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10-2-13 Aim: How did Egyptians develop an optimistic outlook on life? Do Now Egyptian Worship of Animals, 1-5 HW - Reading on Status of Women in Egypt – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 10-2-13 Aim: How did Egyptians develop an


1
10-2-13Aim How did Egyptians develop an
optimistic outlook on life?
  • Do Now
  • Egyptian Worship of Animals, 1-5
  • HW - Reading on Status of Women in Egypt

2
Religion and Education
3
Religion and Education
  • Two main gods were Amon (Thebian deity associated
    with the sun, creation, fertility, and
    reproductive forces) and Re (the sun god
    worshipped at Heliopolis)
  • Eventually the two were combined in the cult of
    Amon-Re

4
Brief Period of Monotheism
  • For a brief period Akhentan challenged the
    Amon-Re cult by proclaiming Aten as the one and
    only true god
  • Once Akhenaten died, traditional priests restored
    the Amon-Re cult
  • The sun disc Aten shining on the names of the
    royal family

5
Mummification
  • In order to prepare a person for the long and
    hazardous journey before they could enjoy the
    pleasures of the afterlife, the body of a dead
    person was preserved by a process called
    mummification.

6
Around 450 B.C., the Greek historian HERODOTUS
documented the art of MUMMIFICATION.
As much of the brain as it is possible is
extracted through the nostrils with an iron hook,
and what the hook cannot reach is dissolved with
drugs. Next, the flank is slit open . . . and the
entire contents of the abdomen removed. The
cavity is then thoroughly cleansed and washed out
. . . Then it is filled with pure crushed myrrh,
cassia, and all other aromatic substances, except
frankincense. The incision is sewn up, and then
the body is placed in natron, covered entirely
for 70 days, never longer. When this period . . .
is ended, the body is washed and then wrapped
from the head to the feet in linen which has been
cut into strips and smeared on the underside with
gum which is commonly used by the Egyptians in
the place of glue. -- Herodotus
7
NATRON, a disinfectant and dehydration agent, was
the main ingredient used in the mummification
process. A compound of sodium carbonate and
sodium bicarbonate (salt and baking soda), natron
essentially dried out the corpse. The body was
filled with Nile mud, sawdust, lichen and cloth
scraps to make it more flexible. Small COOKING
ONIONS or linen pads were sometimes used to
replace the eyes. Beginning in the third
dynasty, the internal organs (lungs, stomach,
liver and intestines) were removed, washed with
palm wine and spices, and stored in four separate
CANOPIC JARS made of limestone, calcite or clay.
However, the HEART was left in the body because
it was considered the center of intelligence
8
MUMMIFICATION TOOLS The ancient embalmers used
very few tools. The basic tool kit included a
KNIFE to make the abdominal incision, hooked
bronze RODS to extract brain matter, a wooden
ADZE-like tool to remove internal organs, and a
FUNNEL to pour resins into the cranial cavity
through the nose.
9
The Judgment
  • The Egyptians viewed the heart as the seat of
    intellect and emotion.
  • Before entering the pleasures of eternity, the
    dead person had to pass a test in which Anubis,
    the god of the dead, weighed the persons heart
    against Maat, the goddess of justice and truth,
    who was represented by a feather.

10
The Judgment
  • If the deceaseds good deeds outweighed the bad,
    then his heart would be as light as the feather
    (heavy hearts bore the burden of guilt and evil),
    and Osiris would welcome the newcomer to the next
    world.
  • If the deceased fell short in his judgment, his
    body would be eaten by a monster that was part
    crocodile, part lion, and part hippopotamus.

11
Osiris
  • Patron of the underworld, the dead, and past
    pharaohs
  • Cult of Osiris demanded observance of high moral
    standards
  • As lord of the underworld, Osiris had the power
    to determine who deserved the blessing of
    immortality and who did not

12
Social Hierarchy
13
Social Hierarchy
  • Pharaoh
  • Egyptian kings of a centralized state
  • Claimed to be gods living on earth in human form
  • Bureaucrats
  • Because the pharaoh was an absolute ruler there
    was little room for a noble class as in
    Mesopotamia
  • Instead professional military forces and an
    elaborate bureaucracy of administrators and tax
    collectors served the central government
  • Patriarchal
  • Vested authority over public and private affairs
    in men
  • However, more opportunities for women than in
    Mesopotamia as evidenced by Queen Hatshepsut
    reigning as pharaoh
  • Peasants and slaves
  • Supplied the hard labor that made complex
    agricultural society possible
  • Among the slaves were the Hebrews

14
Specialization
Brewing and Breadmaking
Plowing and Sowing
Sailing
Harvesting papyrus and Herding
15
Specialization
  • Nile societies were much slower than their
    Mesopotamian counterparts to adopt metal tools
    and weapons
  • Did develop pottery, textile manufacture,
    woodworking, leather production, stonecutting,
    and masonry occupations

Egyptian pottery makers
16
Economic Exchange
17
Economic Exchange
  • The Nile provided excellent transportation which
    facilitated trade.
  • Nile flows north so boats could ride the currents
    from Upper to Lower Egypt.
  • Prevailing winds blow almost year-round from the
    north so by using sails, boats could then make
    their way back upriver.

