Module 4.1 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Module 4.1 PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7c3602-NmU0N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Module 4.1

Description:

Majority of expenditure in a sedentary person Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR): ... Chapter 9 Author: Owner Last modified by: Ghias Created Date: 7/12/2008 3:42:16 AM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:20
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 72
Provided by: Owne3753
Category:
Tags: chapter | module

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Module 4.1


1
Module 4.1
  • Scientific Inquiry Tied to Genetics, Evolution,
    and Obesity

2
Scientific Inquiry
  • The field of nutrition is based on scientific
    study that integrates
  • Biology
  • Physiology
  • Microbiology
  • Botany
  • Biochemistry
  • Chemistry
  • Genetics and
  • Molecular biology
  • In order to understand how evidence is produced,
    it is crucial to understand the basics of
    scientific inquiry.

3
The Scientific Method
  • Is hypothesis driven
  • Follows a basic format
  • Ask a question (define the problem)
  • Form a hypothesis
  • Design an experiment
  • Collect, analyze interpret the data
  • Generalize publish the findings
  • Ask another question (the findings generally
    leads to more questions)

4
The Scientific Method
5
Examples of Theories in Science and Nutrition
  • Cell
  • The cell is the most basic unit of life,
    organisms are made of one or more cells, and new
    cells arise from existing cells. Years ago it was
    hypothesized that humans are born with a certain
    number of fat cells. Now it is known that fat
    cells can divide when they have been filled to
    capacity.
  • Set Point
  • There seems to be a range of body weight that is
    relatively easy to maintain and is genetically
    and physiologically controlled. The lower body
    weight range is more tightly defended to prevent
    starvation and preserve life.
  • There are many feedback mechanisms that influence
    intake and satiety.

6
Research Designs
  • Case studies
  • Clinical studies
  • Intervention trials
  • Epidemiology
  • Laboratory experiments
  • Testimonials are NOT
  • based on research

7
Study Types
  • Case Results from a single person protocol
    conducted by a medical doctor.
  • Clinical Experimental design with a group of
    people.
  • Epidemiological Intervention Population
    based.
  • Laboratory Experimental design with any life
    form microorganisms, virus, animals, plants,
    cell lines, bugs, etc.

8
Experimental Design things to consider
  • 1. Number of Subjects is there enough for
    statistical significance.
  • 2. Duration of the Study is it long enough for
    conclusions to be made.
  • 3. Matching Groups Ethnicity, gender, age,
    lifestyle, disease.
  • 4. Control Groups experimental vs placebo.
  • 5. Reproducible Results can the experiment be
    repeated and yield the same results.
  • 6. The Treatment Protocol blind, double blind,
    crossover.

9
Treatment Protocol
  • Blind the subject does not know if they are in
    the experimental or control group.
  • Double Blind the subject and the primary
    investigator do not know who is in the
    experimental or control group.
  • Cross over each group experiences a period of
    being on the placebo and experimental drug.
  • A highly reputable study design is called the
    double-blind cross over experiment.

10
Public Recommendations
  • Consistent results from multiple credible studies
    published over many years are used to make
    dietary recommendations.
  • A whole body of evidence, collected over many
    years of experimentation is interpreted by the
    scientific community to create public
    recommendations regarding diet and health
    (disease prevention).

11
OBESITY
12
OBESITY
  • Obesity is body fatness significantly in excess
    of the level that is consistent with optimal
    health.
  • Excess body fat is stored inside fat cells
    (adipose tissues)
  • That causes the mass or size of the cells
    increases. It known as Hypertrophy.
  • Once fat cells are filled up, then the fat cells
    can be divided or increase in cell number. This
    is referred to as Hyperplasia.
  • There has been an uncontrolled rise in obesity in
    the United States over the last 20 years.

13
OBESITY AS A CHRONIC DISEASE
  • Too much body fat increases a person's risk of
    developing a host of chronic health problems,
    those include
  • High Blood pressure
  • Heart Disease
  • Diabetes
  • Gallbladder Disease
  • Arthritis
  • Sleep Disorder (sleep apnea)
  • Respiratory Problems
  • Cancers of Breast, Uterus, Prostate, and
    Colon

14
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1991,
1999, 2008, and 2010
1999
2008
2010
15
Obesity
  • Obesity was 12 in 1991 and 33.8 in 2010
  • More than 17 of children and adolescents age 2
    to 19 years of age are obese.
  • The obesity during the last 20 years has doubled
    in adults and tripled in children.
  • Obesity is defined by Body Mass Index (BMI).

