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Waste Disposal and Management

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Title: Waste Disposal and Management


1
Waste Disposal and Management
2
What are Wastes?
  • Definition outputs of a system that are
    nonuseful substances or objects which are
    disposed of or are intended to be disposed.
  • Disposal means
  • any operation which may lead to resource
    recovery, recycling, reclamation, direct re-use
    or alternative uses (Annex IVB of the Basel
    convention)

3
Classifications of Wastes
  • Solid wastes plastics, styrofoam containers,
    bottles, cans, papers, scrap iron, and other
    trash
  • Liquid Wastes domestic washings, chemicals,
    oils, waste water from ponds, manufacturing
    industries and other sources
  • Bio-degradable can be degraded (paper, wood,
    fruits and others)
  • Non-biodegradable cannot be degraded
    (plastics, bottles, old machines,
  • cans, styrofoam containers and others)
  • Hazardous wastes Substances unsafe to use
    commercially, industrially, agriculturally, or
    economically that are shipped, transported to or
    brought from the country of origin for dumping or
    disposal
  • Non-hazardous Substances safe to use
    commercially, industrially, agriculturally, or
    economically that are shipped, transported to or
    brought from the country of origin for dumping or
    disposal

4
Sources of Wastes
  • Municipal
  • Households (60)
  • Commerce and Industry (schools, hospitals, etc)
    (40)

The Story of Stuff
5
Sources of Wastes
  • Agriculture
  • Fisheries

6
Waste Generation by Country (Global Waste Survey
Final Report Published by IMO 1995)
Countries Amount /year
Japan 395 M tonnes/year
Germany 104 M tonnes/year
Netherlands 6.1 M tonnes/year
Hungary 102 M tonnes/year
Poland 130 M tonnes/year
Romania 607 M tonnes/year
Bahrain 92,000 tonnes/year
China 6 B tonnes/year
Philippines 1.3 M tonnes/year
from primary and secondary industry sectors
7
EFFECTS OF WASTE IF NOT MANAGED WISELY
  • Affects our health
  • Affects our socio-economic conditions
  • Affects our coastal and marine environment
  • Affects our climate

8
EFFECTS OF WASTE
  • According to NAS
  • Greenhouse gases are accumulating in Earths
    atmosphere as a result of human activities,
    causing global mean surface air temperature and
    subsurface ocean temperature to rise.
  • Rising global temperatures are expected to raise
    sea levels and change precipitation and other
    local climate conditions.
  • Changing regional climates could alter forests,
    crop yields, and water supplies.
  • This could also affect human health, animals, and
    many types of ecosystems.
  • Deserts might expand into existing rangelands,
    and features of some of our national parks might
    be permanently altered.

9
(No Transcript)
10
WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
  • Reduce Waste
  • Reduce office paper waste by implementing a
    formal policy to duplex all draft reports and by
    making training manuals and personnel information
    available electronically.
  • - Improve product design to use less materials.
  • - Redesign packaging to eliminate excess
    material while maintaining strength.
  • - Work with customers to design and implement a
    packaging return program.
  • - Switch to reusable transport containers.
  • - Purchase products in bulk.

11
WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
  • Reuse
  • - Reuse corrugated moving boxes internally.
  • - Reuse office furniture and supplies, such as
    interoffice envelopes, file folders, and paper.
  • - Use durable towels, tablecloths, napkins,
    dishes, cups, and glasses.
  • - Use incoming packaging materials for outgoing
    shipments.
  • - Encourage employees to reuse office materials
    rather than purchase new ones.
  • Donate/Exchange
  • - old books, clothes, etc.
  • - old computers and technology
    (www.gazelle.com)
  • - excess building materials

12
WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
  • RECYCLE
  • Closed loop recycling- recycling of a product
    into the same product
  • Open loop Recycling- one product recycled into a
    new product

13
Sanitary Landfills
  • Leachate
  • Production of methane (CH4)
  • Landfill construction animation

14
Handling hazardous wastes
  • Comprehensive Environmental Response,
    Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)
    Superfund Act Highest risk sites to human
    health ie. Love Canal, NY
  • Brownfields contaminated industrial and
    commercial land sites, that are not considered
    for Superfund, but may require clean up before
    they can be redeveloped or expanded.
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