardation emotional disturbance or of
    environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage.

7
Our Intelligence Forebears
  • Alfred Binet (1908 in Matarazzo, 1972)
  • In intelligence there is a fundamental faculty,
    the alteration or the lack of which, is of the
    utmost importance for practical life. This
    faculty is judgment, otherwise called good sense,
    practical sensethe faculty of adapting ones
    self to circumstances.

8
Intelligence Forebears
  • David Wechsler (1943 in Matarazzo, 1972)
  • Intelligence, as a hypothetical construct, is
    the aggregate or global capacity of the
    individual to act purposefully, to think
    rationally, and to deal effectively with his
    environment.

9
On Linking Psychology to Instruction
  • Lightner Witmer (1897 as quoted in Reynolds
    Gutkin, 1998) developed the first child
    psychology clinic and advocated for the training
    of
  • The psychological expert who is knowledgeable
    in practical psychologyand capable of treating
    the many difficult cases that resist the ordinary
    methods of the school room.

10
Theoretical Approaches to Intelligence and
Intelligence Testing
  • Progress in test development and design
  • Progress in theories of intelligence

11
CONTINUUM OF PROGRESS IN THEORIES
General Ability
Dichotomous Abilities
Multiple Intelligences (Incomplete)
Multiple Intelligences (Complete)
Interacting Cog/Non-cog Factors
Spearman
Original Gf-Gc Simultaneous- Successive
Thurstone PMAs
Carroll Three- Stratum Horn- Cattell Gf-Gc
(e.g.)
Most of psychology is here
CONTINUUM OF PROGRESS IN MEASUREMENT
CAS DAS SB-4 WJ WISC-III WAIS-II
I
Stanford-Binet
Wechsler (Rs) K-ABC KAIT
WJ-R Cross-Battery Approach
Woodcock Gf-Gc Info. Proc. Model
Source McGrew, K. (2003) iapsych.com
12
CHC Theory as a Problem Solving Model
  • CHC Theory is a combination of the theories of
    three researchers
  • Cattell
  • Horn (his work was an extension of Cattells
    original Gf-Gc formulation)
  • Carroll
  • McGrew (2004) states CHC Theory of
    Intelligence is the tent that houses the two most
    prominent psychometric theoretical models of
    human cognitive abilities.
  • This model serves as the theoretical foundation
    for some of the latest cognitive assessment
    (WJ-III, Stanford Binet V, KABC-II, WISC IV/WAIS
    IV/WPPSI, and the upcoming DAS II) instruments
    and is gaining acceptance by assessment
    specialists (Fiorello Primerano, 2005).

13
CHC/Gf-Gc Theory and The IEP Instructional
Implications
  • WHAT IS CHC THEORY?
  • The major description of intelligence available
    today
  • Based on the analyses of hundreds of data sets
    that were not restricted to a particular test
    battery
  • The theory is empirically based
  • The CHC abilities represent broad domains of
    ability

14
CARROLLS (1993) THREE-STRATUM THEORY OF
COGNITIVE ABILITIES
g General Intelligence
General (Stratum III)
Gf
Gc
Gy
Gv
Gu
Gr
Gs
Gt
Processing Speed (RT Decision Speed)
Broad (Stratum II)
General Memory Learning
Broad Auditory Perception
Broad Retrieval Ability
Broad Cognitive Speediness
Broad Visual Perception
Fluid Intelligence
Crystallized Intelligence
Narrow (Stratum I)
69 narrow abilities found in data sets analyzed
by Carroll
Adapted from K. S. McGrew D. P. Flanagan
(1998). The Intelligence Test Desk Reference
(ITDR) Gf-Gc Cross-Battery Assessment. Boston
Allyn Bacon.
15
HORN-CATTELL Gf-Gc THEORY
Gf
Gq
Gsm
Gv
Ga
Gs
CDS
Grw
Gc
Glr
Broad (Stratum II)
Crystallized Intelligence
Quantitative Knowledge
Correct Decision Spd
Fluid Intelligence
Short-Term Memory
Visual Processing
Auditory Processing
Processing Speed
Long-Term Retrieval
Reading/ Writing
69 narrow abilities found in data sets analyzed
by Carroll (1993) as suggested by McGrew (1997)
and McGrew Flanagan (1998)
Narrow (Stratum I)
Adapted from K. S. McGrew D. P. Flanagan
(1998). The Intelligence Test Desk Reference
(ITDR) Gf-Gc Cross-Battery Assessment. Boston
Allyn Bacon.
16
BROAD (II) Gf-Gc ABILITIES SUBSUME NARROW(I)
ABILITIES Gf EXAMPLE
17
(No Transcript)
18
  • Gsm - SHORT-TERM MEMORY
  • The ability to hold information in immediate
    awareness and then use it within a few seconds

