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The Cold War Expands

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Title: The Cold War Expands


1
The Cold War Expands
  • Angela Brown
  • Chapter 16 Section 3

2
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3
The Korean War
  • 1945 Allies divide Korea into Soviet-Occupied
    northern zone and an American Occupied Southern
    Zone.
  • Occupying forces withdrew from both zones in
    1948-1949.

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.jpg
4
Korean War
  • June 1950, the Korean War broke out when North
    Korean troops streamed across the 38th parallel,
    the latitude dividing the two nations, aiming to
    reunite Korea by Force.
  • The USSR was boycotting the Security Council
    protesting the exclusion of Communist China, the
    UN was able to act to defend South Korea.

5
Today
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.jpg
6
Douglas MacArthur
  • Hero of two World Wars strong anti-communist
    Trumans choice to lead UN forces in Korea
  • Graduated from U.S. military academy at West
    Point in 1903

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h62439.jpg
7
MacArthur
  • Cited 7 times for bravery in WWI and by 1918 at
    age 38 he attained rank of general.
  • 1930 Army Chief of Staff
  • WWII Commander of American forces in Asia
  • Virtual dictator of Japan during postwar
    responsible for establishing Western Democracy
    creating new democratic constitution

8
MacArthur
  • Less successful in implementing democracy in
    South Korea supported South Korean President
    Syngman Rhee
  • Hero to troops and American Public
  • Disliked as overly ambitious by political leaders

9
MacArthur
  • MacArthur had little respect for both Roosevelt
    and Truman.
  • He viewed them as soft on communism.
  • He had contempt for anyone with authority over
    him it undermined his otherwise brilliant
    career.

10
The Korean War
  • Excellent military strategist, MacArthur,
    developed a bold plan to drive the invaders from
    South Korea.
  • South Korea overtaken in just a few weeks
    except small part near port city of Pusan.
  • Guessed that swift advance had left supply lines
    stretched thin.
  • Sept 1950 attacked enemy supply lines from behind
    and sent forces to defend Pusan.

11
http//www.mapzones.com/citymap/south_korea/pusan/
pusan.jpg
12
Korean War
  • His strategy worked . The North Koreans fled back
    across 38th Parallel.
  • UN troops pursued them Northward and began
    boasting of reuniting Korea under South Korean
    government.
  • Chinese joined North Koreans and pushed UN forces
    back into South Korea a stalemate developed.

13
  • MacArthur favored opening a second front by
    bringing Chinese opposition from Taiwan under
    Jiang Jieshi to fight communist Chinese.
  • Truman opposed he feared widespread war in Asia.

14
MacArthur Fired
  • MacArthur sent letter to House minority leader
    Joseph Marlin in March 1951 attacking the
    Presidents policy.
  • Martin made letter public on April 11 Truman
    fired MacArthur for insubordination.
  • The struggle dragged on for two more years.

15
Truce?
  • 1953 truce signed left Korea divided by the 38th
    parallel as before.
  • Americans wondered why 55,000 soldiers had been
    killed and 103,000 wounded for limited results.
  • Was the U.S. serious about stopping communism?

16
The Cold War in the 1950s
  • 1953 Eisenhower succeeded Truman.
  • New phase of Cold War policy
  • Sec of State John Foster Dulles called for a
    policy to roll back communism.
  • Eisenhower recognized risk of confronting Soviets
    did not intervene in revolts in Eastern Germany,
    Poland and Hungary in 1956.
  • Policy of containment continued.

17
Dwight D. Eisenhower
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r/aa_eisenhower_subj_e.jpg
18
Southeast Asia
  • July 1953 fulfilled campaign promise to end
    Korean War aided by death of Stalin in March.
  • Conflict developed in Vietnam French colony
  • 1945 Ho Chi Minh, head of Vietnamese Communist
    Party declared independence.

19
Ho Chi Minh
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jpg
20
Domino theory
  • France sent troops to reassert authority war
  • Eisenhower believed in Domino theory
  • If one country fell to communists its neighbors
    would soon follow.
  • By 1954 U.S. providing military aid to support
    France in Vietnam.

21
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a/vietnam_pol92.jpg
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gif
22
Vietnam
  • May 1954, major defeat France withdrew forces
  • International conference divided Vietnam like
    Korea.
  • U.S. provided aid to South Vietnam but resisted
    greater involvement.