16
WHAT IS HEALTHY WEIGHT
17
HEALTHY WEIGHT
  • How much body fat is too much depends on
  • Age
  • Life style and
  • Where fat is located
  • Apple profile
  •             Pear profile
  • Central Obesity
  • Fat that collects deep within the central
    abdominal area of the body (visceral fat)

18
BODY COMPOSITION
  • Healthy level of body fat
  • For young adult female is between
    21 to 32
  • For young adult male is between 8 to
    19
  • With aging, lean body mass decreases and body fat
    increases.
  • Some of these changes may be prevented through
    exercise

19
  • BMI
  • Body Mass Index

20
BMI
  • It is current standard for assessing
    healthfulness of body weight.
  • Which determined by dividing weight (in kg) by
    height (in meters) square

21
Body Weight versus Body Fatness
  • Body Mass Index (BMI)
  • BMIwt. (Kg)/height (m)
  • or
  • BMIwt. (lbs.)/height (In)2x705
  • BMI140 lbs/(66)2in.140/43560.0321x705 
  • BMI22.65 or 23

22
BMI
  • The Healthy BMI for adults is between
  • 18.5 to 24.9
  • People with in this range have lowest health
    risks.
  • BMI is not actually a measure of body fat
  • It is recommended as a way to assess body fatness

23
BMI
  • 18.5 or less underweight
  • 18.5 24.9 normal
  • 25.0 29.9 over weight
  • 30.0 34.9 obese type I
  • 35.0 39.9 obese type II
  • 40.0 or higher extremely obese

24
Energy Balance
  • Module 4.2

25
Principles of Energy Balance
  • 1 pound fat 3500 Calories stored.
  • To lose body fat, a Calorie deficit needs to be
    created.
  • To gain body weight, a Calorie excess needs to be
    created.
  • Body weight changes are based on the relationship
    of Caloric (Energy) intake Energy Expenditure.

26
Energy Balance Equations
  • Body Fat Mass change can be calculated with these
    formulas
  • If Calories Consumed Calories Expended
    (Isocaloric)
  • Body weight is typically maintained. Energy
    balance occurs.
  • If Calories Consumed gt Calories Expended
    (positive energy balance)
  • Weight is typically gained . Positive energy
    balance occurs.
  • If Calories Consumed lt Calories Expended
    (negative energy balance)
  • Weight is typically lost. Negative energy balance
    occurs.

27
Energy Expenditure
  • Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR 60 65)
  • An amount of energy needed to sustain life
  • Voluntary muscle movement-(Physical Activity
    25-35)
  • Calories burned in physical activity (PA)
  • The specific dynamic action (SDA) of food (also
    called the thermic effect of food 5-10)
  • Energy required for food digestion processing

28
Energy Expenditure
29
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
  • The energy required by the body to minimally
    function (heart to beat, lungs to breathe, ).
  • It is determined in a fasting state (12 hours)
    and when the body is at complete rest.
  • Majority of expenditure in a sedentary person

30
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
  • BMR is also called Resting Energy Expenditure
    (REE)
  • It considers the amount of energy burned by a
    person at rest.
  • REE can be measured in the lab or estimated using
    the Mifflin Equations.

31
The Mifflin Equations Are based on gender,
height, weight, and age
  • REE Formula For WOMEN
  • REE (Calories/day) (10 x W) (6.25 x H) (5
    x A) 161
  • REE Formula For MEN
  • REE (Calories/day) (10 x W) (6.25 x H) (5
    x A) 5
  • W Weight in Kg (pounds divided by 2.2)
  • H Height in centimeters (inches x 2.54)
  • A Age in years

32
Factors That Affect The BMR
  • -       Age
  • -       Gender
  • -       Growth
  • -       Body Composition
  • -       Fever
  • -       Stress
  • -       Environmental Temperature
  • -       Fasting/ Starvation
  • -       Malnutrition
  • -       Thyroxin

