The Civil War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – The Civil War PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 7c0ee1-ZGMzO


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

The Civil War


The Civil War Ch 11 Notes – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:110
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 79
Provided by: east126
Tags: anaconda | civil | plan | war


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Civil War

The Civil War
  • Ch 11 Notes

  • Confederate capital Richmond, VA
  • Border States MD, MO, KY, DE
  • All slave states
  • DE had the fewest, stayed with the Union
  • MD had more but stayed with Union even with much
    pro-Confederate support
  • KY divided in opinion, people fought on both
    sides but the state gov remained under Union
  • MO had fighting about which side to take for 2
    years but remained with the Union
  • Fort Sumter April 12, 1861

1st Battle of Bull Run/1st Manassas
  • North named battles after rivers, mountains,
  • South named battles after nearby towns
  • McDowell in charge of Union army
  • 7/16/1861 McDowell took troops into southern
  • Up against Beauregard
  • Many spectators followed the troops to watch
  • 7/21/61 McDowell attacked

Battle Begins
  • 1st the Union was winning
  • Then Gen. Thomas Jackson got there with his
    troops to reinforce the Conf troops
  • Stonewall Jackson nicknamed that because he
    never gave up during battle
  • Union advance stopped and eventually retreated
  • Retreated all the way the to Washington, DC
  • Conf could have attacked DC but they were also
    inexperienced and exhausted so they did not

Lessons Learned
  • Both sides need more training
  • Battles are worse than expected and civilians do
    not belong there
  • This will not be a quick war (originally
    thought it would be over by Christmas)
  • Both sides need more preparations
  • McDowell was replaced by George McClellan

Strengths of Both Sides
  • North
  • More railroad mileage
  • More people to serve in the military and work in
    the factories
  • Established government with a strong federal gov
  • More industrial
  • Balanced economy
  • South
  • Better military leadership
  • Better military training
  • Home-field advantage

  • North
  • Anaconda Plan surround enemy and squeeze it to
  • Naval blockade of the southern coastline
  • Take control of the Mississippi River and cut the
    Confederacy in 2
  • Capture Richmond, the Confederate capital
  • South
  • War of attrition
  • Battle to wear down the enemy
  • Gain a foreign ally (especially hoped for
  • Wait and defend their territory

Tactics and Technology
  • Old
  • All lined up to march into battle
  • Concentrate forces, assault a position and drive
    enemy away
  • Cannons and muskets (not very accurate)
  • Long time to re-load weapons
  • New
  • Guerilla warfare (surprise attacks)
  • Bullet shaped ammo not musket balls
  • Fighting from further away from enemy
  • Rifling used on inside of gun barrels
  • Heavy artillery with rifled barrels, shells, and

War in the West
  • Goal control the Mississippi River
  • Targets AK, LA, MS, and TN
  • Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant
  • Map p. 385
  • Feb. 1862 Grant began to move south down the TN
  • Objective take Fort Henry and Fort Donelson

Union Victories in the West
  • 2/6/1862 Grant attacked Fort Henry and forced
    its surrender
  • Then marched troops to Fort Donelson
  • 3 days of fighting until the fort surrendered
  • Grants nickname Unconditional Surrender Grant
  • Grant continued south along the TN River to
    threaten AL and MS

March 1862
  • Conf Gen Johnston had his troops getting ready to
    fight Grant in MS
  • Grant stopped in TN to wait for Gen. Buell and
    more troops before moving into MS
  • Johnston was aware of these happenings

April 6, 1862
  • Gen Johnston attacks Grant by surprise
  • Called the Battle of Shiloh
  • At the end of the first day it looked like a
    Confederate victory
  • Johnston even sent a letter to Davis saying so
  • Buell got there with reinforcements for Grant and
    the next day the Union troops attacked Johnstons
    by surprise
  • Battled ended up a Union victory
  • Very high casualties (some called Grant the
  • Union 13,000
  • Confederate 11, 000

Also in the West
  • Admiral David Farragut was moving north on the
    Mississippi River
  • Late April 1862 captured New Orleans
  • Continued north to Baton Rouge, LA and Natchez,
  • June 6, 1862 seized Memphis, TN
  • There were only 2 more main ports to capture
    before the Union held the MS River (took about a

