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The Civil War

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Title: The Civil War


1
The Civil War
  • Ch 11 Notes

2
Remember
  • Confederate capital Richmond, VA
  • Border States MD, MO, KY, DE
  • All slave states
  • DE had the fewest, stayed with the Union
  • MD had more but stayed with Union even with much
    pro-Confederate support
  • KY divided in opinion, people fought on both
    sides but the state gov remained under Union
    control
  • MO had fighting about which side to take for 2
    years but remained with the Union
  • Fort Sumter April 12, 1861

3
1st Battle of Bull Run/1st Manassas
  • North named battles after rivers, mountains,
    etc
  • South named battles after nearby towns
  • McDowell in charge of Union army
  • 7/16/1861 McDowell took troops into southern
    territory
  • Up against Beauregard
  • Many spectators followed the troops to watch
  • 7/21/61 McDowell attacked

4
Battle Begins
  • 1st the Union was winning
  • Then Gen. Thomas Jackson got there with his
    troops to reinforce the Conf troops
  • Stonewall Jackson nicknamed that because he
    never gave up during battle
  • Union advance stopped and eventually retreated
  • Retreated all the way the to Washington, DC
  • Conf could have attacked DC but they were also
    inexperienced and exhausted so they did not

5
Lessons Learned
  • Both sides need more training
  • Battles are worse than expected and civilians do
    not belong there
  • This will not be a quick war (originally
    thought it would be over by Christmas)
  • Both sides need more preparations
  • McDowell was replaced by George McClellan

6
Strengths of Both Sides
  • North
  • More railroad mileage
  • More people to serve in the military and work in
    the factories
  • Established government with a strong federal gov
  • More industrial
  • Balanced economy
  • South
  • Better military leadership
  • Better military training
  • Home-field advantage

7
Strategies
  • North
  • Anaconda Plan surround enemy and squeeze it to
    death
  • Naval blockade of the southern coastline
  • Take control of the Mississippi River and cut the
    Confederacy in 2
  • Capture Richmond, the Confederate capital
  • South
  • War of attrition
  • Battle to wear down the enemy
  • Gain a foreign ally (especially hoped for
    Britain)
  • Wait and defend their territory

8
Tactics and Technology
  • Old
  • All lined up to march into battle
  • Concentrate forces, assault a position and drive
    enemy away
  • Cannons and muskets (not very accurate)
  • Long time to re-load weapons
  • New
  • Guerilla warfare (surprise attacks)
  • Bullet shaped ammo not musket balls
  • Fighting from further away from enemy
  • Rifling used on inside of gun barrels
  • Heavy artillery with rifled barrels, shells, and
    canister

9
War in the West
  • Goal control the Mississippi River
  • Targets AK, LA, MS, and TN
  • Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant
  • Map p. 385
  • Feb. 1862 Grant began to move south down the TN
    River
  • Objective take Fort Henry and Fort Donelson

10
Union Victories in the West
  • 2/6/1862 Grant attacked Fort Henry and forced
    its surrender
  • Then marched troops to Fort Donelson
  • 3 days of fighting until the fort surrendered
  • Grants nickname Unconditional Surrender Grant
  • Grant continued south along the TN River to
    threaten AL and MS

11
March 1862
  • Conf Gen Johnston had his troops getting ready to
    fight Grant in MS
  • Grant stopped in TN to wait for Gen. Buell and
    more troops before moving into MS
  • Johnston was aware of these happenings

12
April 6, 1862
  • Gen Johnston attacks Grant by surprise
  • Called the Battle of Shiloh
  • At the end of the first day it looked like a
    Confederate victory
  • Johnston even sent a letter to Davis saying so
  • Buell got there with reinforcements for Grant and
    the next day the Union troops attacked Johnstons
    by surprise
  • Battled ended up a Union victory
  • Very high casualties (some called Grant the
    Butcher)
  • Union 13,000
  • Confederate 11, 000

