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Chapter 20

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Title: Chapter 20


1
Chapter 20 Russia and the Caucasus
Section Notes
Video
Impact of Pollution
Physical Geography History and Culture of
Russia Russia Today The Caucasus
Maps
Russia and the Caucasus Political Russia and the
Caucasus Physical History of Russian
Expansion Russia Population Russia Culture
Regions The Caucasus Political Russia and the
Caucasus The Caucasus Climate
Close-up
St. Basils Cathedral
World Almanac
Russias Population Decline
Images
Quick Facts
Geography Culture Russias Climate and Plant
Life Baku
Chapter 20 Visual Summary
2
Physical Geography
  • The Big Idea
  • Russia is big and cold with vast plains and
    forests whereas the Caucasus countries are
    small, mountainous, and warmer.
  • Main Ideas
  • The physical features of Russia and the Caucasus
    include plains, mountains, and rivers.
  • Climate and plant life change from north to south
    in Russia and vary in the Caucasus.
  • Russia and the Caucasus have a wealth of
    resources, but many are hard to access.

3
Main Idea 1 The physical features of Russia and
the Caucasus include plains, mountains, and
rivers.
  • Continents of Europe and Asia meet at the Ural
    Mountains.
  • Europe to the west
  • Asia to the east
  • Together, they form the landmass of Eurasia.
  • Russia is the worlds largest country.
  • Twice the size of the United States
  • South of Russia is a region known as the
    Caucasus.
  • It lies in the Caucasus, the area between the
    Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
  • Region named for the Caucasus Mountains.
  • Includes three smaller countriesGeorgia,
    Armenia, and Azerbaijan

4
Landforms
Russias capital, Moscow, is located in the
Northern European Plain, which stretches across
western, or European, Russia.
To the east are the low-lying Ural Mountains,
which are worn down and rounded from erosion.
Siberia, the vast area between the Urals and the
Pacific Ocean, includes the marshy West Siberian
Plain, the Central Siberian Plateau, and mountain
ranges.
Russian Far East, in Eastern Siberia, is part of
the Ring of Fire.
Caucasus countries consist mainly of rugged
uplands and mountains, including Mount Elbrus,
the highest peak in Europe.
South of the Caucasus Mountains is a plateau.
Lowlands lie along the Black and Caspian Seas.
5
Bodies of Water
  • Rivers
  • Volga River, in western Russia
  • Longest river in Europe
  • Core of Russias river network
  • Ob, Yenisey, and Lena rivers in Asian part of
    Russia
  • Flow northward to Arctic Ocean
  • Lakes
  • Russia has some 200,000 lakes.
  • Lake Baikal, in south-central Siberia, is worlds
    deepest lake.
  • Deep enough to hold all the water in all five of
    the Great Lakes
  • Called the Jewel of Siberia
  • Seas
  • Black and Caspian seas border Russia and the
    Caucasus.
  • Black Sea connects to the Mediterranean Sea and
    is important for trade.
  • Caspian Sea holds saltwater and is the worlds
    largest inland sea.

6
Main Idea 2 Climate and plant life change from
north to south in Russia and vary in the Caucasus.
  • Russia has short summers and long, snowy winters
    due in part to its location along Arctic Circle.
  • Russias northern coast is tundra.
  • Much of the ground is permafrost, or permanently
    frozen soil.
  • Only small plants such as mosses grow there.
  • Taiga, a vast forest of evergreen trees, covers
    about half of Russia.
  • South of the taiga is a flat grassland called the
    steppe.
  • Rich, black soil and a warmer climate make this
    an important farming area.
  • Caucasus countries are warmer than Russia.
  • Warm and wet along Black Sea
  • Hot and Dry in much of Azerbaijan

7
Main Idea 3 Russia and the Caucasus have a
wealth of resources, but many are hard to access.
  • Fertile soil for farming in Northern European
    plain and steppe
  • Wood from taiga for building and paper products
  • Metals and precious gems

Natural Resources
  • Main energy resources include coal,
    hydroelectricity, natural gas, and oil.
  • Russia and Azerbaijan have large oil and gas
    fields.

Energy Resources
  • Poorly managed for a long time
  • Many remaining resources are only in remote
    Siberia.

Resource Management
8
History and Culture of Russia
  • The Big Idea
  • Strict rule, unrest, and ethnic diversity have
    shaped Russias history and culture.
  • Main Ideas
  • The Russian Empire grew under powerful leaders,
    but unrest and war led to its end.
  • The Soviet Union emerged as a Communist
    superpower with rigid government control.
  • Russias history and diversity have influenced
    its culture.