18
Economic Exchange
  • Egypt needed to trade because, beside the Nile,
    it had few natural resources
  • For example, Egypt had very few trees so all its
    wood came from abroad, especially cedar from
    Lebanon
  • Much trade between Egypt and Nubia
  • Importance of trade was reflected in the names of
    southern Egyptian cities
  • Aswan comes from the ancient Egyptian word swene
    which means trade
  • Elephantine owed its name to the elephant ivory
    trade

19
LIVESTOCK was important to the Egyptian economy,
supplying meat, milk, hides, and dung for cooking
fuel. A variety of DOMESTICATED ANIMALS were
raised, including cattle, oxen, sheep, goats,
pigs, ducks and geese. Peasants probably enjoyed
meat on special occasions.. DRAFT ANIMALS such
as oxen increased agricultural productivity.
HERDSMEN and SHEPHERDS lived a semi-nomadic
life, pasturing their animals in the marshes of
the Nile.
20
Barley and emmer, were used to make BEER and
BREAD, the main staples of the Egyptian diet.
Grains were harvested and stored in GRANARIES
until ready to be processed. The quantities
harvested each season far exceeded the needs of
the country, so much was exported to neighbouring
countries, providing a rich source of INCOME for
the Egyptian treasury
21
Grapes were processed into WINE for the noble
class, but beer was the favorite drink of the
common people. Food was served in POTTERY BOWLS,
but NO UTENSILS were used for eating.
22
Most HOUSES were made of BRICK. The banks of the
Nile provided the mud used to make bricks.
Brick makers collected MUD, added STRAW and
WATER to it as needed, and stomped it with their
feet until it reached the right consistency. The
mixture was then placed in a MOLD. Once shaped,
the bricks were removed from the mould and left
on the ground to dry in the sun. Egyptian
PEASANTS would have lived in SIMPLE MUD-BRICK
HOMES containing only a few pieces of furniture
BEDS, STOOLS, BOXES and LOW TABLES.
23
SKILLED ARTISANS were considered SOCIALLY
SUPERIOR to common laborers. They learned their
art from a master who ensured stylistic
continuity in the beautiful objects they created
for the living and the dead. Skilled CARPENTERS
manufactured a wide range of products, from
roofing beams to furniture and statues. Their
tools included saws, axes, chisels, adzes, wooden
mallets, stone polishers and bow drills. Other
artisans included STONE MAKERS and SCULPTORS,
BEAD MAKERS, BRICK LAYERS, and POTTERS.
24
WOMEN engaged in WEAVING, PERFUME MAKING, BAKING
and NEEDLEWORK. Very few artistic creations were
signed, and exceptional ability was rewarded
through increased social status. Women of all
classes COULD EARN WAGES, OWN PROPERTY and EMPLOY
WORKERS, but their main role was within the
family. The title most women had was "MISTRESS OF
THE HOUSE". They were considered EQUAL WITH MEN
BEFORE THE LAW, and could sue for damages and
divorce.
25
New Technologies
Ramps and stone-cutting required to build pyramids
26
New Technologies
  • Papyrus
  • The raw material came from the plant Cyperus
    papyrus which grew along the banks of the Nile
  • Used not only in the production of paper but also
    used in the manufacture of boats, rope and
    baskets
  • Shipbuilding
  • Wooden boats
  • Multiple-oars
  • Sails
  • Rope trusses to strengthen hulls

27
Art and Writing
28
Art and Writing
  • Pyramids
  • Symbols of the pharaohs authority and divine
    stature royal tombs
  • Pyramid of Khufu involved the precise cutting and
    fitting of 2,300,000 limestone blocks with an
    average weight of 2.5 tons
  • Estimated construction of the Khufu pyramid
    required 84,000 laborers working 80 days per
    year for 20 years

The Sphinx and Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza. 
29
The EGYPTIAN LANGUAGE was one of the earliest
languages to be written down, perhaps only the
Sumerian language is older. First appearing on
stone and pottery dating from 3100 B.C. to 3000
B.C., it remained in use for almost 3,000
years. The last inscription was written in A.D.
394.
30
The word HIEROGLYPH literally means "sacred
carvings". The Egyptians first used hieroglyphs
for inscriptions carved or painted on temple
walls. This form of PICTORIAL WRITING was also
used on
  • Tombs
  • Sheets of papyrus
  • Wooden boards covered with a stucco wash
  • Potsherds
  • Fragments of limestone.

31
Mesopotamia and Egypt
Mesopotamia Egypt
Agriculture Land between the rivers (Tigris and Euphrates forms Fertile Crescent Artificial irrigation Gift of the Nile Artificial irrigation
Specialization Pottery, textiles, woodworking, leather, brick making, stonecutting, masonry Pottery, textiles, woodworking, leather production, stonecutting, masonry
Cities -Numerous, densely populated city-states (Ur and Babylon) -Fewer cities with high centralization (Memphis and Thebes)
Social Hierarchy -Noble class -Patriarchal Slaves -Absolute authority of the pharaoh made a noble class unnecessary (had bureaucrats instead) -Patriarchal, but the presence of Queen Hatsheput may indicate greater opportunities for women Slaves
32
Mesopotamia and Egypt
Mesopotamia Egypt
Religion and Education -Polytheism -No afterlife -Polytheism, but brief period of monotheism under Akhentan -Afterlife and judgment (mummification)
New Technologies -Superior in metallurgy -Papyrus, shipbuilding, pyramids
Economic exchange -Trade by land and water -Trade principally by water along the Nile -Trade more important because Egypt lacked natural resources beside the Nile
Art and Writing -Cuneiform -Hieroglyphs (more pictorial than cuneiform)
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