19
Summary of Relations between CHC Abilities and
Specific Areas of Academic Achievement
Note. The absence of comments for a particular
CHC ability and achievement area (e.g., Ga and
mathematics) indicates that the research reviewed
either did not report any significant relations
between the respective CHC ability and the
achievement area, or if significant findings were
reported, they were weak and were for only a
limited number of studies. Comments in bold
represent the CHC abilities that showed the
strongest and most consistent relations with the
respective achievement domain. Information in
this table was reproduced from McGrew and
Flanagan (1998) and Flanagan, McGrew, and Ortiz
(2000) with permission from Allyn Bacon. All
rights reserved.
20
Relationship between Assessment and Intervention
  • Clinical Aspect
  • Differential diagnosis
  • Treatment recommendations
  • Educational Planning

21
Salient Features of Psycho-Educational Assessments
  • Psychoeducational Test Interpretation
  • Psychometric/Normative
  • Cognitive Processing and Neuropsychological
    analysis
  • Clinical
  • Behavioral

22
Testing Caveats I
  • Tests are samples of behavior
  • Tests do not directly reveal traits or capacities
  • Tests must have adequate reliability and validity
  • Test scores can be affected by a myriad of
    factors that makes interpretation difficult

23
Testing Caveats II
  • Test results must be interpreted in context.
  • Test results depend on the examinees cooperation
    and motivation
  • Tests supposedly measuring the same ability may
    produce different scores
  • Individual subtests, groups of subtests, factor
    indexes, etc. do not necessarily measure unique
    cognitive processes, abilities, or constructs.

24
Relationship between Assessment and Intervention
  • Behavioral Analysis
  • Data Collection
  • Integration of observed behavior across time and
    settings
  • Hypothesis generation linking test behavior to
    class performance

25
Neuropsychological Models of Assessment
  • Cognitive/Neuropsychological Aspects
  • Executive function
  • Neurodevelopmental factors, brain and hemispheric
    function
  • Profile and Subtest Pattern Analysis
  • Report writing reflects this process

26
fMRI Brain Imaging During Reading
Dyslexic reader
Non-impaired reader
Note Shaywitz, S. (1998). "Current concepts
Dyslexia." The New England Journal of Medicine,
338(5), 307-312.
27
Relationship between Assessment and
Intervention/Instruction
  • Engagement of the parent, teacher, and other
    relevant persons in the Assessment Process
  • Contextualization
  • Dynamic Assessment
  • Ecological Assessment

28
Contextualization
  • Cultural factors
  • Race/Ethnicity
  • Familial background and history
  • Language
  • SES
  • School climate and culture

29
Contextualization Assessment of ELLs
  • Determining need for bilingual assessment
  • Determining language dominance
  • Language difference/acquisition
  • Language deficiencies
  • Recommendations for ELLs
  • ESL
  • Bilingual class/service

30
Standards for Educational Psychological Testing
for ELLs
  • Any test that employs language is, in part, a
    measure of their language skills test results
    for ELLs may not reflect accurately the
    qualities and competencies intended to be
    measured (AERA, et al., 1999, p. 91).

31
Dynamic Assessment
  • Intelligence testing as cognitive processing
  • Qualitative factors
  • Testing the limits
  • RTI-Response to Intervention
  • CBA- Curriculum Based Assessments

32
Qualitative Factors
  • Attention
  • Concentration
  • Distractibility
  • Anxiety
  • Frustration
  • Impulsivity
  • Perseverance

33
Ecological Assessment
  • Observations and interview data provided by
  • Parent
  • Teacher
  • Providers
  • Peers
  • School/Classroom milieu
  • School records (including achievement test
    results, predictors etc.)