13
Also in the West
  • Admiral David Farragut was moving north on the
    Mississippi River
  • Late April 1862 captured New Orleans
  • Continued north to Baton Rouge, LA and Natchez,
    MS
  • June 6, 1862 seized Memphis, TN
  • There were only 2 more main ports to capture
    before the Union held the MS River (took about a
    year)

14
Meanwhile in the East
  • Confederates created an ironclad ship
  • Under Union control it was the Merrimack but
    the Conf renamed it the Virginia
  • Union built the Monitor an iron ship
  • March 9, 1862 Merrimack and Monitor faced off
  • Neither was able to do much damage but the
    Merrimack withdrew for repairs
  • Union called this a victory
  • Merrimack was sunk on purpose by the South later
  • Monitor sunk in a storm

15
Peninsular Campaign
  • 2nd attempt to capture Richmond (map p 386)
  • May 1862 McClellan was in charge of Union troops
  • Peninsula SE of Richmond
  • Plan was to move up the peninsula and take
    Richmond
  • At Yorktown they ran into Conf troops and
    McClellan decided to wait

16
Battle of the Seven Pines
  • Part of Peninsular Campaign
  • May, 1862
  • Union Victory
  • Very heavy casualties on both sides
  • Conf commander wounded so Robert E. Lee took over
    in June
  • Conf Gen Jackson took some troops and pretended
    to prepare to attack DC
  • Lincoln refused to send additional troops to
    McClellan to protect DC

17
Seven Days Battle
  • Jackson rejoined Lees troops outside of Richmond
  • In late June, 1862
  • Combined Confederate forces attacked McClellans
    weakened troops
  • McClellan retreated
  • Confederate victory
  • Casualties 20,000 Union and 16,000 Confederate

18
Results
  • Lincoln removed McClellan and chose Gen John Pope
    to lead the Union Army of the Potomac (army the
    protected DC that McClellan had led)
  • Lincoln ordered McClellan to return to DC

19
Second Battle of Bull Run/2nd Manassas
  • Lee divided his army again
  • Late August Lee attacked Popes forces
  • Jacksons forces attacked after surrounding Pope
  • Confederate victory
  • Lincoln was very upset
  • Removed Pope and returned McClellan

20
South Changes Strategy
  • South shifted from defense to offense
  • Lee pushed forces into MD northwest of DC
  • McClellans troops found some plans and met him
    just after Lee crossed into MD
  • Major and crucial battle took place near village
    of Sharpsburg, MD at Antietam Creek

21
Antietam
  • Union troops outnumbered Conf troops
  • Night of Sept 17, 1862 more than 22,000 men lay
    dead or wounded
  • Single bloodiest day of the Civil War
  • Casualties about even on both sides but McClellan
    had far more fresh troops available than Lee
  • McClellan did nothing, instead of attacking at
    dawn, and let Lees army walk away
  • Lincoln fired McClellan because though he won, he
    let a decisive victory slip away

22
Politics of the Civil War
23
Politics of the South
  • Confederacy loose union of states with a weaker
    federal government than state governments
  • Created a constitution similar to that of the
    Union 2 main differences
  • 1. Slavery is legal
  • 2. More States Rights

24
Mobilization Efforts to Use Limited Resources
Efficiently
  • Confederate congress passed laws to increase
    support of warfare.
  • Farmers gave 10 of crops to the army
  • The army could take male slaves for military
    service and the owner was paid for the use of his
    slave
  • April 1862 Draft Passed (Conscription)
  • All white men 18-35 serve 3 years
  • Age raised to 45 after Antietam
  • Later increased to 50

25
More Confederate laws
  • Government would determine what and how much to
    produce.
  • Wool - Cotton - Leather
  • Seized control of railroads from private owners
  • Income tax created to raise money for the war
    effort
  • Had to do the best they could with fewer
    resources.

