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Title: Nigeria


1
Nigeria
  • Chapter 12

2
SECTION 1THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
3
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • Politics in Action
  • Government in Crisis
  • November 2009 President Umaru Musa YarAdua
    collapsed for third time since coming to office
    in 2008 from mystery ailment.
  • No direct evidence of president for three months
  • At first, all attempts to declare Acting
    President in his absence were blocked.
  • Under international pressure and threat of
    military coup, National Assembly declared Vice
    President Goodluck Jonathan as Acting President.
  • May 2010, YarAdua passed away.
  • Important signs of democracy
  • Opposition insisted on constitutional means to
    resolve crisis.
  • Politicians clearly sensed that they could not
    neglect public opinion forever.

4
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
5
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
6
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • Politics in Action (Contd)
  • Challenge to manage contentious ethnic and
    religious diversity in condition of scarcity and
    weak institutions
  • Inability to meet the most basic needs of its
    people
  • Struggle between authoritarian and democratic
    governance
  • Authoritarianpower depends on coercive force of
    the political authorities.
  • Struggle to create nation-state out of social
    incoherence
  • Low levels of popular legitimacy and
    accountability
  • Legitimacy A belief by powerful groups and the
    broad citizenry that a state exercises rightful
    authority.
  • Accountability Major actions taken by government
    must be known and understood by the citizenry.
  • Nigeria is unfinished stateunstable and
    uncertain.
  • Unfinished stateCharacterized by instabilities
    and uncertainties that may render it susceptible
    to collapse as a coherent entity.

7
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • Geographic Setting
  • Most populous nation in Africa
  • British colony from 1914 to 1960
  • Boundaries reflect extent of British influence
    rather than borders of precolonial societies.
  • Ethnic map has six inexact zones
  • Northwest Hausa-Fulani, largest ethnic group
    (core North)
  • Northeast minority groups, predominately
    (Kanuri) Muslim
  • Middle Belt both Muslim and Christian minorities
  • Southwest second largest ethnic group, (Yoruba)
    Muslim, Christian (Protestants)
  • Southeast third largest ethnic group, (Igbo)
    primarily Christian
  • South minority region

8
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
9
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • Critical Junctures
  • Nigerias recent history influenced by
  • Precolonial period
  • British colonial changes
  • Postcolonial alternation of military and civilian
    rule
  • Economic collapse from 19802000 caused by
    political corruption and overreliance on oil
    industry
  • Post-2003 oil boom

10
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
11
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
12
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • The Precolonial Period (8001900)
  • Open terrain and need for irrigation in north
    encouraged growth of centralized states.
  • Trade across Sahara Desert brought material
    benefits, education, and Islam.
  • Sokoto Caliphate
  • Islamic empire established through jihad.
  • Jihad Literally struggle. Although often used
    to mean armed struggle against unbelievers, it
    can also mean spiritual struggle for more
    self-improvement.
  • Unified groups with Islam and common language,
    Hausa

13
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
14
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • The Precolonial Period (8001900) (Contd)
  • Southern savanna politics followed along kinship
    lines.
  • Westerners saw as stateless or acephalous
    societies.
  • Acephalous societiesLiterally headless
    societies lacking executive rulership.
    Instead, the villages and clans were governed by
    committee or consensus.
  • Several precolonial societies may have led to
    participatory politics if not interrupted by
    colonialism.
  • Governance involved principles of accountability
    and representation.
  • Islamic communities had highly structured
    political society.
  • Islamic Fulani Empire was a confederation in
    which emirs owed allegiance to the sultan.

15
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • Colonial Rule and Its Impact (18601945)
  • British colonization for trade deepened the
    extraction of natural resources and exploitation
    of Nigerian labor.
  • Colonialism left political and economic systems
    that impacted development and governance.
  • British policy of indirect rule was used to
    govern centralized monarchies.
  • Indirect rule A term used to describe the
    British style of colonialism in Nigeria and India
    in which local traditional rulers and political
    structures were used to help support the colonial
    governing structure.
  • Allowed traditional structures to remain

16
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • Colonial Rule and Its Impact (18601945) (Contd)
  • In other areas either the authority of the
    traditional chief was strengthened or a warrant
    chief was appointed.
  • Warrant chiefs A system in which chiefs were
    selected by the British to oversee certain legal
    matters and assist the colonial enterprise in
    governance and law enforcement in local areas.
  • Weakened existing accountability and
    participation
  • Played off ethnic and social divisions to prevent
    resistance
  • If resistance developed, employed repressive
    tactics.
  • British established democratic foundation.
  • Formal institution but authoritarian culture
  • Strengthened collective identity by fostering
    political competition, primarily among
    Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, and Igbo.

