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Unit 13


Unit 13 Chapters 30 31 Contemporary America (1974 Present) CSS 11.7, 11.8, 11.10, 11.11 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 13

Unit 13Chapters 30 31
  • Contemporary America (1974 Present)
  • CSS 11.7, 11.8, 11.10, 11.11

Ford and Carter1974-1981
  • Gerald Ford
  • first non-elected president
  • appointed VP by Nixon under 25th Amendment to
    replace Agnew
  • House minority leader
  • pardoned Nixon for any crimes he may have
    committed as president
  • Our long national nightmare is over.
  • Helsinki Accords, 1975
  • 34 nations agreed to recognize borders of Poland
    and other eastern bloc nations
  • USSR agreed to a more open exchange of people and
  • stagflation
  • period of inflation and recession
  • Fords response (WIN) called for voluntary
    measures which failed
  • entire 1970s sees less economic growth than any
    single year of 1950s or 1960s
  • lack of modernization
  • many unskilled workers

D Jimmy Carter 40,828,657 297
R Gerald R. Ford 39,145,520 240
  • Jimmy Carter
  • peanut farmer and governor of Georgia
  • Christian honesty was refreshing after Watergate
  • after presidency, championed Habitat for humanity
  • won Nobel Peace Prize in 2002
  • Malaise Speech, 1979
  • Carter spoke on crisis of confidence in America
  • SALT II, 1979
  • Carter and Brezhnev agreed to first limit on
    total number of strategic launchers and US
    strategic bombers
  • never ratified by senate but honored by the

The US and the Middle East
  • Afghanistan, 1979
  • USSR invaded presumably to get closer to Middle
    East (oil)
  • Carter threatened to use any force necessary to
    stop it
  • became the USSRs Vietnam
  • US boycotted 1980 Olympics in Moscow and USSR
    responded in 1984
  • Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, 1979
  • Islamic fundamentalists overthrew Reza Shah
  • blamed US for conditions in Iran
  • advocated violence against US
  • fought war with Iraq in 1980s
  • Iranian Hostage Crisis, 1979
  • 52 Americans captured from US embassy in Teheran
    by Iranian militants and held for 444 days
  • Carter ordered a failed rescue
  • returned after Reagans election
  • Israel, 1948
  • UN ordered partition of Palestine into a Jewish
    state and an Arab state,
  • hours after Israel created the forces of Egypt,
    Iraq, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon invaded
  • Six-Day War, 1967
  • Israel takes Golan Heights, West Bank Gaza and
  • Yom Kippur War, 1973
  • Egypt and Syria attacked Israel
  • Oil Embargo, 1973
  • OPECs response to US support of Israel
  • energy crisis led to Alaskan pipeline and
    concern for alternate energy and fuel sources
  • Camp David Accords, 1978
  • Sadat (Egypt) became the first Muslim nation to
    recognize Israel
  • Begin (Israel) agreed to give back the Sinai

Environmental Movement
  • Silent Spring, 1962
  • Rachel Carson explained that pesticides (DDT)
    caused thinning in birds eggs
  • Congress restricted DDT
  • began the environmentalist movement
  • Earth Day (April 22, 1970)
  • created as a grassroots on college campuses over
    concern that human activity affects the
  • Environmental Protection Agency, 1970
  • regulates the impact businesses have on the
  • industry argues that regulation raises costs and
    hurts the economy
  • Clean Air Act, 1970
  • limited automobile and factory emissions by smog
    checks and unleaded gas
  • Clean Water Act, 1973
  • limited industrial and agricultural waste
  • Endangered Species Act, 1973
  • gave federal protection to animals and plants
    (bald eagle)
  • Love Canal, 1978
  • the EPA found the community had high rates of
    cancer and birth defects because of 1000s of tons
    of chemical waste buried under it
  • led to creation of Superfund to clean these sites
  • Three Mile Island, 1979
  • a partial nuclear meltdown in PA sent panic
    across the nation
  • the radiation was contained but 25,000 lived
    within 5 miles of it
  • still debate what to do with the nuclear energy
    and waste
  • Kyoto Protocol, 1997
  • international greenhouse emissions treaty not
    signed by US