26
Impact of States Rights
  • Not all mobilization efforts were successful
  • Harmed the war effort in many ways
  • Example people avoided the draft
  • South sought help form Europe (Britain and
    France)
  • Failed to be recognized by either of them
  • Privateers 11 British built ships that fought
    against the Union during the war

27
Politics of the North
  • Much effort was given to keep public support of
    the war high
  • Tensions increased with Great Britain
  • The Trent 1861 President Davis sent two people
    to gain recognition from the British (boarded the
    Trent)
  • Union removed the 2 men from the ship
  • England threatened war if the Union didnt
    release the men
  • Lincoln ordered the men released One war at a
    time

28
Republicans in Control of Congress
  • Pacific Railroad Act (July 1862) supplied money
    for the building of the continental railroad
  • Homestead Act (1862) free government land in the
    west to people who were willing to live there
  • Government raised the tariff rate
  • Passed the first federal income tax (1861)
  • Internal Revenue Act of 1862 taxed medicine,
    tobacco, and newspapers
  • Nearly all taxes ended at the end of the war.

29
Republicans (continued)
  • Reformed the banking system
  • 1862 Congress established a new currency
  • Greenbacks
  • Value was established by the government - Fiat

30
Northern Opposition to the War
  • Copperheads Northern Democrats who sympathized
    with the South and opposed the war
  • Draft dodgers and draft riots happened throughout
    the North

31
Keeping Control in the Border States
  • Delaware Stayed Loyal
  • Maryland If Maryland would leave the Union,
    Washington D.C. would be in Confederate
    territory.
  • Missouri Supported action to overthrow a
    pro-Confederate state government.
  • Kentucky Martial Law
  • In some areas of the Union, Lincoln suspended the
    writ of habeas corpus (can be held in jail
    without being charged with a crime)

32
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33
Emancipation and the War
  • Some people began to question if restoring the
    Union was enough (slavery became a question
    again)
  • Lincoln was hesitant at first to end slavery He
    didnt feel that it was a part of his job.
  • Eventually he used ending slavery as another
    method to end the war (a 4th strategy to hurt the
    South and bring the war to an end)

34
The Emancipation Proclamation
  • Fall of 1862 after the battle of Antietam.
  • Lincoln issued the proclamation on January 1st,
    1963
  • Freed slaves in the states that had seceded
  • Very controversial, but it showed a shift in the
    mentality of the war
  • Had little impact on slavery since the areas
    affected considered themselves to be outside of
    the Union
  • Made sure that European countries did not get
    involved on the Souths side (they no longer
    supported slavery)

35
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36
What to do with slaves when the Union troops
encountered them?
  • Some union commanders give them back to their
    slave owners when returning other possessions of
    theirs.
  • Others felt that they were contraband it is
    generally accepted that during a war, property
    that is captured becomes the property of the
    enemy government.
  • With this idea, many slaves were freed.

37
African Americans in the Army
  • In the North
  • Congress passed a law allowing African Americans
    to serve in the army in July of 1862
  • Many joined after the Emancipation Proclamation
  • On warships, black and white men served together
  • As soldiers they served in separate regiments
  • The African American regiments had white
    commanding officers.
  • Until June of 1864, African Americans were paid
    less than white soldiers.

38
GLORY!
39
The Hardships of War
  • Dramatic changes in the lives of people in the
    North and South
  • Wives and mothers lived in fear
  • Both sides faced labor shortages, inflation, and
    other economic problems
  • By 1863 it was clear that the North was better
    prepared to meet the needs of the war than the
    South.