17
THE MAKING of the modern NIGERIAN state
  • Divisive Identities Ethnic Politics Under
    Colonialism (19451960)
  • Leaders of the anticolonial movement learned from
    their experience under British rule.
  • State control was opportunity to pursue personal
    and group interests.
  • As British began to negotiate exit from Nigeria,
    unity among leaders evaporated and intergroup
    political competition increased.
  • Ethnicity used to mobilize support and pursue
    competition
  • With encouragement of ambitious leaders, elites
    took on more political agenda.
  • British divided Nigeria into federation of three
    regions with elected governments in 1954.
  • One major ethnic group dominated each region.

18
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • The First Republic (19601966)
  • Nigeria granted independence in1960.
  • Adopted British Westminster model at federal and
    regional levels
  • Prime minister chosen by majority party or
    coalition
  • Northerners dominated federal government as a
    result of population.
  • Policy of northernization set out to
    redistribute resources to their benefit caused
    conflict.
  • Prime minister and president (symbolic position)
    from different parties
  • As rivalries intensified, each asked military for
    support if conflict should arise.

19
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • Civil War and Military Rule (19661979)
  • Igbo officers seized power in1966.
  • Highest ranking officer and coup leader became
    head of state, and then killed.
  • Yakubu Gowon, a Middle Belt Christian became
    consensus head of state among non-Igbo coup
    plotters.
  • Consequences of ethnic violence of northern
    officials
  • Igbo east attempted to secede to form Biafra.
  • Remaining Nigeria, under military-led government,
    defeated Biafra after three-year war.

20
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • Civil War and Military Rule (19661979)
  • After war, Gowons policy of national
    reconciliation was supported by increasing oil
    revenues.
  • Postponed return to civilian life because
    military elite unwilling to relinquish power and
    spoils (1973-1974)
  • Overthrown in 1975 by Murtala Muhammad, who was
    assassinated shortly thereafter.
  • General Olusegun Obasanjo, second-in-command and
    successor ceded to elected civilian government
    in 1979.
  • Government became known as Second Republic.
  • Obasanjo reemerged as civilian president in 1999.

21
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
22
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • The Second and Third Republics, and Predatory
    Military Rule (19791999)
  • Second Republic government drawn largely from
    First Republic.
  • Did little to build trust or stop corruption
  • National Party of Nigeria (NPN) won electoral
    majority through fraud and violence.
  • 1983 Major General Muhammadu Buhari seized
    power.
  • Lost support due to economic downturn and refusal
    to return to democracy
  • 1985 General Ibrahim Babangida seized power.
  • Announced transition to democracy, then stalled
    annulled elections of 1993.
  • Pressured to resign, but picked civilian
    successor, Ernest Shonekan

23
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
24
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • The Second and Third Republics, and Predatory
    Military Rule (19791999) (Contd)
  • Defense minister General Sani Abacha seized
    power.
  • Combined promise to restore democracy with
    repression
  • Announced transition to civilian rule but stalled
  • Died in June, 1998
  • Successor, General Abdulsalami Abubakar,
    established new transition program
  • Handed power to elected civilian government
  • Olusegun Obasanjo President, May 1999
  • Peoples Democratic Party (PDP)

25
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • The Fourth Republic (1999 to Present)
  • Obasanjo claimed broad mandate to arrest nations
    decline.
  • Acted to reform state and economy
  • Retired all military officers who had held
    positions of political power under previous
    military governments
  • Reduce threat of coup
  • Targeted oil sector for new management
  • Lobbied foreign governments to forgive Nigerias
    massive debts
  • Raised minimum wage
  • Set up truth and reconciliation commission to
    address past abuses
  • Formed commissions to fight corruption and
    channel oil revenues back to impoverished and
    environmentally ravaged Niger Delta region

26
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • The Fourth Republic (1999 to Present) (Contd)
  • Political survival required anticorruption
    campaign leave corrupt politicians in place.
  • Nearly impeached three times
  • Widespread malpractice saved second term.
  • Election fraud to spark state of emergency and
    extend Obasanjos term planned.
  • Picked successor, Musa YarAdua
  • Elections condemned but no violence and Obasanjo
    forced to turn over power to YarAdua
  • YarAdua asserted independence.
  • Reversed controversial Obasanjo decisions
  • Focused on solidifying control of Peoples
    Democratic Party rather than campaign policy
    promises
  • Passed away, May 2010

27
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • The Fourth Republic (1999 to Present) (Contd)
  • President Jonathan runs for election April, 2011
  • Elected to office, but tarnished by the
    persistence of rigging and widespread deaths.
  • Promises reforms.