9
Main Idea 1 The Russian Empire grew under
powerful leaders, but unrest and war led to its
end.
  • The Slavs settled in Eastern Europe, including
    what is now Ukraine and western Russia.
  • Developed towns and began trading with other
    areas
  • AD 800sViking, or Rus, traders from Scandinavia
    invaded the Slavs.
  • Shaped the first Russian state, Kievan Rus,
    centered around the city of Kiev
  • Missionaries introduced the Orthodox Christian
    faith and Cyrillic, a form of the Greek alphabet.
  • In the 1200s Mongol invaders called Tatars came
    from Central Asia and conquered Kiev.
  • Allowed Russian princes to rule over local states
  • Muscovy became the strongest state

10
Empire
After about 200 years Muscovys prince, Ivan III
seized control from the Mongols.
In the 1540s Ivan IV crowned himself czar, or
emperor, and became known as Ivan the Terrible
for his cruel leadership.
Over time Muscovy developed into the country of
Russia.
Strong czars built Russia into a huge empire and
world power.
Russia remained largely a country of poor
farmers, while the czars and nobles had most of
the wealth.
In the early 1900s Russians began demanding
improvements and unrest grew.
11
War and Revolution
World War I
  • Russia entered World War I in 1914.
  • Suffered huge losses and severe food shortages
  • When the czar seemed to ignore the peoples
    hardship, they rose against him.
  • The czar was forced to give up his throne in 1917.

Russian Revolution
  • Later that year the Bolsheviks, a radical Russian
    Communist group, seized power in the Russian
    Revolution.
  • In 1922 the Bolsheviks formed a new country, the
    Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), or
    the Soviet Union.
  • Soon included 15 republics, the strongest of
    which was Russia
  • First leader was Vladimir Lenin

12
Main Idea 2 The Soviet Union emerged as a
Communist superpower with rigid government
control.
  • Soviet Union under Stalin
  • Soviet Union led by Lenin became a Communist
    country.
  • Joseph Stalin took power after Lenins death in
    1924.
  • Command economy, in which the government owns all
    businesses and farms and makes all decisions, was
    established.
  • Stalin was a brutal and paranoid dictator and
    punished anyone who spoke out against the
    government.
  • Millions sent to gulags, harsh Soviet labor camps.
  • Cold War and Collapse
  • During World War II the Soviet Union fought with
    the Allies.
  • Stalin set up Communist governments in Eastern
    Europe.
  • Opposition between the Soviet Union and the
    United States led to the Cold War.
  • In the 1980s Mikhail Gorbachev began introducing
    some democracy to help save the Soviet economy.
  • In 1991 the Soviet Union collapsed and broke into
    15 independent countries, including Russia.

13
Main Idea 3 Russias history and diversity have
influenced its culture.
  • People and Religion
  • Population more than 140 million
  • About 80 percent are ethnic Russians.
  • Revival of religious worship after fall of Soviet
    government
  • Main faith is Russian Orthadox Christian.
  • Other religions include Islam, Buddhism, and
    other forms of Christianity.
  • Customs
  • Russian history has shaped its customs.
  • Religious holidays are popular.
  • New Years Eve is the main family holiday.
  • June 12 is Russian Independence Day, the day
    marking the end of the Soviet Union.
  • Arts and Sciences
  • Russias ballet companies are world famous.
  • Peter Tchaikovsky is Russias most famous
    composer.
  • Fabergé eggs, made of precious metals and covered
    with gems, are priceless works of art.
  • Major contributions to space research, including
    the first artificial satellite in space, launched
    in 1957

14
Russia Today
  • The Big Idea
  • Russia is a federal republic with a growing
    market economy but faces tough challenges.
  • Main Ideas
  • The Russian Federation is working to develop
    democracy and a market economy.
  • Russias physical geography, cities, and economy
    define its many culture regions.
  • Russia faces a number of serious challenges.

15
Main Idea 1 The Russian Federation is working to
develop democracy and a market economy.
  • Government
  • Russian leaders have struggled to change from
    communism to democracy.
  • The Russian Federation is a federal republic, a
    system in which power is divided between national
    and local governments.
  • Increased democracy has led to more freedom for
    Russians.
  • Problems such as government corruption, or
    dishonesty, have slowed the development of a free
    society in Russia.
  • Economy
  • Russia is moving toward a market economy, based
    on free trade and competition.
  • The Russian government has greatly reduced its
    control of the economy.
  • Russia produces and exports oil, natural gas,
    timber, metals, chemicals, and crops.
  • Service industries now make up the largest part
    of economy.

16
City and Rural Life
City Life
  • About 75 percent of all Russians live in cities.
  • Most live in small apartments in high-rise
    buildings.
  • More restaurants and shopping centers are
    available with a wider range of consumer goods.
  • Cities often have large parks and wooded areas in
    and around them.

Rural Life
  • About 25 percent of all Russians live in rural
    areas.
  • Many live in houses.
  • Many richer Russians own dachas, or Russian
    country houses.

