The Atmosphere, Energy in Processes, Insolation, Specific Heat, - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The Atmosphere, Energy in Processes, Insolation, Specific Heat, PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7c22a8-ZTk4O



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The Atmosphere, Energy in Processes, Insolation, Specific Heat,

Description:

Chapter 26 The Atmosphere, Energy in Processes, Insolation, Specific Heat, & Isotherms BFRB Topic 5 & Topic 6 Meteorology The study of weather Weather is the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:41
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 34
Provided by: Christi981
Learn more at: http://earthsciencerocks.us
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Atmosphere, Energy in Processes, Insolation, Specific Heat,


1
Chapter 26
  • The Atmosphere, Energy in Processes, Insolation,
    Specific Heat, Isotherms

BFRB Topic 5 Topic 6
2
Meteorology
  • The study of weather
  • Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at any
    given time or place
  • Much of weather forecasting and prediction can be
    accomplished by direct observation LOOK OUT THE
    WINDOW!!
  • To predict weather, you must make observations of
    the clouds, wind, temperature, humidity, air
    pressure and precipitation

3
Atmospheric Composition
  • The Earths atmosphere is made up of many gases,
    but it is mostly nitrogen and oxygen (ESRTs Page
    11 top)
  • It also contains water vapor, dust, and ozone
    O3 (a form of oxygen which absorbs UVC rays from
    the sun)
  • As you go higher in the atmosphere, the amount of
    air and air pressure (weight of air) decreases

4
(No Transcript)
5
(No Transcript)
6
(No Transcript)
7
Structure of the Atmosphere
  • Made up of four layers, each with different
    characteristics (ESRTs Page 14 top)
  • Troposphere- lowest layer (we live in this
    layer). All of Earths weather occurs in the
    troposphere. Temperature decreases as you go
    higher.
  • Stratosphere- above the troposphere, has strong
    winds. Temperature increases as you go higher
    because of the absorption of UV rays by ozone.
  • Mesosphere- above the stratosphere. Temperature
    decreases as you go higher.
  • Thermosphere- above the mesosphere. Temperature
    increases as you go higher due to oxygen and
    nitrogen absorbing solar energy

8
ESRTs Page 14 top
9
Movement of Heat 3 Ways
  • 1) Conduction- the movement of heat from
    molecule to molecule through contact with each
    other or other objects
  • Ex. Touching a hot pot on the stove

10
Movement of Heat 3 Ways
  • 2) Radiation- the movement of Electromagnetic
    Energy (heat waves) across a distance
  • Ex. Warming your hands in front of a fireplace
  • Earth receives EM energy radiated from the sun
    are relatively short wavelengths, and Earth
    reradiates this heat energy at longer wavelengths
    known as Infrared waves (heat)
  • Energy received on Earth from the sun is called
    Insolation (incoming solar radiation)

11
(No Transcript)
12
(No Transcript)
13
(No Transcript)
14
(No Transcript)
15
Movement of Heat 3 Ways
  • 3) Convection- the movement of heat in currents
  • The most effective form of heat transfer in
    liquids and gases
  • Air gets heated and expands the molecules move
    apart - makes it less dense and lighterit rises!
  • Colder air molecules come together - is more
    dense and heavier so it sinks
  • It gets heated it rises, it cools it sinks
  • Just like in the putty-like asthenosphere!!!!!

16
CONVECTION CURRENT DUE TO DENSITY
DIFFERENCES!!!!!!!!!
17
(No Transcript)
18
Greenhouse Effect
  • Certain gases in the atmosphere (water vapor,
    carbon dioxide, methane, etc.) allow short
    wavelengths of energy from the sun to enter the
    atmosphere
  • Earth absorbs them and reradiates the heat as
    infrared (heat) waves, which have longer
    wavelengths
  • The infrared waves cannot pass back through these
    gases and escape into space, so they become
    trapped in the atmosphere
  • This causes the temperature on Earth to increase.
  • This is the cause of Global Warming.

19
(No Transcript)
20
(No Transcript)
21
Temperature Changes on Earth
  • Temperature changes with seasonal change occur
    because the suns insolation strikes Earth at
    different angles (and therefore different
    intensities)
  • Where the suns rays strike Earth at 90, the
    insolation is concentrated in a smaller area.
    This causes temperatures to be the greatest.
  • Where the suns rays hit Earth at very low
    angles, the insolation is spread out over a large
    area. This causes temperatures to be low.

22
(No Transcript)
23
(No Transcript)
24
Warmest and Coldest Months
  • Northern Hemisphere-
  • Maximum sunlight is June 21st, but maximum
    temperature is in July there is a lag!!!
  • Minimum sunlight is December 21st, but minimum
    temperatures are experienced in January there
    is a lag!!!
  • It takes time for the heat to build up, and for
    maximum temperatures to be reached
  • Also, it takes time for heat to dissipate, and
    for minimum temperatures to be reached

25
Warmest and Coldest Time of Day
  • The coldest hour is usually just before sunrise,
    since the Earth has been cooling off all night
    there is a lag!!!!
  • The warmest time is later in the afternoon (after
    solar noon), since the Earth is still receiving
    more heat than it is losing there is a lag!!!

26
(No Transcript)
27
(No Transcript)
28
Heating Water and Land
  • Water and land heat up and cool off at different
    rates
  • This is due to their different heat capacities
    AKA SPECIFIC HEAT (P. 1 of ESRTs)
  • Land needs very little energy to heat up (low
    heat capacity)
  • This allows land to heat up quickly, and also to
    cool down quickly
  • Water needs more energy to heat up (high heat
    capacity)
  • This allows water to heat up slowly and to cool
    off slowly -
  • WATER IS STUBBORN!!! It takes a long time to heat
    up and a long time to cool down

29
(No Transcript)
30
The Rules of Absorber and Reflectors
  • Dark colors absorb energy well, and light colors
    reflect energy well (think...dark color clothes
    in winter, light colors clothes in summer)
  • Rough surfaces absorb energy well, while smooth
    surfaces reflect energy well (thinka mirror is
    smooth and reflects your image really well.)
  • VIF The best ABSORBERS make the best EMITTERS
    of energy.
  • This is why radiators (heaters) are often black
    in color!!!

31
How Does Waters High Specific Heat Affect
Weather Climate?
  • Air temperature and other weather conditions of
    different locations are affected by how near or
    far they are from water (oceans) due to heat
    capacity
  • VIF - Water has a mitigating effect to extremes
    of temperature and climate
  • For example, a coastal city may have a average
    annual high of 75 and an average annual low of
    40. (35 range)
  • An inland city may have an average annual high of
    82 and an average annual low of 33. (49 range)
  • The coastal city is near the water, so the
    waters temperature doesnt change as quickly as
    the lands temperature due to waters high
    specific heat.

32
ISOTHERMS
  • Temperatures are shown on maps by using Isotherms
  • These are lines which connect areas of equal
    temperature
  • These are very similar to contour lines, and they
    are read the same way!!
  • Example closely spaced isotherms mean a fast
    change in temperature the same way closely spaced
    contour lines mean a fast change in elevation.

33
Where in the US is the steepest temperature
gradient? Where is the gentlest temperature
gradient?
About PowerShow.com