28
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • Themes and Implications
  • Historical Junctures and Political Themes
  • Federalism and democracy are important strategies
    to achieve goal of unity
  • Legacy resulted in unitary system with powerful
    central government and weak, economically
    insolvent states.
  • Military rule left overdeveloped executive, weak
    legislature and judiciary.
  • Unchecked executive weakens economy, prevents
    accountability, and undermines rule of law.
  • National Assembly, judiciary, state governments
    are now reducing powers of national executive.
  • President remains dominant figure.

29
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • Nigeria in the World of States
  • Potential political and economic giant
  • Peacekeeping efforts through United Nations, the
    African Union.
  • Governing Nigerias Economy
  • Depends on oil revenues, sparse external loans,
    and aid.
  • Agricultural neglect in 1960s led to heavy
    dependence on imports.
  • Deteriorating political institutions
  • Made country a way station for international drug
    trafficking and international commercial fraud.

30
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • Democratic Ideas Amid Colonialism and Military
    Rule
  • Nigerian colonial state was conceived and
    fashioned as interventioniststate that acts
    vigorously to shape the performance of major
    sectors of the economy.
  • Colonialism introduced cultural dualism.
  • Tradition of social accountability
  • Emerging Western ideas of individualism
  • Dualism promoted two public realms.
  • Communal people identified by ethic or subethnic
    groups
  • Civic universal citizenship

31
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • Democratic Ideas Amid Colonialism and Military
    Rule (Contd)
  • Democratic idea filtered through regional
    divisions
  • Indirect rule impacted north and south
    differently.
  • South burden and benefit of colonial occupation
  • North few infrastructural benefits traditional
    administration preserved
  • Democratic idea strong
  • Diversity demands democracys negotiations and
    protection of interests.

32
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • Nigerias Fragile Collective Identity
  • Divisions between north and south, ethnic groups
  • Manipulated by military governments and citizens
  • Exacerbated by clientelism, corruption, unstable
    authoritarian governments
  • Clientelism powerful patron offers resources in
    return for support and services.
  • Patrons linked by ethnic, religious, or other
    cultural ties, which only benefit elite
  • Undermines social trust, political stability
  • Ethnicity is primary form of political identity.
  • Personal and business connections exist across
    divisions.

33
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN NIGERIAN STATE
  • Implications for Comparative Politics
  • Nigeria has human and material resources to
    overcome cycle of poverty and autocracy.
  • Autocracy A government in which one or a few
    rulers has absolute power, thus, a dictatorship.
    Similar to authoritarianism.

34
SECTION 2POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
  • Introduction
  • Colonialism left interventionist state, which
    continued postindependence
  • Stunted private sector
  • Encumbered industry and commerce

35
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
  • State and Economy
  • Nigerian state plays central role in economic
    decision making.
  • Direct ownership, regulation, administrative
    control
  • Most revenues, known as rents, are channeled
    through government.
  • RentsAbove-market returns to a factor of
    production. Pursuit of economic rents (or
    rent-seeking) is profit seeking that takes the
    form of nonproductive economic activity.
  • Those who control government are gatekeepers of
    rents.
  • Those not getting rents (so-called informal
    sector) must survive on petty trade and
    subsistence agriculture.
  • Accounts for one-fifth of the entire Nigerian
    GDP, much of it earned through cross-border trade

36
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
  • Origins of Economic Decline
  • Nigerian economy was centered on agricultural
    production for domestic consumption as well as
    for export.
  • Nigeria self-sufficient in food production at
    independence
  • Late 1960s emphasis shifted to nonfood export
    crops through large-scale enterprises
  • Small farms received little government support.
  • Food production declined, food imports increased
    to meet population needs.
  • Three factors undermined Nigerian agricultural
  • Biafran War (19671970)
  • Severe drought and subsequent famine
  • Development of petroleum industry

37
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
  • Origins of Economic Decline (Contd)
  • 1970s oil boom allowed Nigeria to increase
    education, defense, infrastructure expenditures.
  • Imports of capital and consumer goods increased
    seven-fold.
  • Budget deficit by 1978 caused borrowing and
    increased debt.
  • Increased oil wealth increased corruption.
  • Nigeria forced to import refined petroleum.
  • 2002 internet scams had become one of Nigerias
    top five industries, earning more than 100
    million annually.
  • Oil boom double edged sword
  • Generated large amounts of income
  • Source of external dependence

38
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
  • From 1985 to the Present Deepening Economic
    Crisis and the Search for Solutions
  • Structural Adjustment Babangida regime
    developed an economic structural adjustment
    program (SAP) with support of international
    financial institutions (IFIs)
  • Structural adjustment program (SAP)Medium-term
    (generally three to five years) programs (which
    include both action plans and disbursement of
    funds) established by the World Bank intended to
    alter and reform the economic structures of
    highly indebted Third World countries as a
    condition for receiving international loans.
  • International financial institutions (IFIs)
    Generally refers to the International Bank for
    Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank)
    and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), but
    can also include other international lending
    institutions.