Affirmative Action
  • Roe v. Wade, 1973
  • most states banned or restricted abortion
  • the Supreme Court created one national standard -
    in 1st trimester, abortion is legal
  • Phyllis Schlafly
  • argued that ERA would hurt families
  • military service, sex-segregated bathrooms
  • conservative backlash against ERA made it fail by
    three states
  • Sandra Day OConnor, 1981
  • Reagan appointed the first female Supreme Court
  • Geraldine Ferraro, 1984
  • first female VP candidate
  • affirmative action
  • programs designed to rectify ethnic/gender gap
  • college admissions, jobs, promotions
  • multiculturalism
  • new emphasis of uniqueness of each
    ethnic/cultural group
  • Immigration Reform and Control Act, 1986
  • amnesty for all immigrants who entered the US
    before 1982
  • priority to skilled labor immigrants
  • Rodney King Riots, 1992
  • 4 white offices acquitted after beating a black
  • largest LA riot since Watts
  • 51 dead, 500 buildings destroyed
  • Proposition 187, 1994
  • CA amendment to bar illegal immigrants from
    welfare, schools, or medical care
  • required doctors and teachers to report illegal
  • declared unconstitutional
  • racial profiling
  • laws requiring officers to keep track of the
    ethnicity of people they pull over

  • Proposition 13, 1978
  • CA amendment that prohibits raises to property
  • supported by conservatives who distrusted
    government and opposed social welfare
  • snowbelt/rustbelt
  • depopulation caused by stagflation, declining
    industry, and outsourcing
  • NY, OH, PA, MI
  • sunbelt
  • major area of population in the South and West
    due to military spending, immigration, and
    retirement housing
  • FL, CA, TX, AR, NC
  • white flight
  • departure of white middle class to suburbs,
    leaving cities even higher rates of poverty and
  • New Right (neo-conservatives)
  • religious, fiscally conservative, republicans
    opposed to affirmative action, communism, and the
    feminist movement
  • conservative reaction to liberalism of the 1970s
  • televangelism, 1980s
  • religious cable channels that mixed prayer and
  • reached 20 million weekly
  • Moral Majority, 1979
  • Jerry Falwell established it to promote Christian
    candidates and values
  • anti-abortion, anti-homosexual rights
  • promoted republican candidates in 1980, 1984 and
  • Christian Coalition, 1988
  • under Pat Robertson, the group sends out voter
    information guides to churches for elections

Reagan Administration1981-1985
Are you better off today than you were 4 years
  • Ronald Reagan
  • Government is the problem
  • the Great Communicator and the Teflon President
  • former actor, union president, California
  • shot by John D. Hinckley in 1981
  • Reaganomics / New Federalism
  • combined supply-side economics with deficit
  • 25 cut in income tax and increased military
  • cut back on social programs
  • deregulated of business
  • national debt grew from 1 to 3.5 trillion
  • Economic Recovery Tax Act, 1981
  • lowered income and corporate taxes as well as
    capital gains taxes
  • Maximum tax dropped from 70 to 50

R Ronald Reagan 43,899,248 489
D Jimmy Carter 35,481,435 49
I John B. Andersen 5,719,437 --
  • Omnibus Reconciliation Act, 1981
  • mandated 136 billion in federal spending mostly
    in social programs
  • Air Traffic Controllers Strike, 1981
  • Reagan threatened to replace strikers with
    military personnel
  • Union membership dropped
  • Alan Greenspan, 1987
  • chairman of Federal Reserve encouraged freer
  • AIDS, 1981
  • 160,000 had AIDS by 1990 and 100,000 had died
  • at first seen as a gay disease

