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Mars or The Moon? Where to go next?

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Mars or The Moon? Where to go next? Proposed Mission Introduction Special Thanks Group Members. People of the IRF, Lecturers and Carol Norberg Thank you! – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mars or The Moon? Where to go next?


1
Mars or The Moon?Where to go next?
  • Proposed Mission Introduction

2
The Moon
Earth Visionary Expedition
3
  • Introduction Contents
  • Mission Objectives.
  • Budget.
  • Why the Moon?
  • Planning Stages
  • Stage 1
  • Stage 2
  • Stage 3
  • Stage 4
  • A return journey to the moon with the intention
    of a permanent human presence (base) was chosen
    as the best feasible plan over a journey to Mars
  • The Mission objectives will be concretely set to
    ensure a success/fail attitude which will set the
    standard and be the goal despite challenges.
    Budget will be discussed.
  • The decision to choose the Moon over Mars will be
    explained.
  • Planning stages for the mission will be detailed
    in separation and linked for overall effect.
  • The Moon Exploration Lab (MEL) will be Detailed
    as well as the proposed base construction.
  • Advantages of such a lunar base will be Explored.
  • The position decision and factors influencing
    this decision will be shown.
  • Challenges will be acknowledged. With possible
    solutions at this moment in time suggested.
  • Moon Base 1
  • MEL
  • Advantages of a Moon Base.
  • Location.
  • Challenges.
  • Suggested Solutions.

1/32
4
Mission objectives and Budget
  • Mission Objective
  • Budget
  • The mission objective is to build a sustainable
    multi-national research centre on the Moon which
    can exist independently of aid from Earth. As
    well as to conduct research on Human Exploration
    and to potentially expand this base for future
    projects.
  • A public based project part financed by the
    private sector is the best option. (will be
    revisited). All nations of the world will be
    invited to participate however the major space
    agencies will take leadership roles. The Moon
    base and Moon itself will not belong to any
    Nation in part or in full.

Public enterprise supported by Private sector,
not the other way around.
2/32
5
Success Criteria
  • To build a Moon Base which can exist
    independently from aid of the Earth. (Human
    Presence Excluded).
  • For it to be able to house Humans in groups of at
    least 10 for at least 6 months at a time without
    going over a pre-determined risk in any category.

3/32
6
Why the Moon?
  • A stepping stone for future Planets and beyond.
  • Not fully studied or understood, which could
    provide valuable clues for the origin of life on
    the Earth.
  • Close proximity to the Earth, enabling better
    communication and easier travel.
  • A cosmologically close test on long term Human
    space settlement.
  • Possible mining to solve Earths energy crisis.

4/32
7
Moon Advantages over Mars.
Moon
Serves as a research base for Space Exploration
to Mars and beyond. Will most likely evolve into
a low cost launching pad in all directions from
Earth due to its negligible atmosphere. Will
always be on The agenda to have a low cost
launcher pad is worth the short term investment
for long term gain.
Space tourism generates extra revenue due to
the exotic and short flights. A space station
would not have atmospheric drag if positioned
above and Energy collected can be beamed down
back to the Earth with future technologies.
Psychological advantage, Earth is always visible
from the Moon and Vice Versa which is a benefit
to those settled as well as loved ones back
home. Also inspirational for other Humans to
look up and wonder if another Human is looking
down.
Weve done it before! The next frontier is a
permanent base. Its time to stop coming home
late and move out. We can do this now for a
very exiting period rather than talking about
stuff for years in the future or millions of
years in the future the technology is here now.
Earth quick rescue is still a possiblity for any
failures or accidents on the Moon.
Teleoperation from Earth still an option to the
Moon. Saves time on mission updates and costs as
well as ensuring a better mental health of the
settlers with only 6 seconds delay.
A mission to Mars however would be too long under
current circumstances unless major inprovements
are made to propulsion drive as most tourists
would not want to leave their loved ones for so
long. A space station would again degrade in
atmospheric orbit and a new one would be too
costly. Unfeasible for any energy collected due
to atmosphere distorting Solar power and distance
between Earth and Mars.
No real data has been properly collected on the
Consequences of sending humans for so long to A
body so far away. Psychological impacts on
the Crew being away from every human being that
Has ever existed without real time
communication In a dangerous environment has yet
ton even release Preliminary results yet for a
basic mission (Mars-500)
Mars
Would be a complete leap from nothing right into
boiling water rather than an ease Into the
expansion of mankind's frontier. One that could
be costly if there's an accident! For no other
reason than to create a small spark with no long
term continuous results.
Does not benefit future Human Space travel based
on its position or Composition that the Moon
cannot do. Only it requires more energy to
launch from to explore the long term Human
Exploration project. Will actually stunt the
Human Expansion.
Such a rescue mission to Mars is out of the
question. If something went wrong a Earth rescue
mission Would be years away.
Time delay on messages to Mars is 30
minutes Making real time conversation impossible
and Meetings between the settlers and the Earth
Mission control impractical.
5/32
8
Getting to the moon
  • The Ariane 5 HSV CDF Rocket