39
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
  • From 1985 to the Present Deepening Economic
    Crisis and the Search for Solutions (Contd)
  • Reasoning behind decision of adopting SAPs
  • increasing economic constraints
  • growing debt
  • balance of payment difficulties
  • Balance of paymentsAn indicator of international
    flow of funds that shows the excess or deficit in
    total payments of all kinds between or among
    countries. Included in the calculation are
    exports and imports, grants, and international
    debt payments.
  • lack of fiscal discipline
  • Privatization is central to Nigerias adjustment
    program.
  • Privatization State-owned businesses would be
    sold to private (nonstate) investors, domestic or
    foreign, to generate revenue and improve
    efficiency.

40
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
  • Economic Planning
  • National plans prepared by ministries of finance,
    economic development, planning
  • Not effective tool due to absence of effective
    database for planning and lack of discipline in
    implementation
  • Nigerian Economic Summit Group (NESG)1994
  • Revived dialogue between business and government
    on economic direction
  • Coequal participation between government and
    private sector
  • Vision 2010 advocated reduction of government
    role in economy
  • Accepted by Obasanjo
  • Advice continues to influence economic policy.

41
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
42
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
43
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
  • Economic Planning (Contd)
  • Obasanjo paid off most of heavy foreign debt.
  • Accomplished through persistent lobbying for debt
    relief and economic reforms
  • YarAdua pledged to continue reforms, reduce
    corruption.
  • Neither of these goals were achieved.
  • President Jonathan did some cleaning up upon
    taking office however, others remain in his
    administration as well.

44
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
45
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
  • Social Welfare
  • Social welfare has suffered with economic
    decline.
  • Deterioration in quality and quantity of social
    services since 1986
  • Reform programs emphasizing reduction of state
    expenditures forced cutbacks.
  • Nigeria poorly meets basic needs, failed to
    develop national social security system.
  • Gaps filled by family-based networks of mutual
    aid
  • Few Nigerians have access to formal sector jobs.
  • Health care and social services (water,
    education, food, and shelter) remain woefully
    inadequate.
  • Nigeria stands on verge of AIDS epidemic.
  • Efforts to combat left to nongovernmental
    organizations.

46
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
47
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
  • Society and Economy
  • Central government controls access to most
    resources and economic opportunities.
  • State has become major focus for competition
    among ethnic, regional, religious, and class
    groups.

48
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
  • Ethnic and Religious Cleavages
  • Ethnic relations and conflicts among political
    elites have generated tensions that distort
    economic affairs.
  • Conflicts heightened by government ineptitude and
    growing religious assertion
  • Christians have perceived past governments as
    pro-Muslim in management and distribution of
    scarce resources, jeopardizing secular nature of
    state.
  • Fears increased in 1999 with expansion of
    sharia.
  • Muslims feared born-again Christian Obasanjo
    would tilt balance of power and economics.
  • Decline of economy precipitated rise of Christian
    and Muslim fundamentalisms.

49
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
  • Ethnic and Religious Cleavages (Contd)
  • Ethnic and religious movements have used renewed
    political freedoms to mobilize around interests
    and grievances.
  • Many armed groups have formed, particularly in
    oil-producing regions.
  • Militias live off the pay they receive in
    providing security for oil bunkeringillegal
    criminal networks (often including the
    individuals in the oil industry, political
    leaders, and the military) that tap into
    pipelines, siphon oil, and resell it on the black
    market.
  • Minority groups clash over land and rents.
  • Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta
    (MEND) has repeatedly threatened to drive out
    foreign oil interests if their demands for a
    greater share of oil revenues are not met.

50
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
  • Gender Differences
  • Land Use Act of 1978all land owned by government
  • Land tenure governed by patriarchal traditional
    practice
  • Women dominate agricultural production but are
    prevented from owning land.
  • Nigeria in the Global Economy
  • Nigeria weak and dependent at international level
  • Reliant on developed industrial economies
  • Mismanagement, endemic corruption, and vagaries
    of international commodity markets have
    squandered economic potential.