33
Specific Dynamic Action (SDA)
  • Specific Dynamic Action (SDA)
  • The food processing charge.
  • Also called the thermic effect of food.
  • 10 of the total number of Calories consumed is
    required for the digestion, absorption
    assimilation of nutrients into the body.
  • Metabolism is increased when fed

34
Body Composition Weight Control
  • Module 4.3

35
NEW YEAR RESULATION
36
HEALTHY BODY WEIGHT
  • This year I am going to loose my weight once and
    for
  • all
  • Three (3) misconceptions
  •       Focus on weight
  •       The focus on controlling wt.
  •        Focus on a short term plan
  •  

37
HEALTHY BODY WEIGHT
  • It is not your weight you need to control
  • It is fat in proportion to lean(The Body
  • Composition)
  • Controlling body composition is not possible-
    without controlling your behavior.
  • Sporadic bursts of activity (dietary) are not
    effective
  •  It is a life time commitment

38
Body Composition
  • Determination of body weight should be based upon
    body composition.
  • It is important to know the of total body
    weight that is fat.
  • Values should be considered for maintaining good
    health, personal appearance, performance reasons

39
Essential Fat Mass
  • Two classifications of body fat
  • Essential necessary for optimal health
  • Fat in bone marrow
  • Cell membranes
  • Nonessential or storage
  • Subcutaneous adipose tissue
  • . Visceral Fat

40
Essential Fat
  • In female, essential fat mass contributes about
    12 of total body fat.
  • The higher body fat in women is required for
    normally functioning reproductive cycle.
  • Lower Essential Fat mass in women can cause
    disruption in the menstrual cycle, the condition
    is known as amenorrhea.

41
Determining Body Fat
  • Underwater weighing (very accurate)
  • Skin fold calipers (the more sights, the better)
  • Bioelectrical impedance (the persons hydration
    level affects the reading accuracy)
  • Futrex 5000 (more accurate when average body
    fat)-Light absorption, reflectance,
    near-infrared spectroscopy.

42
(No Transcript)
43
  • Location of Body Fat

44
Location of Body Fat
  • Location of fat in body affects the risks
    associated with having too much fat.
  • Excess Subcutaneous Fat increase health risks
    relatively less than the excess Visceral Fat.
  • Visceral fat is more metabolically active than
    subcutaneous fat.

45
Location of Body Fat
  • Based on the fat deposit in the body people are
    divided into two groups
  • Apple profile
  •             Pear profile
  • Central Obesity
  • Fat that collects deep within the central
    abdominal area of the body (visceral fat)

46
(No Transcript)
47
(No Transcript)
48
RICKS FROM CENTRAL OBESITY
  • Visceral Fat. Especially dangerous with regard to
    risks of
  •       Diabetes
  •       Stroke
  •       Hypertension
  • Dyslipidemia
  • High Blood Cholesterol
  •       Coronary artery disease

49
Factors affecting fat distribution
  •       Smoking
  •       Moderate-to-high intake of alcohol
  •       Physical activity
  •       Menopause in women

50
Waist Measurement
  • Reflects the degree of visceral fatness in
    proportion to body fatness.
  • Men 40 inches (102 cm)
  • Women 35 inches (88 cm)
  • Anyone with the waist measurement larger than
    these standards may carry an increased risk of
    disease.

51
Combating Obesity
52
Weight Control
  • When considering weight loss, it is important to
    lose the excess fat weight and preserve the lean
    body mass or muscle.
  • The reason for weight loss should be to decrease
    excess of body fat.
  • Fat weight loss is a slow process.

53
Effective Weight Loss
  • Optimal weight loss rate is 1 lb/week.
  • 1 lb of fat weight loss requires a 3500 Calorie
    deficit
  • A 500 Calorie deficit per day times 7 days per
    week produces a rate of weight loss of 1 lb/week.

54
500 Calorie Deficit/Day
  • 40 minutes aerobic exercise 300 Calories
    (preserves LBM, BMR and utilizes stored fat)
  • 22g of dietary fat removed from the diet 200
    Calories.
  • Results in
  • 1 pound per week of body fat lost.
  • Preservation of lean body mass.
  • A faster rate of weight loss forces the body to
    use muscle protein to meet the glucose/energy
    needs of the body.