The main stage consists of a large tank 30.5
metres high with two compartments, one for 130
tonnes of liquid oxygen and one for 25 tonnes of
liquid, and a Vulcain engine at the base with
thrust of 115 tonnes force.
Attached to the sides are two solid rocket
boosters, each weighing about 277 tonnes full.
Each delivers a thrust of about 630 tonnes-force
.
The second stage is on top of the main stage and
below the payload.
Ariane 5 ECA is capable of the largest payloads
with 27 tonnes in LEO and around 7.3 tonnes to
the Moon.
http//www.esa.int/esaMI/CDF/SEMBIN7X9DE_0.html
6/32
9
Planning Stages
7/32
10
Stage 1 Machine Deployment (Research and
Development)
Machine deployment should be undertaken in the
next 4 years in order to ensure the maximum
amount of information is gathered before
launch. NASA (Already) ESA (Already) Russia
(Already) China (2013 - Change-3) India (2014 -
Chandrayaan-2) JAXA (Planned)
Lunar Dust Problem. More detailed research of
the area than satellites. At least 2 automated
rovers. One to conduct measurements of the base
area and another to begin exploring and
processing the drop zone travel and locations.
These machines could undertake surveys of the
surface and below around the Base location. They
have also been shown to be able to begin the
construction process and transfer materials from
the Drop Zones.
Research and development to increase our
knowledge of the surface and environment of the
Moon around the proposed base location.
Astrobotic Inc
Machine Development gt Crash Satellite gt Lunar
Dust Settle gt Machine Deployment
8/32
http//www.googlelunarxprize.org/lunar/teams/astro
botic/blog/nasa-awards-moon-mining-contract-to-ast
robotic
11
Stage 2 Unmanned Supply Craft.
  • Once lunar base and drop off zones established
    the process of sending unmanned supply craft can
    begin.
  • To ensure lunar dust is allowed to settle a
    rotation of several drop off zones will occur.
  • Unmanned supply craft greatly reduces the cost.
  • Although a manned mission to the Moon has only be
    achieved by one space agency unmanned craft have
    been successfully landed on the moon multiple
    times by a few. The process is largely known and
    predictable.
  • Lack of atmosphere and small cosmological
    distance means more missions and better equipment
    at lower cost.

Landing of Supply Craft gt Lunar Dust settle gt
Machine Retrieval gt Lunar Dust settle
9/32
12
Stage 3 Temporary Manned Mission Test.
Once assured of the moon bases functionality most
of the crew would return leaving some as
preliminaries for the moon base (with the
evacuation module in check).
Provides a Human aspect to the selection criteria
for the location that cannot be taken into
account with machines.
Largely a geology mission to ensure the
foundation is secure however will also finish
off any construction as well as safety checks.
Only tools brought will be those to assist in the
full operational analysis and preparation of the
evacuation module sent before.
A single return small timeframe ( 3 days) manned
mission.
10/32
13
Stage 4 Long Term Manned Missions.
  • Stage 4 can begin when all other stages are
    sufficiently complete.
  • Stage 4 is the final stage and is the continuous
    manned missions and supplies to the Moon.
  • These would be spacecraft with only the
    appropriate materials for single journeys (as
    well as return). This should also allow for extra
    payload to the surface.
  • The expansion of the moon base should now take
    precedence and a continued string of missions
    will be sent as well as unmanned supply craft as
    needed.

EVE
A R T H
I S I O N A R Y
E X P I D I T I O N
12/32
14
MoonExplorationLaboratories
  • Options considered

Underground
Conventional
Inflatable
Building underground means higher protection from
radiation and safer in terms of air sealing,
using spray sealants, i.e. shotcrete, would be
the first step to creating habitable underground
bases. Could mean having to excavate large
amounts of regolith to create a space large
enough to be workable with. Wold be expensive and
time inefficient in setting up a primary moon
base. Discovery of lava tubes on the moon could
simplify objectives, with a significantly reduced
need to remove as much terrain.
13/32
15
Inflatable
Would be built of layers of Kevlar and mylar.
Advantage is that habitat not constrained by
diameter of launch vehicle, so great volume of
living space for given mass. Can provide high
resistance to space debris, e.g. BA 330 has
better ballistic protection than aluminium shell
designs, which is something to look for on the
moon due to little atmosphere. Some provide
better radiation shielding, the aforementioned
BA330 gives radiation protection equal or better
than ISS.
Inflatable/Conventional ? Underground
14/32
16
Powering M.E.L.
Whilst heat engines and nuclear power has been
considered to power M.E.L. solar panels are seen
as the best option at present. Nuclear power
requires over 3 times as much mass to provide the
same unit of power and the use of which would be
very controversial after the recent Japanese
nuclear crisis. There is little knowledge of
the use of heat engines as a main power source in
space, so using them could have unprecedented
issues. Solar panels are therefore the safest,
most reliable and most cost effective power
source.
15/32
17
Advantages of a Lunar Base
  • Helium-3(2 protons and 1 neutron)
  • Non-radioactive
  • Could be used as fuel in future nuclear power
    plants (fusion power), leaving no toxic residue.
  • How much Helium-3 do we need to fuel the Earth?
  • Based on the current energy consumption, about
    100 tons of helium-3 would provide enough energy
    for the earth for a year (which means that the
    moon could provide energy for the Earth for
    10,000 years).