51
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
  • Nigeria and the Regional Political Economy
  • Nigeria aspires to be regional leader.
  • Major actor in formation of Economic Community of
    West African States (ECOWAS) 1975
  • Economic Community of West African Studies
    (ECOWAS)Established in 1975,its goals are to
    strengthen and broaden the economies in the
    region through the removal of trade barriers
    among its members, freedom of movement for
    citizens, and monetary cooperation.
  • Carried administrative and financial burden to
    keep it afloat
  • Efforts to move to European Union style
    integration
  • Not boding well
  • Key issue in US-Nigerian relations has been oil.
  • U.S. buys roughly 8 percent of its oil from
    Nigeria.

52
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT
  • Nigeria and the Political Economy of the West
  • Nigerian wealth was perceived by elite as source
    of strength.
  • When the oil market fell, oil dependence was seen
    as a source of weakness.
  • Nigeria was forced to seek support from
    international financial institutions.
  • Nigeria remains dependent on Western technology
    and expertise for oil exploration and extraction.
  • Formation of African Union, based on
    European-style integration
  • Governments commit to good governance and
    economic reforms in exchange for access to
    Western markets and financial assistance.

53
SECTION 3GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING
  • Introduction
  • Obasanjo inherited government close to collapse
    and corrupt yet facing demands for rapid progress
  • Delivered economic reforms but became
    increasingly corrupt and ambitious
  • Ambitions rejected by public
  • Forced to leave in May 2007
  • Presidents YarAdua and Jonathan both came to
    power without client network.

54
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING
  • Organization of the State
  • The National Question and Constitutional
    Governance
  • Nigeria has no clear answers to fundamental
    governance issues i.e., the national question.
  • Who will rule?
  • Should country remain united?
  • How is the country to be governed given its great
    diversity?
  • What should be the institutional form of the
    government?
  • Fluctuated between democracy and military
    domination
  • Nine constitutions drafted since 1914
  • Five under colonial rule and four since
  • Military and civilian leaders often unwilling to
    observe legal and constitutional constraints
  • Fragile institutions with personal and partisan
    considerations

55
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING
  • Federalism and State Structure
  • First Republic tried British parliamentary model.
  • Decentralized with power in three regions
  • Second Republic used United States presidential
    model.
  • Went into effect in 1979
  • Fourth Republic continues with presidential
    model.
  • Strong executive constrained by checks and
    balances, bicameral legislature, independent
    judicial
  • Federal structure with states able to enact laws
  • In reality states are dependent on federal.
  • Allows customary law courts to function alongside
    secular system

56
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING
  • Federalism and State Structure (Contd)
  • Military rule left authoritarian political
    culture.
  • Oil wealth centralizes economic and political
    control.
  • Elite accommodation to moderate cultural
    pluralism
  • Demands for ethnic rotation of president built on
    federal character
  • Supports ethnic representation and conflicts

57
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING
  • The Executive
  • Evolution of the Executive Function
  • Second Republic replaced parliamentary with
    presidential system.
  • Belief popularly elected president would serve as
    symbol of national unity
  • Mitigate lack of party discipline in selection of
    executive
  • System entrenched in Nigerian politics
  • Experiment with presidentialism lasted for four
    years before it was ended by the 1983 coup.

58
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING
  • The Executive Under Military Rule (Contd)
  • The President, or head of state, under military
    administrations, appointed most senior government
    positions.
  • Legislature disbanded, thus decisions subject to
    council of military officers
  • Council had become rubber stamp for ruler.
  • Patron-client relationships flourished.
  • Weakened structure of military into predatory
    apparatus
  • Nigerians believe political and economic
    development hampered by military domination and
    misrule.
  • Obasanjo retired military who had held political
    offices.
  • Redirected toward regional peacekeeping
  • Military remains a threat.

59
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING
  • The Fourth Republic The Obasanjo YarAdua, and
    Jonathan Administrations
  • Initiatives in first six months
  • to reform armed services
  • revitalize economy
  • improve governance
  • Clientelism and financial kickbacks for oil
    licenses resurfaced.
  • First anticorruption committee had little impact
    but second (Economic and Financial Crimes
    Commission (EFCC) founded in 2003 had impressive
    indictments.

60
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING
  • The Fourth Republic The Obasanjo YarAdua, and
    Jonathan Administrations (Contd)
  • Impediment to reform was ruling party.
  • Peoples Democratic Party (PDP), run by elites,
    who delivered victory through fraud in 2003
  • Obasanjo tried to control party.
  • When third amendment was quashed by National
    Assembly, had himself named Chairman for Life
    with ejection power
  • YarAdua spent first year trying to regain
    control of party and build alliances.
  • YarAdua was succeeded by President Jonathan.
  • With Obananjos support, along with PDP
  • Jonathan appointed Attahiru Jega as Chairman of
    nations electoral commission.