Reagan Administration1985-1989
  • Iran-Contra Affair, 1986
  • US feared domino effect in Latin America
  • US sold weapons to Iran and then laundered the
    money to fund the Contras
  • Reagan denied knowledge and Oliver North shredded
  • Spaceship Challenger Disaster, 1986
  • 76 seconds after liftoff the space shuttle
    Challenger exploded
  • all seven passengers perished, including Christa
    McAuliffe, a civilian teacher
  • precipitated comprehensive review of the goals
    and procedures of NASA
  • war on drugs
  • spent billions to get drug trafficking under
  • critics argued it put too much attention on
    foreign supply rather than cutting down demand

R Ronald Reagan 52,609,797 525
D Walter Mondale 36,450,613 13
  • Black Monday, 1987
  • 508-point stock plunge was the biggest stock
    market crash of all time
  • Federal Reserve Bank stepped in to save banks to
    avoid collapse
  • Savings and Loan Scandal, 1988
  • deregulation of banks led to fraud, abuse of
    power by CEOs
  • cost almost 1 trillion to bail out SLs
  • Keating Five
  • five senators accused of tampering with federal
    investigations received 1M in campaign donations
    from SL

The End of the Cold War
  • US-USSR Summits
  • Reagan abandoned détente for more aggressive
  • series of summits with Gorbachev led to mutual
    weapons inspections
  • Reagan Doctrine, 1985
  • Reagan promised to back anti-communist guerillas
  • Nicaragua, El Salvador, Afghanistan
  • Grenada, 1983
  • Reagan sent troops to stop Marxist uprising in
  • one-day war restored US confidence
  • Strategic Defense Initiative, 1983
  • high-tech space-based laser defense system to
    shoot down enemy missiles
  • more expensive than gold-plated nuclear missiles
  • START, 1991
  • limited number of warheads each nation could have
  • Mikhail Gorbachev
  • his liberal policies helped end communism in USSR
  • pulled troops from Afghanistan
  • refused to interfere in soviet bloc nations
  • glasnostallowed free speech
  • perestroikaallowed rudimentary capitalism
  • won Nobel Peace Prize in 1990
  • Berlin Wall falls, 1989
  • relaxation of travel restrictions in East Germany
    led to flooding of border
  • Germany reunited in 1990
  • USSR dissolved, 1990
  • reforms undermined communist regime
  • rise of nationalist movements in Baltic States
  • communists imprisoned Gorbachev
  • Boris Yeltsin led uprising in Moscow

Bush Administration1989-1993
Read my lips, no new taxes
  • George H.W. Bush
  • ex-CIA director
  • criticized for refusing to eat broccoli
  • Panama Coup, 1989
  • Bush sent troops to oust Gen. Manuel Noriega for
    drug trafficking
  • Americans with Disabilities Act, 1990
  • demanded rights for the disabled at places of
    business and in employment
  • followed by IDEA, Individuals with Disabilities
    Education Act, 1990
  • Persian Gulf War, 1991
  • Operation Desert Storm
  • Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait
  • UN responded with trade embargos and sanctions
  • US led coalition pushed Iraq out of Kuwait but
    Hussein stayed in power

R George Bush 48,886,588 426
D Michael Dukakis 41,809,485 111
  • 27th Amendment, 1992
  • changes in congressional pay dont take effect
    until after the next election
  • Somalia, 1992
  • US troops were sent to Somalia in 1992 to protect
    food and relief supplies
  • the country was ravaged by civil war
  • Tiananmen Square, 1989
  • Chinese students protested for more freedom
  • Bush continued dealing with China rather than cut
    off relations

Clinton Administration1993-1997
  • William Jefferson Clinton
  • governor of Arkansas
  • voters punished Bush for raising taxes, budget
    deficits, post-war recession
  • avoided Vietnam draft, drug use, played saxophone
  • strongest economy in American history
  • H. Ross Perot
  • wealthy Texas businessmen ran as an independent
  • argued he was uncorrupted by election system
  • National Health Care
  • Hillary Clinton spearheaded the push for this
    program but it failed
  • NAFTA, 1993
  • lowered tariffs between US, Canada, Mexico
  • increased trade between nations
  • Americans worried theyd lose their jobs