23
The Middle East
  • British controlled Palestine region on Med.
    Coast and biblical home of Jewish people
  • 1930s many Jews sought safety in Palestine
    called for a Jewish state
  • 1947 British turned over to UN created two
    states one Jewish and one Arab

24
Palestine
http//www.shuruq.com/Palestine_files/palestine.jp
g
25
Israel - Iran
  • May 1948 Jews in Palestine proclaimed new nation
    of Israel.
  • Arab nations opposed backed by Soviets
  • U.S. worked to prevent oil-rich Arab nations from
    falling to Soviets.
  • 1952 nationalist leader gained control in Iran
  • U.S. (CIA) organized overthrow returned power
    to pro-American Shah of Iran

26
Israel
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/images/acp_israel_w600.gif
27
Suez Crisis
  • Suez Crisis in 1956 Egypts ruler, Nasser,
    sought Soviet support
  • U.S./GB stopped aid.
  • Nasser seized the Suez Canal a vital waterway
    through Egypt allowing Middle East oil to reach
    Europe.
  • 1956 British and French attack Egypt.
  • Eisenhower persuaded NATO allies to withdraw from
    Egypt.

28
Suez Canal
http//www.yachtaragorn.com/maps/large/DjiboutitoS
uezCanal.jpg
29
Eisenhower Doctrine
  • 1957 announced Eisenhower Doctrine
  • The U.S. would use force to safeguard independent
    countries in Middle East requesting aid against
    aggression.
  • Used Doctrine in 1958 to put down revolt against
    Lebanese government.

30
Latin America
  • 1947 Rio Pact a regional defense alliance with
    18 other nations in the Western Hemisphere.
  • 1948 formed organization of American States (OAS)
    to increase cooperation among nations of
    Hemisphere.

31
Latin America
  • 1954 CIA helped overthrow government of
    Guatemala.
  • Leaders were sympathetic to radical causes.
  • Restored property of United Fruit company seized
    by Guatemalan government from American
    corporation.

32
Guatemala
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ica/guatemala/guatemala.gif
33
Cuba
  • 1958 Fidel Castro overthrew corrupt Cuban
    dictator Batista. (ties to U.S. organized crime)
  • Eisenhower would not support Castro CIA reported
    infiltration of movement by communist.
  • Castro seized U.S. property in Cuba Eisenhower
    cut diplomatic ties and halted exports to Island.
  • Castro turned to Soviets for economic and
    military aid.

34
Leadership Change
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tro.jpg
35
Republic of Cuba
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36
The Arms Race
  • Arms Race struggle to gain weapons superiority
    The Growth of Nuclear Arsenals
  • 1953 one year after U.S test of thermonuclear
    device, Soviets tested hydrogen device.
  • 1953 Eisenhower announced atoms for Peace Plan at
    UN.

37
First Hydrogen Test
  • Worlds nations work together under UN
    supervision to find peaceful uses for nuclear
    technology Soviets refused to participate.
  • Eisenhower stepped up American weapons
    development program.
  • First hydrogen test in March 1954 750 times more
    powerful than bomb dropped on Nagaski.

38
Results
  • Japanese fisherman 90 miles away radiation
    burns-Island 200 miles away evacuated
  • Test revealed nuclear war threatened entire world
    with radioactive contamination.

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39
Brinkmanship
  • 1956 Secretary of State Dulles stated U.S.
    prepared to risk war to protect national
    interest.
  • Brinkmanship ability to get to verge without
    getting into war

40
Cold War in the Skies
  • U.S. Airforce to carry hydrogen bombs to targets
    Soviets could not match strength.
  • Developed ICBMs long-range rockets known as
    intercontinental ballistic missiles as primary
    delivery system
  • U.S worked to develop ICBMs lagged behind
    Soviets in missile development due to dependence
    on conventional air power.

41
ICBM launch
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b/d/d5/Atlas-icbm-erector-scaled.jpg/300px- Atlas-
icbm-erector-scaled.jpg
42
Sputnik
  • Technological gap startling in 1957 Soviets used
    one of rockets to launch Sputnik first
    artificial satellite to orbit Earth.
  • Americans mortified rocket could carry hydrogen
    bomb to U.S.
  • U.S. satellite rushed to launch before ready
    crashed.

43
Sputnik
http//www.aerospaceweb.org/question/spacecraft/ru
ssia/r7-sputnik.jpg
44
U-2 incident
  • U-2 incident Soviets shot down U.S. spy plane
    over Soviet Union with guided missile.
  • It flew 15 miles high we assumed it was immune
    to attack.

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45
Gary Powers
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op.jpg
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4L9.gif
46
Sentence
  • Francis Gary Powers ImprisonedPowers spent
    almost 21 months in prison in the Soviet Union.
  • During that time, he openly kept a diary of his
    daily activities.
  • In November 1960 he began secretly writing a
    journal, which opens with a detailed recounting
    of the downing of his U-2.
  • When released, Powers hid the diary and journal
    in a rug he had embroidered while in prison and
    carried them out of the Soviet Union.

http//www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/lae/script/ss_f
lyers.htm
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