61
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING
  • The Bureaucracy
  • Colonial system relied on bureaucracy to govern.
  • After independence bureaucracy became rewards in
    patrimonial system.
  • Growth not based on function and need
  • Appointments based on patronage, ethnic group,
    and religion
  • Bureaucratic salaries represent roughly half
    government expenditures.
  • Some ministries have had successful reforms.

62
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING
  • Semipublic Institutions
  • ParastatalsState-owned, or at least
    state-controlled, corporations, created to
    undertake a broad range of activities.
  • Established to
  • Furnish public facilities at lower cost
  • Accelerate economic development by controlling
    economy
  • Sovereignty over sectors perceived sensitive for
    national security
  • Prebendalism
  • PrebendalismDisbursing of public offices and
    state rents to ones ethnic clients.
  • Pattern of political behavior justifies the
    pursuit and use of public office for personal
    benefit of officeholder and his clients.
  • As long as prebendalism remains the norm, a
    stable democracy will be elusive.

63
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING
  • Other State Institutions
  • Judiciary and subnational governments operate
    under strong central government with strong
    executive.
  • The Judiciary
  • Originally, judiciary was independent from the
    executive arm.
  • Buhari, Babangida, Abacha regimes issued
    repressive decrees disallowing judicial review.
  • Politicization demonstrated through 1993 case
    where the Supreme Court put actions of military
    executive beyond judicial review.
  • Undermined autonomy and integrity of the
    judiciary
  • Courts restoring independence and credibility
    since return of civilian rule

64
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING
  • State and Local Judiciaries
  • State courts subordinate to Federal Court of
    Appeal and Supreme Court
  • Parallel court system is based on sharia
    (religious) and customary laws.
  • Application of sharia source of debate
  • ShariaIslamic law derived mostly from the
    Quran and the examples set by the Prophet
    Muhammad.
  • Created new avenues for patronage as well as
    public action
  • On the other hand, opened up new avenues for
    public action to press government for
    accountability and reform.
  • Courts of record are based on common law and
    bound by decisions of Supreme Court.

65
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING
  • State and Local Government
  • Most states would be insolvent without
    substantial support from the central government.
  • Oil revenues fostered competition for access to
    national patronage.
  • States receive lump sum based on oil revenues and
    percentage of oil income is based on population.
  • Government is sapped of resources and legitimacy.
  • Communities are compelled to resort to self-help
    measures.
  • Few individuals and organizations pay taxes.
  • Basic functions are starved of resources.
  • The return of democracy has meant the return of
    conflict between state and national governments.
  • Many governors use militia and vigilante groups
    to provide security.

66
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING
67
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING
68
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING
  • The Policy-Making Process
  • Military rule created policy process based more
    in top-down directives than consultation,
    political debate, legislation.
  • Senior officers developed networks of supporters
    creating loyalty pyramid.
  • Once in power they gained access to oil wealth,
    which they passed down to reward support.
  • Prebendalism
  • Often reflect ethnic, religious affiliations
  • Civilian politics reflects loyalty pyramids.
  • Civilian politicians belonged to loyalty pyramid
    of military.

69
GOVERNANCE AND POLICY-MAKING
  • Profile
  • President Goodluck Jonathan
  • President Goodluck Jonathan, casting his vote in
    his Bayelsa state village and wearing a
    traditional hat common to many Niger Delta
    communities. He was elected vice president in
    2007, named Acting President by the National
    Assembly on the incapacitation of President
    YarAdua in 2010, and elected president in 2011.

70
SECTION 4REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION
  • Introduction
  • Nigerian legislatures have commonly been
    sidelined or subservient to executive.
  • Fraud, manipulation, military interference marked
    party and electoral systems.
  • Participation outside official structures
  • Unofficial methods of representation and
    participation through institutions of civil
    society
  • Civil societyRefers to the space occupied by
    voluntary associations outside the state e.g.,
    professional associations (lawyers, doctors,
    teachers), trade unions, student and womens
    groups, religious bodies, and other voluntary
    association groups.
  • Formal representation does not necessarily
    enhance participation.