17
Main Idea 2 Russias physical geography, cities,
and economy define its many culture regions.
  • Russia has six main culture regions
  • Differ in features such as population, natural
    resources, and economic activity
  • Four western culture regions make up Russias
    heartland.
  • Home to the vast majority of Russias people, the
    countrys capital, and largest cities
  • Most productive farming area

18
Western Culture Regions
  • Moscow Region
  • Moscow is Russias capital and largest city.
  • Center of government is housed at the Kremlin, in
    the heart of the city.
  • Most important economic area
  • Transportation center
  • St. Petersburg Region
  • St. Petersburg was once the capital city and home
    to czars.
  • Theaters and museums enrich the citys cultural
    life.
  • Its location on the Gulf of Finland has made it a
    major port and trade center.
  • Volga Region
  • Volga River is a major shipping route.
  • Dams along its route form lakes and provide
    hydroelectric power.
  • Factories produce oil and gas.
  • Caspian Sea provides sturgeon and black caviar, a
    costly delicacy.
  • Urals Region
  • Important mining region
  • Produce nearly every major mineral
  • Smelters, factories that process metal ores,
    process copper and iron.
  • Also known for gems and semiprecious stones

19
Siberia and the Russian Far East
  • Siberia
  • Siberia means Sleeping Land in Tatar language.
  • Winters long and severe
  • Remote region with many valuable, but difficult
    to access, resources.
  • Main industries are lumber, mining, and oil
    production.
  • Jobs there pay high wages, but few people chose
    to live there.
  • Cities tend to follow the Trans-Siberian
    Railroad, the worlds longest single rail line
    that runs from Moscow to Vladivostok.
  • Russian Far East
  • Long coastline region along the Pacific Ocean
  • Land is heavily forested
  • In the few cities, factories process forest and
    mineral resources.
  • Farming in the Amur River valley
  • City of Vladivostok is a naval base and the
    areas main seaport.
  • Islands off the coast provide oil, minerals, and
    commercial fishing.

20
Main Idea 3 Russia faces a number of serious
challenges.
  • Russia has made great progress since 1991, but
    challenges remain.
  • Shift to a market economy has brought problems.
  • Prices and unemployment have risen.
  • Gap between rich and poor has widened.
  • Population is fallingmore Russians are dying
    than are being born.
  • Soviet government did little to prevent
    pollution.
  • Environment has been severely harmed.
  • Government must repair damage.
  • Ethnic conflicts have resulted in fighting and
    terrorism.
  • One of the worst conflicts is in Chechnya in the
    Caucasus Mountains.

21
The Caucasus
  • The Big Idea
  • In an area long ruled by outside groups, the
    Caucasus republics are struggling to strengthen
    their economies and to deal with ethnic unrest.
  • Main Ideas
  • Many groups have ruled and influenced the
    Caucasus during its long history.
  • Today the Caucasus republics are working to
    improve their economies but struggle with ethnic
    unrest and conflict.

22
Main Idea 1 Many groups have ruled and
influenced the Caucasus during its long history.
  • Located where Europe blends into Asia, the
    Caucasus reflects a range of cultural influences.
  • Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Turks, and
    Mongols have all ruled or invaded the area.
  • Russians took control of much of the region in
    the early 1800s.
  • After World War I Armenia, Azerbaijan, and
    Georgia gained independencebut not for long.
  • By the early 1920s they were part of the vast
    Soviet Union.
  • Finally in 1991 the Caucasus republics achieved
    true independence when the Soviet Union fell.

23
Main Idea 2 Today the Caucasus republics are
working to improve their economies but struggle
with ethnic unrest and conflict.
  • Caucasus region has a long history, but its
    countries do not.
  • Young countries
  • Have had to create new governments and economies
    since the fall of the Soviet Union
  • Ethnic unrest and conflicts have slowed progress.
  • Caucasus republics have similar governments.
  • An elected president governs each nation.
  • An appointed prime minister runs each government.
  • An elected parliament, or legislature, makes the
    laws.

24
Caucasus Today
  • Georgia
  • Lies in the Caucasus Mountains east of the Black
    Sea
  • Capital Tbilisi
  • About 70 percent are ethnic Georgians and most
    belong to Georgian Orthodox Church.
  • Struggles with unrest and civil war and ethnic
    conflict
  • Economy based on services, farming, and mining
  • Armenia
  • Small, landlocked country south of Georgia
  • Capital Yerevan
  • Almost all the people are ethnic Armenian and
    most people belong to the Armenian Orthodox
    Church.
  • Fought bitter territorial war with Azerbaijan in
    the 1990s, and the issue remained unsettled as of
    the early 2000s
  • Diamond processing is a growing industry.
  • Azerbaijan
  • East of Armenia
  • Capital Baku
  • About 90 percent are Azeri and most are Muslim.
  • Many refugees as a result of its conflict with
    Armenia
  • Economy based on oil, found along and under the
    Caspian Sea
  • Corruption is high and many people are poor.

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