40
The Southern Economy During the War
  • Food shortages (food production declined as the
    war continued)
  • Lack of men due to the draft Women ran the farms
    and were in charge of the slaves
  • Food riots erupted in southern cities (most were
    led by women) because of the lack of food
  • Inflation Shortages and a lack of goods, plus
    profiteers (those who bought up a bunch of goods
    and waited to sell until the price got really
    high)
  • Problems at home led to many desertions in the
    army

41
The Northern Economy During the War
  • Industries heavily dependent on cotton were hurt
  • Most Northern industries boomed
  • Especially war related industries
  • Women filled critical roles in factories as more
    men went off to war.
  • Prices rose faster than wages during the war
  • Some northern profiteers selling poor quality
    equipment to the military at high prices

42
Prison Camps
  • Andersonville was the most notorious southern
    camp in Georgia
  • Many scattered throughout the North and South
  • In most cases officers were treated better than
    other prisoners

43
Medical Care
  • ¼ of the soldiers didnt survive the war, most
    from disease and not battle wounds
  • Poor nutrition and contaminated food led to
    dysentery and typhoid fever
  • Malaria and pneumonia were also killers
  • Union soldier was three times more likely to die
    in camp or in a hospital than he was to be killed
    on the battlefield
  • One in five Union soldiers who was wounded in
    battle later died from their wounds

44
Women and the War Effort
  • Women on both sides helped to care for the
    wounded
  • Clara Barton The angel of the battlefield
  • Later began the Red Cross
  • Dorothea Dix organized the Union Armys nursing
    Corps
  • 4,000 women served as nurses for the Union

45
Sanitation
  • Non-existent in most camps
  • Garbage and rotting food littered on the ground
  • Human waste and manure polluted the water
  • Epidemics of contagious diseases swept through
    camps.
  • At times only half of the troops in a regiment
    were available
  • Unites States Sanitary Commission Created in
    June of 1861, attempted to combat these problems
  • Inspected army hospitals and camps
  • Organized cleanups and provided advice about
    controlling infection, disease prevention, sewage
    disposal, and nutrition
  • About twice as many soldiers on each side died
    from disease as from enemy gunfire

46
The Tide of War Turns
47
Victories for General Lee
  • Battle of Fredericksburg (December 13, 1862)
  • The Unions McClellan delayed after Antietam and
    was replaced with Ambrose Burnside
  • - Burnside marched directly towards Richmond.
  • Lees 79,000 met Burnsides 122,000 at
    Fredericksburg, Virginia on Rappahannock River.
  • Burnside crossed the river without cover and wave
    after wave of Union troops were met with
    artillery fire
  • 13,000 Union Casualties to only 5,000 Confederate
  • Burnside asks to be relieved of his command

48
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49
  • Battle of Chancellorsville (May 1, 1863)
  • Lincoln appoints Gen. Joseph Hooker
  • Plans to move around Fredericksburg secretly and
    attack Lee from behind his defenses.
  • His forces were discovered by General J.E.B.
    Stuart. (a cavalry commander)
  • Lee sends troops after Hooker
  • After a brief skirmish, Lees forces under
    Jackson move into the thick woods and separate,
    attacking from several angles.
  • Jackson mistakenly shot that night in the dark,
    dies on May 10th.
  • Confederate army wins complete victory

50
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51
Build-up to Gettysburg
  • Lowest point in the war for the Union
  • Major losses at Fredericksburg Chancellorsville
  • Rumors of Lincolns resignation / talk of peace
  • Lee Moves North
  • Seeking renewed resources / Victory in Union
    territory
  • Hear word of shoe supply in Gettysburg PA
  • - Skirmish with Union cavalry turned into the
    greatest battle ever fought in North America

52
Gettysburg Day 1 July 1st 1863
  • Both Union and Confederate troops rush to the
    site of the skirmish
  • General George Meade arrives only in command
    less than one week
  • Fighting occurs between two ridges
  • Confederates are able to push Union troops back
    to the hills. Fighting continued throughout the
    day. A confident Lee proposed (against
    advisement) to attack the Union troops early the
    next morning.