16/32
18
Advantages of a Lunar Base-2
  • Less Gravity
  • Lack of Atmosphere
  • Future site for launching rockets
  • Due to the lower escape velocity a launch would
    require less propellant.
  • Mars colony
  • If the Moon were colonized, then it could be
    tested if Humans can survive in low gravity.
    Those results could be utilized for a viable Mars
    colony as well.
  • Processing of materials
  • ("foaming" metals, Annealing)
  • Astronomical observatory
  • Due to the lack of atmosphere we can have clear
    and exact readings
  • Light/Darkness
  • A constant sunlight on certain areas of the moon
    would allow a continuous flow of energy from
    solar panels.
  • A constant Darkness on other parts as well as the
    dark side of the moon would cut out noise
    experienced by previous telescopes.

17/32
19
Where on the Moon?
  • A lunar base should be situated in places with
    the following characteristics
  • Good conditions for transport operations
  • Scientific interest
  • Natural resources water, minerals
  • Sunlight to produce power
  • Tolerable amount of radiation

18/32
20
Apollo landing sites
Mission Site Location Latitude Longitude Date of Landing
11 Mare Tranquillitatis 041'15" N 2326' E July 20, 1969
12 Oceanus Procellarum 311'51" S 2323'8" W Nov. 19, 1969
14 Fra Mauro 340'24" S 1727'55" W Feb. 5, 1971
15 Hadley-Apennines 2606'03" N 0339'10" E July 30, 1971
16 Descartes 859'29" S 1530'52" E April 21, 1972
17 Taurus-Littrow 209'55" N 3045'57" E Dec. 11, 1972
  • Disadvantages of equatorial regions
  • Long lunar night with no sun (orbital period is
    approximately 27.3 days 13 days of sunlight
    and 13 days of darkness)
  • Extreme temperatures ranging from -153 C to 107
    C

19/32
21
Advantages of a Polar Base
  • Stable temperatures Average -50 C (-58 F).
  • Water may be present in shaded craters.
  • Energy Peaks of eternal light.
  • Astronomical observation
  • An infrared instrument would benefit from the
    very cold temperatures
  • A radio telescope would benefit from being
    shielded from Earth's broad spectrum radio
    interference
  • Line of sight communications over a large area as
    well as to Earth
  • Evacuation Quick access to and from lunar orbit

20/32
22
Proposed site Peary Crater (88.6N 33.0E)
  • 73-km-wide crater called Peary, near the Moon's
    north pole
  • Temperature range from -50 C 10
  • Constantly illuminated (except during Lunar
    eclipses) Mountains of Eternal Light.
  • Near permanently shadowed areas that may contain
    some quantity of ice, providing water, oxygen for
    breathing and hydrogen for rocket fuel
  • During a solar minimum, radiation exposure levels
    on the moon are at 30 rems per year and during a
    solar maximum radiation exposure can reach levels
    of 100 rems per year.
  • Annual limit of radiation exposure for astronauts
    is approximately 50 rems.
  • Lunar base must sufficiently shield astronauts
    from exposure above this limit.

21/32
23
Radar mosaic of the floor of the north polar
crater Peary, showing many craters with elevated
CPR inside, but not outside, their rims. This
material is probably water ice.
http//www.space.com/957-perfect-spot-moon-base.ht
ml
22/32
24
Budget
Billion
http//www.spacenews.com/civil/110121-esa-budget-r
ises.html
23/32
25
Budget
Billion
24/32
26
Budget
http//milexdata.sipri.org/
25/32
27
Challenges
  • EVE Project

26/32
28
Challenges
  • EVE is an enormous and ambitious enterprise that
    demands international and commercial cooperation.
    As a consequence, many challenges are expected.

27/32
29
Technological Challenges
  • Logistics
  • Communications
  • Transportation
  • Equipment
  • Structures
  • Habitats

28/32
30
Human Factors Challenges
  • Crew selection
  • Crew health
  • Physical
  • Mental
  • Isolation
  • Team dynamics

29/32
31
Environmental Challenges
  • Temperatures fluctuations
  • Radiation

30/32
32
Financial Fiscal Challenges
  • Governmental budget
  • Private investments
  • Public support

31/32
33
Budget
Billion
IRAQ Air Conditioning Budget
32/32
http//www.grist.org/list/2011-06-17-military-spen
ds-more-on-air-conditioning-than-nasas-entire-budg
e
34
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36
Special Thanks
  • Group Members. People of the IRF, Lecturers and
    Carol Norberg

37
Thank you!
  • Any Questions?
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