D William Clinton 44,909,806 370
R George Bush 39,104,550 168
I Ross Perot 19,742,240 --
  • Contract with America, 1994
  • Newt Gingrich led Republican takeover of both
    houses of Congress at midterm elections
  • Republican goals included
  • balanced budget amendment
  • welfare reform
  • flag burning amendment
  • Defense of Marriage Act, 1996
  • federal government only recognizes traditional
  • Welfare Reform Act, 1996
  • limited time families could receive welfare
  • replaced AFDC

Clinton Administration1997-2001
  • Family and Medical Leave Act, 1993
  • guaranteed full-time employees 12 weeks off per
    year for newborns or to care for families (unpaid
  • Brady Bill, 1994
  • 5-day waiting period for gun sales
  • banned assault weapons
  • federal funding for more police
  • Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrance Act
  • banned blocking/bullying people at abortion
  • Kosovo, 1993
  • communist Yugoslavia collapsed
  • hard-line fascists in Bosnia begin to commit
    genocide on Muslims
  • 200,000 are murdered in ethnic cleansing
  • UN sent troops to stop it

D William Clinton 47,402,357 379
R Bob Dole 39,198,755 159
I Ross Perot 8,085,402 --
  • Starr Report, 1998
  • Clinton was investigated for using his office to
    influence real estate deals
  • the investigation lasted years and led to
    questions about adultery as governor and as
  • Ken Starr released his 336 page account of what
    Clinton had done
  • the House voted to impeach the president for
    perjury (228-226), the Senate did not convict
  • Budget Showdown, 1995
  • Gingrich and Clinton faced off over the budget
    and shut down nonessential government services
  • hurt both their images

Bush Administration2001-2005
  • George W. Bush
  • compassionate conservatism
  • Bush won by 500 votes in Florida where his
    brother was governor
  • recounts stopped under Bush v. Gore
  • No Child Left Behind, 2001
  • Bush required all states to test their students
    and show progress
  • failing schools are put on a list and face
  • students at failing schools must be bussed to
    better ones
  • all students will be proficient by 2014
  • Department of Homeland Security
  • new agency ensured domestic security
  • coordinated federal and state agencies in
  • FBI, CIA, NSA had separate information that could
    have prevented 9-11

R George W. Bush 50,455,156 271
D Albert Gore, Jr. 50,997,335 267
G Ralph Nader 2,882,897 --
  • Y2k (1/1/00)
  • companies and governments spent 300 billion in
    fear that computers would malfunction on 1/1/00
  • Hurricane Katrina, 2005
  • most expensive and devastating hurricane in US
  • 80 of New Orleans submerged
  • 81 billion in damages
  • 3 million left without electricity
  • 1,836 died (mostly in Louisiana)
  • disproportionately hit the poor and elderly
  • many criticized the governments response

War on Terrorism
  • Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act,
  • limited appeals for and sped up process for the
    execution of convicted terrorists
  • September 11, 2001
  • Al Qaeda attack on the twin towers shifted
    Americas attention to foreign policy
  • more than 3000 were killed when four airplanes
    were hijacked and used as weapons
  • 2 in NYC, 1 in PA, and 1 in DC
  • Operation Enduring Freedom, 2001
  • al Qaeda was hiding out in Afghanistan which was
    ruled by the Taliban
  • Bush vowed to punish al Qaeda and any nation that
    sponsored terrorismBush Doctrine
  • within 3 months the US, UK, allies, and rebels
    overthrew the Taliban
  • democratic elections were held for the first time
  • Operation Iraqi Freedom, 2003
  • Bush believed that Saddam Hussein was stockpiling
    nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons
  • fighting lasted from March to May, 2003
  • WMDs were never found
  • USA Patriot Act, 2001
  • laws created to fight terrorism within the US
  • House vote 357-66, Senate vote 98-1
  • allows the government to search bank records,
    seize property, and monitor phone calls
  • criticized for giving too much power to the
  • Osama bin Laden
  • vocal leader of Al Qaeda killed by US troops in
  • responsible for attacks on US embassies, twin
    towers, and USS Cole
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