53
www.echoesofgettysburg.com
54
Gettysburg Day 2 July 2nd
  • Gen. James Longstreet
  • Not ready to attack with Union troops until 4pm!
  • Gives Meade a chance to gather reinforcements and
    attack.
  • Little Round Top!
  • Vulnerable hill strategically important
  • Could be used for cannon fire
  • Union troops run out of ammo, defend the hill
    with bayonet charge
  • Save Union from defeat

55
Gettysburg Day 3 July 3rd
  • Begins with brief Confederate attack on north
    Union line.
  • Battlefield falls silent after
  • Early Afternoon 150 cannons fire to begin Lees
    infantry charge against the Unions center.
  • Marches 15,000 troops Under General Pickett
  • Only half of the troops return to Confederate
    lines after ½ hour of battle

56
www.echoesofgettysburg.com
57
Conclusion of Gettysburg
  • Picketts charge ended the bloodiest battle of
    the Civil War
  • Union Army
  • 23,000 of 85,000 suffer casualties
  • Confederate Army
  • 28,000 of 75,000 suffer casualties
  • Lee had lost 1/3 of his army for the second time
  • Confederates retreat back to Virginia.

58
www.echoesofgettysburg.com
59
Vicksburg, Mississippi
  • The last point left in Confederate control on the
    Mississippi R.
  • Strategically safe.
  • On a hilltop
  • Surrounded by swampland
  • Only one area of dry land that could be used to
    attack

60
  • Ulysses S. Grant commands Union troops.
  • Made several previous attempts to bypass or
    attack the city.
  • Moves far south and crosses the river, then
    attacks Mississippis capital at Jackson.
  • Draws Confederate forces (under Pemberton) out of
    Vicksburg.
  • Clash again at Champions Hill
  • Confederates retreat to Vicksburg

61
  • SIEGE A tactic in which an enemy is surrounded
    and starved in order to make it surrender.
  • Grant uses Siege tactics
  • Artillery fires 2,800 Shells per day for over a
    month.
  • Residents dug caves in hillsides to hide from the
    artillery fire.
  • On July 4th, 1863 Pemberton surrenders the
    Confederate troops.
  • Why July 4th?
  • Thought he would have the best chance at
    negotiating the terms of surrender.

62
The Importance of 1863
  • Turning point of the war!
  • Control of the Mississippi
  • Confederacy cut in two
  • Lees army runs out of reinforcements, has to
    retreat to Virginia.
  • Never again threatens Union soil.

63
The Gettysburg Address
  • Delivered on November 19th of 1863
  • A ceremony held at Gettysburg, was designed to
    honor Union soldiers who had died there in
    battle. 15,000 were in attendance.
  • The speech only lasted 2 minutes.
  • Initially ignored because of its shortness, the
    address later became one of the most popular
    speeches in American History.

64
Chapter 11, Section 4
  • Devastation and a New Freedom

65
A Change of Attitude
  • The Confederate capital at Richmond, VA has a new
    feeling about its streets.
  • Many cities set fire by Union troops, but the
    Confederates set Richmond ablaze on their own.
  • African Americans welcome the arriving Union army
    with open arms.

66
A More Aggressive Gen. Grant
  • Confederates hope to hold defenses until Union
    election in November of 1864
  • Feel that another president may replace Lincoln
    and grant independence to the south.
  • Lincoln puts Grant in charge of the Union army
    and brings him east to fight Lee
  • Gen. William Sherman is placed in the west
  • Both plan to beat the Confederates through
    greater population and industry.
  • Grant plans to charge directly to Richmond,
    knowing that Lee will have to fight to defend the
    capital

67
Battle of the Wilderness
  • 2 Day battle that begins on May 5th
  • This is Lees first attempt to stop Grants
    march.
  • Fought in the same location as the Battle of
    Chancellorsville.
  • Fought in a dense forest The woods caught on
    fire!!!!
  • Confusion occurs because of this
  • Longstreet is shot only a short distance from
    where Jackson was shot the year before
  • Grant loses many men but refuses to retreat
  • He marches around the Confederates and continues
    towards Richmond

68
Spotsylvania and Cold Harbor
  • May 8th - Spotsylvania
  • Confederates catch up to the Union forces and a 2
    week battle follows.
  • Grant suffers major casualties again but still
    follows his route to Richmond. Ensures Lincoln he
    will continue to fight.
  • June 3rd Cold Harbor
  • Grant mounts two attacks and again loses many
    troops. This time 7,000.