71
REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION
  • The Legislature
  • Legislative structures and processes suffered
    abuse, neglect, or peremptory suspension by the
    executive.
  • Until first coup in 1966, government operated
    according to British Westminster model.
  • Elected lower house
  • Smaller upper house selected by executive
  • Supreme Military Council initiated and passed
    decrees at will.
  • Bicameral legislature introduced in 1979
    together called National Assembly
  • Senate three senators from each of the
    thirty-six states, plus one from federal capital
    territory
  • House elected on weighted state representation

72
REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION
  • The Legislature (Contd)
  • Since independence same party won executive and
    majority in National and state assemblies.
  • Only control legislature has over funds is right
    to pass budget.
  • Constitution gives legislature right to control
    funds but in practice president controls the
    purse strings.
  • National Assembly beginning to gain relevance
  • August, 2002 Began impeachment when president
    refused to follow budget
  • May, 2006 Rejected Obasanjos constitutional
    amendments
  • President retaliated by removing and replacing
    majority of Assembly.

73
REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION
  • The Party System and Elections
  • Political parties were associated with ethnic
    groups.
  • One party per dominant ethnic group
  • Fostered perception that politics was ethnically
    zero-sum (or winner-takes-all), encouraging
    fragmentation
  • First-past-post produced legislative majorities
  • Parties more attentive to their ethnic groups
    than development of Nigeria
  • 1989 Babangida issued decree establishing only
    two political parties by decree.
  • Social Democratic Party (SDP) and National
    Republican Convention (NRC)
  • Northern-based parties dominated first and second
    civilian rule.

74
REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION
75
REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION
76
REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION
77
REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION
  • Old Roots and New Alignments The PDP and the
    Other Parties of the Fourth Republic
  • To prevent ethnic-based parties of First and
    Second Republics, a threshold requirement was
    established.
  • Reduced number of parties and forced existing
    parties to broaden their appeal
  • Parties of Fourth Republic are primarily
    alliances of convenience among Big Men.
  • Sole purpose is to gain power
  • No ideological differences or policy platforms
  • Multiethnic
  • Strong incentive to bridge differences within
    party
  • Foster a climate of compromise
  • Political opposition cannot counter elite
    corruption.

78
REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION
  • Political Culture, Citizenship, and Identity
  • Military rule left strong authoritarian
    influences in the political culture.
  • Most of the younger politicians grew up during
    military rule.
  • Democratic traditions in conflict with
    experiences of military governance

79
REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION
  • Modernity versus Traditionalism
  • Interaction of Western (colonial) elements with
    traditional (precolonial, African) practices
    created tension.
  • Strong elements in communal societies that
    promoted accountability have been weakened by
    Western orientation toward individuality and
    urbanization.
  • Modern state has been unable to free itself fully
    from rival ethnic claims organized around narrow,
    exclusivist constituencies.
  • Exclusivist identities continue to dominate
    Nigerian political culture and define
    citizenship.
  • Individuals tend to identify with immediate
    ethnic, regional, religious group or subgroup
    especially during crisis.
  • No belief that a common interest binds state and
    citizen

80
REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION
  • Religion
  • Nigeria is evenly divided between Muslims and
    Christians.
  • Consistently clashed over political issues
  • Application of sharia a focal point for tensions
  • Part of Muslim way of life
  • Christians see it as threat to secular society
    and their place in it.
  • Pull of religious versus national identity
    becomes even stronger during economic hardship.

81
REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION
  • The Press
  • Nigerian press lively and irreverent
  • Efforts have been made to stifle its
    independence.
  • Members of media sometimes seen as captives by
    ethnic and regional constituencies.
  • Weakened their ability to resist attacks on
    rights and privileges
  • Press concentrated in South but independent radio
    and television appearing around country
  • Investigative journalists use Internet to avoid
    censoring.

82
REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION
  • Interests, Social Movements, and Protest
  • Labor, student groups, and womens organizations
    have played a major role in Nigerian politics.
  • Also radical and populist organizations
  • Business groups colluded with corrupt civilian
    and military regimes.
  • Efforts to end this relationship
  • Civil society groups flourishing with end of
    military rule

83
REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION
  • Labor
  • Organized labor has challenged government.
  • Military pressure limited independence and
    strength during 1980s and 1990s.
  • State corporatism used to control and co-opt
    social forces.
  • State corporatismPolitical system in which state
    requires all members of a particular economic
    sector to join officially designated interest
    group to attain public status, and participate in
    national policymaking.
  • Government is largest employer and arbiter of
    industrial relations between employer and
    employees.
  • Consolidation of constitutional rule in Fourth
    Republic provides unions protections to organize
    and act freely on behalf of their members.

