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Personality Assessment

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Title: Personality Assessment


1
Personality Assessment
2
Goals
  • Understand the roles of personality assessment
  • Understand the main ways of assessing personality
    that have been proposed/developed, with strengths
    and weaknesses
  • Understand unique challenges to personality
    assessment
  • Understand how to evaluate the quality of a
    personality assessment
  • Insight into two or three of the most popular
    personality tests strengths/weaknesses

3
Role of Personality Assessment
  • Where is personality assessment done?
  • Discuss
  • HR
  • I/O Consultants
  • Testing companies (e.g., PAR, Pearson)
  • Clinical practice
  • Dating

4
Role of Personality Assessment
  • Where is personality assessment done?
  • Formal/Professional Venues
  • Empirical Research
  • Everyday life

5
Types of Personality Assessment
  • What types of personality assessment are you
    familiar with?
  • If we wanted to know if one person is more
    extraverted than another, how could we find out?
  • Discuss

6
Types of Personality Assessment
  • Clues to Personality (Kinds of data)
  • Why clue?
  • Each method has advantages disadvantages
  • Self-report data
  • Examples?
  • Pros/cons?

7
BFI
Neuroticism
Note Images borrowed from http//mgto.org/persona
lity-in-class-discussing-traits-through-examples/
8
BFI
Trait Mean SD 68 range
Neuroticism 2.8 .8 2.0 - 3.6
Extraversion 3.5 .7 2.8 4.2
Openness 3.3 .7 2.6 4.0
Agreeableness 4.0 .6 3.4 4.6
Conscientiousness 3.7 .7 3.0 4.4
Neuroticism
Note Normative data are from 255 in Fall 2009, N
38
9
Personality Research Methods Personality
Assessment - Methods
  • 2. Informant data
  • Examples
  • Pros/cons

10
(Nearly) First impression ratings of row-mates
  • Neuroticism (sensitive/nervous vs. secure/confide
    nt). The tendency to experience unpleasant
    emotions easily, such as anger, anxiety,
    depression, and vulnerability. Neuroticism also
    refers to the degree of emotional liveliness.
  • Extraversion (outgoing/energetic vs. solitary/res
    erved). Energy, positive emotions, surgency,
    assertiveness, sociability and the tendency to
    seek stimulation in the company of others, and
    talkativeness.
  • Openness to experience (inventive/curious vs. con
    sistent/cautious). Appreciation for art, emotion,
    adventure, unusual ideas, curiosity, and variety
    of experience. Openness reflects the degree of
    intellectual curiosity, creativity and a
    preference for novelty and variety a person has.
    It is also described as the extent to which a
    person is imaginative or independent, and depicts
    a personal preference for a variety of activities
    over a strict routine.
  • Agreeableness (friendly/compassionate vs. analyti
    cal/detached). A tendency to be compassionate and 
    cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonisti
    c towards others. It is also a measure of one's
    trusting and helpful nature, and whether a person
    is generally well tempered or not.
  • Conscientiousness (efficient/organized vs. easy-g
    oing/careless). A tendency to be organized and
    dependable, show self-discipline, act dutifully,
    aim for achievement, and prefer planned rather
    than spontaneous behavior.

11
Personality Research Methods Personality
Assessment - Methods
  • 4. Life Outcomes
  • Examples
  • Pros/cons

12
Personality Research Methods Personality
Assessment - Methods
  • 3. Behavioral data
  • Natural B data (eg, ESM, EAR, ARRB)
  • Laboratory B data (in-lab obs, exp, pro, pro)
  • Pros/cons

13
Challenges to Personality Assessment
  • What are some of the fundamental challenges that
    complicate personality assessment?
  • Discuss
  • Examples
  • Social desirability
  • Self-insight
  • Hypothetical constructs
  • No direct access to the qualities of the objects

14
Personality Assessment What is being measured?
  • Many personality variables are theoretical
    constructs or latent variables
  • Unseen characteristics that we assume exist
    somewhere inside the person.

15
Personality Research Methods Personality
Assessment
Subjects Extraversion
Subjects Talkativeness
of friends in social network
Subjects self-report Score on BFI Extraversion
Scale
Friends rating of subjects Extraversion
16
Personality Assessment What is being measured?
  • Many personality variables are theoretical
    constructs or latent variables
  • Unseen characteristics that we assume exist
    somewhere inside the person.
  • Is this unique to personality psych?
  • Memory, attention, hunger
  • Gravity

17
Personality Assessment Direct Access to qualities
of objects?
  • Unique to personality?
  • How to measure talkativeness?
  • How to measure existence of a planet?
  • How to measure length of a piece of lumber?

18
Personality Assessment - Quality
  • Quality of measurement
  • How do we know if a personality assessment
    technique or tool is good?
  • Two facets of measurement quality
  • Reliability
  • Construct Validity

19
Personality Assessment - Quality
  • Reliability
  • Is the observed score a precise reflection of
    the true characteristic (whatever that
    characteristic might be)
  • If we do the measurement over and over, do we get
    the same score each time? Do we consistently get
    the same score?
  • 2 Kinds of reliability
  • Test-retest reliability
  • Internal Consistency reliability

20
Personality Assessment - Quality
  • Construct Validity
  • What is the characteristics thats reflected by
    the test score?
  • Does the test measure what its supposed to
    measure?
  • E.g., if we have a questionnaire that supposedly
    measures depression does it really measure
    depression?
  • Depression is the construct, is our test a
    valid measure of that construct?

21
Personality Assessment - Quality
  • Mikes Brief Neuroticism Questionnaire (MBNQ)
  • Circle yes or no for each statement
  • 1. I often get worried NO YES
  • 2. I often hear strange voices NO YES
  • 3. I have a fear of heights NO YES
  • 4. I often get stressed out NO YES
  • 5. I like animals NO YES
  • 6. My favorite color is blue NO YES

22
Personality Assessment - Quality
  • How can we empirically evaluate a scales
    construct validity?
  • Content validity
  • Convergent validity
  • Discriminant validity

23
Personality Assessment
  • Every time you hear about or go through a
    personality assessment, you should wonder about
    measurement
  • How were the variables measured?
  • Are there potential disadvantages to the
    measurement technique?
  • Was the measure (eg, questionnaire) reliable and
    valid?

24
Goals
  • Understand the roles of personality assessment
  • Understand the main ways of assessing personality
    that have been proposed/developed, with strengths
    and weaknesses
  • Understand unique challenges to personality
    assessment
  • Understand how to evaluate the quality of a
    personality assessment
  • Insight into two or three of the most popular
    personality tests strengths/weaknesses

25
Some well-known (if not particularly useful or
valid) personality assessment tools
  • Rorshach
  • MBTI Meyers Briggs Type Indicator (e.g., used
    by WFU career services)
  • NEO-PI-R NEO- Personality Inventory
  • HEXACO
  • MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inv
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