69
Siege at Petersburg
  • A railroad center south of Richmond.
  • Supplied food to the city.
  • Grants attack fails and in two months he has
    lost 65,000 more of his troops.
  • So many men died that some had pinned their
    name/address on their uniform so they could be
    identified.
  • June 18th, 1864 Grant opts for siege tactics.
  • Lee has trouble replacing casualties and tries to
    defend until the November election in the Union.

70
Shenandoah Valley
  • Grant sends General Phil Sheridan to attack and
    destroy all transportation routes and crops.
  • One home burned belonged to a relative of Robert
    E. Lee Henrietta Lee.
  • This marks the beginning of Grants utter
    devastation of the South.

71
Sherman takes Georgia
  • Same tactics as Grant with Atlanta as his goal.
  • General Joseph Johnston would defend in the same
    way as Lee.
  • Johnston was replaced by General James Hood who
    Jefferson Davis thought would be more aggressive
  • A series of battles results in their retreat to
    Atlanta and Gen Sherman lays siege to Atlanta.
  • Confederate army flees the city in early
    September.

72
Shermans March to the Sea
  • Plans to march to capture Savannah.
  • Torches the city of Atlanta before leaving
  • Causes complete destruction for 300 miles.
  • Destroys bridges, factories, railroads,
    livestock, crops and even homes.
  • Arrives in Savannah and the Confederates have
    already fled. Easily takes the city.

73
Election of 1864
  • Lincoln (Rep.) runs with Andrew Johnson
  • Johnson was a Pro Union Southerner
  • Lincoln faces trouble for his pocket Veto of the
    Wade Davis Bill. Union Party.
  • Ran against Gen. McClellan - Democrat
  • Thought his chances were good because he had
    support from some troops.
  • Promised to negotiate an end to war
  • Lincoln wins easily after Union capture of Atlanta

74
Freedom
  • February 1865 Lincoln and Congress pass the
    Thirteenth Amendment.
  • Became a law on December 18th
  • The law ended slavery in the United States
    permanently.
  • It becomes apparent that the war is nearly over.

75
End of the War.
  • Sherman marches from Savannah to SC
  • SC was seen as the basis for Confederate belief
    because it was the 1st state to secede.
  • Even more brutal than he was in Georgia.
  • Burns nearly all houses in his path
  • Burns half of Columbia, the state capital, to the
    ground
  • Stops the destruction of civilian property upon
    entering North Carolina.

76
Surrender at Appomattox
  • Lee tries to reunite with Johnston to combine
    forces, but is cut off and retreats to the small
    town of Appomattox, Virginia.
  • Lee knows the war is over despite suggestions to
    begin guerilla warfare.
  • Lee and Grant meet in the house of Wilmer McLean.

77
  • Terms of Surrender
  • Lee and Grant talked peacefully and then
    exchanged plans for the surrender.
  • Troops could return home with their horses.
  • Would not be punished as traitors.
  • Grant offered to feed the Confederate troops.
  • Grant orders no celebration in the Union army
    because the southerners were our countrymen
    again
  • Surrender met with mixed feelings in the south.
  • Gen. Johnston surrenders to Sherman in NC a few
    weeks later
  • Confederate surrender continues throughout the
    month

78
Lincolns Assassination
  • Shot at Fords Theater in Washington D.C. by John
    Wilkes Booth
  • Lincoln dies early the next morning after nothing
    could be done for him.
  • Booth is found in a barn hiding, the barn is
    burned and shot at, killing him.
  • A Tragic loss, but what was gained by the war?
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