84
REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION
  • The Business Community
  • Nigeria has long history of entrepreneurialism
    and business development.
  • Compromised by rent-seeking and appropriation of
    state resources
  • Members of business class seen as pirate
    capitalists due to high-level of corruption and
    collusion.
  • Organized groups have emerged to represent
    business class and promote economic development

85
REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION
  • Other Social Groups
  • Student activism
  • Rise of cults since 1990s
  • Members eventually join militias or become
    political thugs
  • Elites employ for power plays
  • Religious movements offer alternative.
  • Also vehicle for recruiting fundamentalists
  • Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and human
    rights groups
  • Generally focus on issues such as gender law or
    health care and are urban based.
  • Civil society groups helping to consolidate
    democracy
  • Relationship with National Assembly and state
    legislature
  • Need to improve relationship with political
    parties

86
SECTION 5NIGERIAN POLITICS IN TRANSITION
  • Introduction
  • Nigerians prefer democracy to military rule.
  • Frustration with pace of reform and corruption
  • Nigerian politics must change in fundamental ways
    for democracy to become more stable and
    legitimate.
  • Must change from domination by Big Men to
    representative politics that addresses
    fundamental interests of public
  • Must commit to political arrangements that
    accommodate diversity
  • Must develop political process that crosses
    ethnic, regional, religious lines and addresses
    poverty and underdevelopment

87
NIGERIAN POLITICS IN TRANSITION
  • Political Challenges and Changing Agendas
  • Transition to democratic rule between 1985 and
    1999 inconclusive
  • Military rulers promised democratic transition to
    stabilize and legitimize their governments.
  • General Abubakar returned to civilian rule only
    after ensuring military interests would be
    protected.
  • Created overly powerful executive that reinforces
    prebendalism and its patronage system.
  • Parasitic nature of economy is further source of
    instability.
  • Rent-seeking and other unproductive, often
    corrupt, business activities remain accepted
    norms of wealth accumulation.
  • Niger Delta has grown particularly violent, with
    increasingly well-armed militias that have shown
    dependence from political patrons.

88
NIGERIAN POLITICS IN TRANSITION
89
NIGERIAN POLITICS IN TRANSITION
  • Political Challenges and Changing Agendas
    (Contd)
  • Nigeria must create viable, multiethnic
    opposition party willing to play by rules.
  • Would help to reduce corruption and engage public
  • Basis of social contract elites gain the
    privilege of power so long as they use it to
    promote the public interest.
  • Building of a coherent nation-state out of
    competing nationalities remains unfinished.
  • Ethnic associations and militias now articulate
    ethnic-based grievances and open potential for
    instability.
  • Ethnicity cannot be the basis for political
    competition.
  • Power structures must further decentralize.
  • Solve problems at local levels
  • Enhance accountability of leaders

90
NIGERIAN POLITICS IN TRANSITION
  • Nigerian Politics in Comparative Perspective
  • Identify institutional mechanisms that may be
    effective in reducing ethnic conflict.
  • Also learn about the necessary and sufficient
    conditions for economic development and the
    particular liabilities of oil-dependent states.

91
NIGERIAN POLITICS IN TRANSITION
  • A World of States
  • Nigeria exists in two worlds of states
  • Global political economy
  • Entered in position of weakness and grown weaker
  • Economically vulnerable and corrupt
  • Africa
  • Nigerian events will influence democracy,
    political stability, and economic renewal in
    other parts of Africa.
  • International political and business has shifted
    elsewhere in Africa.
  • Portends a danger of greater marginalization,
    reflecting areas of stability and growth
    contrasted with areas of turmoil and decay.

92
NIGERIAN POLITICS IN TRANSITION
  • Governing the Economy
  • Insights into political economy of
    underdevelopment
  • Nigeria failed to capitalize on its development
    potential.
  • Natural resources not enough to ensure economic
    development and may actually encourage
    rent-seeking behavior that undermines more
    productive activities.
  • Political and institutional development must come
    first.
  • Sustainable economic development requires sound
    economic policy.
  • The Democratic Idea
  • Authoritarian, single-party, and military rule in
    Africa resulted in political repression, human
    rights abuses, inequality, deteriorating
    governance, and failed economies.
  • Nigeria exemplifies the harsh reality of
    authoritarian and unaccountable governance.

93
NIGERIAN POLITICS IN TRANSITION
  • Collective Identities
  • Presents case study for dangers of communal
    competition in society with deep cultural
    division
  • Institutional reforms discussed within this
    chapter
  • multiethnic political parties
  • decentralization
  • strengthened federal system that can contribute
    to reducing tensions and minimizing conflict.
  • Understanding the politics of cultural pluralism
    and difficulties of accommodating sectional
    interests under political and economic insecurity
  • Nigerias federal character supports ethnic and
    regional favoritism and patronage.
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