34
Mesosystem Chronosystem
Exosystem
Bronfenbrenners Ecological Theory of Development
Macrosystem
35
Connection Assessment results need to be
approached through various lenses
  • We need results from the psychologist and the
    teacher for a complete picture.

36
Psychoeducational Report Writing Linking
Assessment to Instruction
  • Based on the students cognitive processing,
    strengths, weaknesses and interests, how will the
    curriculum content be instructionally
    DIFFERENTIATED?
  • Consider Ecological Theory of Functioning
  • Consider students social emotional functioning

37
Psychoeducational Report Writing
  • Individual comprehensive reports need to identify
    strengths and weaknesses in relevant skill areas
    and discuss non-cognitive factors affecting
    performance, and hypothesize how cognitive
    factors may impact instruction.

38
Bridging Assessment to the IEP
39
IEP Present Levels of Performance(PLOP) Should
Include
  • Input from student, parents and teachers
  • Unique strategies, needs and modifications
  • What has worked and what hasnt?
  • ELLs Language acquisition and acculturation
  • Student preferences and interests
  • Transition

40
Case of Morgan
  • Morgan is a 10 year old fifth-grader
  • She is bright, vivacious and outgoing
  • Her favorite school extracurricular activities
    are music and dancing
  • She frequently forgets what she is doing she has
    trouble sustaining attention and remembering
    things in school even for a very short time
  • She has great difficulty organizing work for
    large school projects

Note Morgan, from McCloskey, Perkins Divner
(2009), Assessment and Intervention for Executive
Function Difficulties. NY Routledge
41
Determining Educational Benefit
  • Present Level of Performance
  • Assessment Results
  • Needs Concerns
  • Goals and objectives
  • Accommodations Modifications
  • Services/Placement
  • Progress Made on Annual Goals

NOWDetermine Is this IEP Reasonably Calculated
to provide Educational Benefit? Is there a clear
alignment between the assessment results,
identified needs, goals, and services? If there
is, you should be able to draw a line that will
connect each item in each column.
42
Present Levels of Performance Needs Concerns Goals Objectives Accommodations Modifications Services Placement Progress Toward Goals
Morgan is a bright, vivacious, outgoing 5th grader. She enjoys music and dancing. Morgan has weak working memory skills related to short attention span in the classroom she frequently forgets what she is doing and becomes easily distracted and distracts peers. She has great difficulty with organizing work for large school projects. Morgan has weak working memory skills related to short attention span in the classroom she frequently forgets what she is doing. She has great difficulty with organizing work for large school projects. In one year, given positive behavioral strategies, e.g., role-playing, self-monitoring and modeling, Morgan will be able to work in a group setting, without distractions, independent of teacher prompts 9 out of 10 times over a two-month period. In one year, given organizational strategies, e.g., checklists, chunking, process charts, Morgan will schedule, plan and pace the components of a 5-step project. She will complete all 5 steps of two school projects at the expected due date with 90 accuracy. Modeling Role-playing Checklists Verbally repeat steps to understand directions Provide clear rules and expectations Provide seating with minimal distractions Chunking assignments into manageable pieces Verbal prompts Instructional cues and reminders Process charts (graphic organizer) Time and ½ Separate location Directions read CTT Counseling YES YES

Was the students program reasonably calculated
to result in educational benefit? YES or NO?
Note Morgan, from McCloskey, Perkins Divner
(2009), Assessment and Intervention for Executive
Function Difficulties. NY Routledge
43
Linking Assessment to Instruction
  • Resources for IEP Goal Writing--
  • ATDR (Achievement Test Desk Reference)
  • Flanagan, et al., (2002)
  • PRIM- Pre-Referral Intervention Manual
  • LIM- Learning Intervention Manual
  • www.hes-inc.com
  • CHC Theory
  • www.iapsych.com/chcpp
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