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General Psychology and Methods

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Lap 1 What is Psychology? Psychology: the scientific study of the mind and behavior Chapter 1, Section 1 What does Psychology want to accomplish? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: General Psychology and Methods


1
General Psychology and Methods
  • Lap 1

2
What is Psychology?
Psychology the scientific study of the mind
and behavior
Chapter 1, Section 1
3
What does Psychology want to accomplish?
4
Approaches to Psychology
Many different approaches to study
behavior each does it differently (the how)
Developmental (Lap 5) Cognitive (Lap
5) Neuroscience/ Psychobiology the brain
Socio-cultural/ Social-- interactions Health/
Clinical/ Mental illness
Chapter 1, Section 1
5
How does Psychology reach its goals?By studying
behaviors
  • Observable
  • Examples eat food
  • Unobservable
  • Examples hunger, boredom, coping mechanism
  • Objective
  • XX is holding a pencil
  • Facts- detached, balanced, unbiased
  • Subjective Observations
  • I like your headband
  • Opinions- personal, emotional, biased

6
Goals of Psych
  • Q What does each indicate is important to
    psychologists?
  • Why valuable?
  • How misused?
  • Which is most important?
  • Q What future behaviors could be predicted
    based on your own past behaviors?

7
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8
Historical Approaches to Psychology
  • The Beginning
  • Wm.Wundt founder of Psych as a science
  • First experimental Psych research lab
  • To scientifically study and collect data on the
    mind
  • Structuralism Study behavior to determine a
    structure to the thought process
  • Methods Systematic Introspection- describe your
    own experiences/ thoughts with self-observation
  • Collect data on ones own conscious experiences/
    reactions
  • Flaws- reporting own feelings is unreliable/
    biased


Chapter 1, section 2
9
Historical Approaches to Psychology
  • William James- Father of Psych (in the US)
  • Book The Principles of Psychology
  • Functionalism- Studied functions of mental
    processes
  • Especially when in adapting to the environment
  • What is the purpose of behavior and mental
    processes? To adapt and survive (Darwin
  • Reaction to Structuralism
  • Methods improved research methods/ scientific
    method
  • Flaws can this be studied directly??

10
Historical Approaches to Psychology
  • Sigmund Freud
  • Book The Interpretation of Dreams
  • Psychoanalysis- Studied the unconscious mind
  • To explain behavior, personality, and mental/
    physical disorders
  • Thoughts and desires influence our behavior
  • Expressed in dreams and slips of the tongue
  • CONTROVERSIAL
  • Methods Psychothreapy (with Jung)
  • To collect data and interpret unconscious
    thoughts
  • Dream analysis
  • Free Association- say anything
  • Flaws- reporting and analysis unreliable/
    biased

11
Newer Approaches to Psychology
  • Watson and Skinner
  • Behaviorism- Behavior is a product of prior
    learning
  • Behavior without thought like a reaction/
    impulse
  • A response to Functionalism and Psychoanalysis
  • Method study observable behaviors
  • More in Lap 3!

12
  • Wertheimer
  • Gestalt psychology emphasized perception of
    whole pattern (Gestalt) of behavior
  • See behavior in its entirety, not in isolation
  • Reaction to Structuralism, Behaviorists, and
    Freud
  • Method focus on the conscious mind to study how
    sensations affect perceptions leads to Humanist
    and Cognitive Psychology
  • Flaw

13
  • Sir Francis Galton
  • Nature vs. nurture
  • Inheritable Traits- Study genius, ability,
    character, and personality to determine if they
    are hereditary
  • Methods invented modern personality tests

14
Newer Approaches to Psychology
  • Carl Rogers, Abe Maslow
  • Humanism- the importance of the individual
  • Emphasizes the inner-self and the importance of
    feelings, not the unconscious or environment
  • Behaviors are self-directed
  • See the whole person
  • A response to Psychoanalysis, Behaviorists, and
    Gestalt
  • Methods client centered therapy, emphasized
    subjective meaning
  • Flaws unobservable inner experiences data???

15
Newer Approaches to Psychology
  • Piaget, Ellis
  • Cognitive Psych.- Studied mental processes
  • Inner mental processes? outward, measurable
    behavior
  • How do our thoughts determine behavior?
  • How do we process, store, retrieve, and use info?
  • How do we perceive, learn, and remember info?
  • A response to Functionalism, Gestalt, and
    Behaviorism
  • Methods study observable, measurable behavior
  • Flaws
  • More in Lap 3!

16
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17
The Scientific Method
See Activity 3Chart

Chapter 2, Sec 1
18
Scientific Method
  • Example Question Does Bayer Aspirin relieve
    headaches better than a placebo?
  • Hypothesis
  • Control Group vs. Experimental Group
  • Independent Variable vs. Dependent Variable
  • Perform Experiment- systematically gather data
  • Analyze data and draw conclusions

19
Scientific Method
  • Independent Variable (IV) manipulated by the
    researcher IF
  • Ex If you take aspirin in X dose, will your
    headache go away?
  • Dependent Variable (DV) the behavior or
    response that is measured THEN
  • The headache- hopefully, is affected by the
    aspirin

Chapter 2
20
Scientific Method
  • Biased sample
  • Placebo effect
  • Double Blind Experiment
  • Correlations
  • Validity
  • Reliability

21
Experiments
  • Which type of experiment would you do?
  • Case Study
  • Survey
  • Experiment
  • Naturalistic Observation

22
Psychology as a Profession
  • Psychologist
  • Psychiatry- medical doctor
  • Clinical psychologist- interprets tests
  • Councilor everyday life
  • Developmental/ Educational
  • Etc.
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