Meanwhile in the East
  • Confederates created an ironclad ship
  • Under Union control it was the Merrimack but
    the Conf renamed it the Virginia
  • Union built the Monitor an iron ship
  • March 9, 1862 Merrimack and Monitor faced off
  • Neither was able to do much damage but the
    Merrimack withdrew for repairs
  • Union called this a victory
  • Merrimack was sunk on purpose by the South later
  • Monitor sunk in a storm

Peninsular Campaign
  • 2nd attempt to capture Richmond (map p 386)
  • May 1862 McClellan was in charge of Union troops
  • Peninsula SE of Richmond
  • Plan was to move up the peninsula and take
  • At Yorktown they ran into Conf troops and
    McClellan decided to wait

Battle of the Seven Pines
  • Part of Peninsular Campaign
  • May, 1862
  • Union Victory
  • Very heavy casualties on both sides
  • Conf commander wounded so Robert E. Lee took over
    in June
  • Conf Gen Jackson took some troops and pretended
    to prepare to attack DC
  • Lincoln refused to send additional troops to
    McClellan to protect DC

Seven Days Battle
  • Jackson rejoined Lees troops outside of Richmond
  • In late June, 1862
  • Combined Confederate forces attacked McClellans
    weakened troops
  • McClellan retreated
  • Confederate victory
  • Casualties 20,000 Union and 16,000 Confederate

  • Lincoln removed McClellan and chose Gen John Pope
    to lead the Union Army of the Potomac (army the
    protected DC that McClellan had led)
  • Lincoln ordered McClellan to return to DC

Second Battle of Bull Run/2nd Manassas
  • Lee divided his army again
  • Late August Lee attacked Popes forces
  • Jacksons forces attacked after surrounding Pope
  • Confederate victory
  • Lincoln was very upset
  • Removed Pope and returned McClellan

South Changes Strategy
  • South shifted from defense to offense
  • Lee pushed forces into MD northwest of DC
  • McClellans troops found some plans and met him
    just after Lee crossed into MD
  • Major and crucial battle took place near village
    of Sharpsburg, MD at Antietam Creek

  • Union troops outnumbered Conf troops
  • Night of Sept 17, 1862 more than 22,000 men lay
    dead or wounded
  • Single bloodiest day of the Civil War
  • Casualties about even on both sides but McClellan
    had far more fresh troops available than Lee
  • McClellan did nothing, instead of attacking at
    dawn, and let Lees army walk away
  • Lincoln fired McClellan because though he won, he
    let a decisive victory slip away

Politics of the Civil War
Politics of the South
  • Confederacy loose union of states with a weaker
    federal government than state governments
  • Created a constitution similar to that of the
    Union 2 main differences
  • 1. Slavery is legal
  • 2. More States Rights

Mobilization Efforts to Use Limited Resources
  • Confederate congress passed laws to increase
    support of warfare.
  • Farmers gave 10 of crops to the army
  • The army could take male slaves for military
    service and the owner was paid for the use of his
  • April 1862 Draft Passed (Conscription)
  • All white men 18-35 serve 3 years
  • Age raised to 45 after Antietam
  • Later increased to 50

More Confederate laws
  • Government would determine what and how much to
  • Wool - Cotton - Leather
  • Seized control of railroads from private owners
  • Income tax created to raise money for the war
  • Had to do the best they could with fewer

Impact of States Rights
  • Not all mobilization efforts were successful
  • Harmed the war effort in many ways
  • Example people avoided the draft
  • South sought help form Europe (Britain and
  • Failed to be recognized by either of them
  • Privateers 11 British built ships that fought
    against the Union during the war

Politics of the North
  • Much effort was given to keep public support of
    the war high
  • Tensions increased with Great Britain
  • The Trent 1861 President Davis sent two people
    to gain recognition from the British (boarded the
  • Union removed the 2 men from the ship
  • England threatened war if the Union didnt
    release the men
  • Lincoln ordered the men released One war at a

Republicans in Control of Congress
  • Pacific Railroad Act (July 1862) supplied money
    for the building of the continental railroad
  • Homestead Act (1862) free government land in the
    west to people who were willing to live there
  • Government raised the tariff rate
  • Passed the first federal income tax (1861)
  • Internal Revenue Act of 1862 taxed medicine,
    tobacco, and newspapers
  • Nearly all taxes ended at the end of the war.

