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Title: The%20Anglo-Saxon%20and%20Medieval%20Periods%20449-1485%20A.D.


1
The Anglo-Saxon and Medieval Periods449-1485 A.D.
  • This Lesson Will Teach you about
  • Impact of Christianity
  • Feudalism
  • Sociology of Medieval Europe
  • The Hundred Years War

2
The Anglo-Saxon Period449-1066
  • Britannia (Great Britain) had been abandoned by
    the Roman Empirethe Roman Army fled to protect
    the city of Rome from invasion during the early
    part of the 5th century.

3
The Anglo-Saxon Period449-1066
  • Without protection, the islands were invaded by
    Germanic peoples beginning in the 5th century
    (449A.D.)
  • Primary Tribes
  • Angles
  • Saxons

4
The Anglo-Saxon Period449-1066
  • The Britons were led by a Christian commander
    named Arthur. Unfortunately, they were unable to
    protect Britannia
  • German tribes took over southern central parts
    Brittania forcing the native people (Celtics) to
    the north and west.
  • Celtic culture pagan religions all but
    disappeared.

Interesting Fact The Celtics reemerged in
Boston, Massachusetts (USA) in 1946
5
The Anglo-Saxon Period449-1066
  • Because the Angles Tribe was the predominant
    tribe in southern Britannia at the time, the new
    settlement became known as Angle-land, or
    England (modern pronunciation).
  • Although the Angles were the dominant tribe,
    scholars still refer to this period as the
    Anglo-Saxon Period.

6
Lives of the Anglo-Saxons Changed Over Time
  • In the beginning
  • Seafaring people
  • Short
  • Bleak
  • Violent
  • Pagan Religion
  • After Christianity
  • Strong belief in the Wyrd (fate)
  • Admired warriors whose wyrd was to prevail in
    battle
  • Less violent
  • More secure
  • More civilized
  • agriculturalists

7
Growth of Christianity
  • Anglo-Saxons began adopting Christianity during
    late 6th century.
  • Gaels (native tribe) spread Christianity to
    Angles.
  • Augustine establishes first monastery at
    Canterbury in 597A.D.
  • Within the next century, most people became
    Christian.

8
Final Invasion of England
  • Dispute as to who would succeed the throne in
    1066.
  • William, Duke of Normandy, attacks Harold in the
    Battle of Hastings on Christmas day 1066 A.D.
  • William takes over throne and is renamed William
    the Conqueror.
  • Medieval Period begins.

9
The Medieval Period 1066-1485
  • Introduction of the Normans (French north men)
    to the region brought about a lot of change.
  • Brought over French practices.
  • Ushers in new regimebeginning of the Medieval
    Period.

10
Feudal System of Medieval Period
  • Definitiona political and economic system in
    which the hierarchy was based on the king owning
    all the land in the kingdom and subdividing it.
  • 25--The King lived on and owned (castles)
  • 25--Dedicated to the Church (cathedrals)
  • 50--Gets further subdivided to loyal
    noblesmostly Norman barons (manors).
  • Normans supplied king with warriors on horseback
    called knechts ltOld Eng servantgt

11
Feudal System Hierarchy
  • Kingowned all the land in the kingdom
  • Nobles/Baronsrented subdivided land by
    providing knights and allegiance to the king.
  • Knightswarriors for protection allegiance to
    the Nobles and Barons.
  • Serfsthe Anglo-Saxons that were conquered by
    the Normans
  • became peasants bound to the land the
    could not own.

12
Creation of new Judicial System
  • Henry II takes over and enacts new system
  • Royal Courts throughout the country
  • System of Juries
  • Formation of English Common Law
  • based on old practices, tradition, and values.
  • Discussion Question
  • Why is the idea of a judicial system such a
    revolutionary concept compared to the feudal
    system?
  • Compare Henrys system of government to modern
    democracies. What are some similarities?

13
Chivalry
  • Wife of Henry II introduced ideals of chivalry
    she brought with her from France when she took
    over as Queen of England.
  • Chivalrycode of honor intended to govern
    knightly behavior.
  • Honor and protection of women, children, and most
    importantly CHRISTIANITY!
  • Go on Holy Quests (Crusades) in order to spread
    and maintain Christian principles and teachings.

14
Crusades
  • Richard I (Richard the Lion-Hearted) spent much
    of 10-year reign fighting Crusades in France to
    protect Christianity.
  • Brother John ruled during his absence and was
    dubbed a tyrant
  • Subject of Robin Hood stories
  • Treasury had become bankrupt from wars.
  • Magna Carta signed in 1215 giving more power to
    barons.
  • Step toward modern democracy.

15
End of Feudalism
  • Signing of Magna Carta in 1215 A.D. brought about
    socioeconomic change.
  • Commoners power increased as trade increased with
    Western Europe and Asia.
  • Merchants Craftspeople formed Guilds.
  • Set up rules for trading/economy
  • Moderated prices in the market
  • Wealth shifted from land owner-
  • ship to mercantilism and trade.
  • Universities blossomed (Oxford)

16
The Hundred Years War 1337-1453
  • On-and-Off War Between England France.
  • The PlagueBlack Death killed 30-40 of
    Englands population
  • Domestic War of the Roses to seat new King.
  • Red Rose wins out and seats as Henry VII.
  • Seating of new King ends Middle Ages (Medieval
    Period) in England.
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