55
Achieving and Maintaining a Healthy Body Weight
  • Weight loss takes time and patience
  • A modest weight loss, even for a person still
    overweight, can improve health

56
What Diet Strategies Are Best for Weight Loss?
  • Its Your Diet, So Youd Better Plan It
  • No particular food must be included or excluded
    from the diet
  • Adopt a healthy eating plan
  • Fruits, veg. and whole grains
  • Crunchy, wholesome, unprocessed or lightly
    processed food- bulk satiety
  • Limit, do not eliminate, lean meat and other low
    fat protein sources
  • Pay close attention to portion sizes

57
What Diet Strategies Are Best for Weight Loss?
  • Reduce fat without reducing total calories does
    not produce wt. lose
  • If you drink alcoholic beverages, cut down or
    eliminate
  • More meals- small size
  • Mild hunger not appetite is prompting you to eat
  • Eat regularly and before becoming very hungry
  • No particular food plan is magical
  • No particular food must be either included or
    excluded
  • instead adapt a healthy eating plan for life
  • So it must be consist of foods you like, that re
    readily available and affordable

58
Combating Obesity
  • There is 6 success rate for reducing weight and
    maintaining the weight loss by dieting.
  • During prolonged fasting (or low calorie, low
    carb diets), the BMR declines and lean body mass
    is used to make glucose for brain, central
    nervous system, and red blood cell functioning.
  • The body chemistry changes under conditions of
    Feasting Fasting

59
Feasting
60
Short Fasting
61
Long Fasting
62
Role of Exercise in Weight Control
  • Exercise is critical in the maintenance of a
    healthy body weight.
  • Furthermore, it improves
  • Cardiovascular fitness
  • Raise HDL
  • Slow Heart rate
  • Decrease blood pressure
  • Support brain health
  • Maintain lean body mass
  • Make bones stronger
  • Increase flexibility, strength and endurance

63
Role of Exercise in Weight Control
  • Spot reduction, or reducing fat mass in one part
    of the body, is a weight-loss myth.
  • Fat does not belong to the muscles
  • Fat in fat cells increase or decrease uniformly

64
Weight Control
  • Weight control is easier if a person develops
  • Long term
  • Consistent
  • healthy Lifestyle behaviors

65
Behavior Modification
  • Identify goal (realistic).
  • Identify current behaviors that need to change.
  • Identify behaviors that will achieve the goal
    reinforce them.
  • Commit to change.
  • Plan (set realistic small behavior changes into
    action, rewards).
  • Persist long enough to see results, reinforces
    motivation.
  • Evaluate the progress modify the plan

66
Life Long Diet Protocols
  • Greater long term success rates with
  • Eating a well balanced diet from a variety of
    foods to achieve nutrient adequacy.
  • Incorporating an hour-long exercise program
    daily.
  • Using behavior modification to permanently
    incorporate desired health behaviors

67
Optimal Dietary Planning for Adequacy
  • Optimal Dietary Planning involves ensuring that
    the diet meets standards for promoting health and
    nutrient adequacy
  • To do so, one must limit
  • Saturated Fatty Acids
  • Trans Fatty acids
  • Cholesterol
  • Added sugars and
  • Salt
  • Make sure the age of Calories from Carbohydrate,
    Fat and protein are with AMDR range.

68
What is Nutritional Adequacy?
  • The diet provides
  • Essential nutrients
  • Fiber
  • Energy
  • to maintain health.
  • Nutritional adequacy should be considered for
    each individual diet.
  • In weight loss, weight maintenance or gain diets,
    nutritional adequacy should also be considered.

69
Combating Obesity
  • Surgery
  • Lipo-suction
  • Intestinal resection
  • Gastric bypass
  • Gastric band
  • Drugs
  • Over the counter prescribed
  • These methods can be
  • health threatening
  • usually do not result in
  • long-term sustained
  • weight loss
  • and/or a
  • healthy lifestyle

70
How Nutritional Adequacy is Measured?
  • Dietary assessment tools like
  • Diet Analysis software programs
  • Food Composition tables databases
  • The Exchange System
  • Used to prescribe monitor dietary intake.

71
  • All diets (especially weight control diets) need
    to be planned so that there are no nutritional
    inadequacies, deficiencies, or risks for
    toxicity.
  • Inadequate Intake lt 100 of the DRI
  • Deficient Intake lt 66 of the DRI
  • Risk of Toxicity gt 100 of the UL
About PowerShow.com