Republicans (continued)
  • Reformed the banking system
  • 1862 Congress established a new currency
  • Greenbacks
  • Value was established by the government - Fiat

Northern Opposition to the War
  • Copperheads Northern Democrats who sympathized
    with the South and opposed the war
  • Draft dodgers and draft riots happened throughout
    the North

Keeping Control in the Border States
  • Delaware Stayed Loyal
  • Maryland If Maryland would leave the Union,
    Washington D.C. would be in Confederate
  • Missouri Supported action to overthrow a
    pro-Confederate state government.
  • Kentucky Martial Law
  • In some areas of the Union, Lincoln suspended the
    writ of habeas corpus (can be held in jail
    without being charged with a crime)

(No Transcript)
Emancipation and the War
  • Some people began to question if restoring the
    Union was enough (slavery became a question
  • Lincoln was hesitant at first to end slavery He
    didnt feel that it was a part of his job.
  • Eventually he used ending slavery as another
    method to end the war (a 4th strategy to hurt the
    South and bring the war to an end)

The Emancipation Proclamation
  • Fall of 1862 after the battle of Antietam.
  • Lincoln issued the proclamation on January 1st,
  • Freed slaves in the states that had seceded
  • Very controversial, but it showed a shift in the
    mentality of the war
  • Had little impact on slavery since the areas
    affected considered themselves to be outside of
    the Union
  • Made sure that European countries did not get
    involved on the Souths side (they no longer
    supported slavery)

(No Transcript)
What to do with slaves when the Union troops
encountered them?
  • Some union commanders give them back to their
    slave owners when returning other possessions of
  • Others felt that they were contraband it is
    generally accepted that during a war, property
    that is captured becomes the property of the
    enemy government.
  • With this idea, many slaves were freed.

African Americans in the Army
  • In the North
  • Congress passed a law allowing African Americans
    to serve in the army in July of 1862
  • Many joined after the Emancipation Proclamation
  • On warships, black and white men served together
  • As soldiers they served in separate regiments
  • The African American regiments had white
    commanding officers.
  • Until June of 1864, African Americans were paid
    less than white soldiers.

The Hardships of War
  • Dramatic changes in the lives of people in the
    North and South
  • Wives and mothers lived in fear
  • Both sides faced labor shortages, inflation, and
    other economic problems
  • By 1863 it was clear that the North was better
    prepared to meet the needs of the war than the

The Southern Economy During the War
  • Food shortages (food production declined as the
    war continued)
  • Lack of men due to the draft Women ran the farms
    and were in charge of the slaves
  • Food riots erupted in southern cities (most were
    led by women) because of the lack of food
  • Inflation Shortages and a lack of goods, plus
    profiteers (those who bought up a bunch of goods
    and waited to sell until the price got really
  • Problems at home led to many desertions in the

The Northern Economy During the War
  • Industries heavily dependent on cotton were hurt
  • Most Northern industries boomed
  • Especially war related industries
  • Women filled critical roles in factories as more
    men went off to war.
  • Prices rose faster than wages during the war
  • Some northern profiteers selling poor quality
    equipment to the military at high prices

Prison Camps
  • Andersonville was the most notorious southern
    camp in Georgia
  • Many scattered throughout the North and South
  • In most cases officers were treated better than
    other prisoners

Medical Care
  • ¼ of the soldiers didnt survive the war, most
    from disease and not battle wounds
  • Poor nutrition and contaminated food led to
    dysentery and typhoid fever
  • Malaria and pneumonia were also killers
  • Union soldier was three times more likely to die
    in camp or in a hospital than he was to be killed
    on the battlefield
  • One in five Union soldiers who was wounded in
    battle later died from their wounds

Women and the War Effort
  • Women on both sides helped to care for the
  • Clara Barton The angel of the battlefield
  • Later began the Red Cross
  • Dorothea Dix organized the Union Armys nursing
  • 4,000 women served as nurses for the Union

  • Non-existent in most camps
  • Garbage and rotting food littered on the ground
  • Human waste and manure polluted the water
  • Epidemics of contagious diseases swept through
  • At times only half of the troops in a regiment
    were available
  • Unites States Sanitary Commission Created in
    June of 1861, attempted to combat these problems
  • Inspected army hospitals and camps
  • Organized cleanups and provided advice about
    controlling infection, disease prevention, sewage
    disposal, and nutrition
  • About twice as many soldiers on each side died
    from disease as from enemy gunfire

The Tide of War Turns
Victories for General Lee
  • Battle of Fredericksburg (December 13, 1862)
  • The Unions McClellan delayed after Antietam and
    was replaced with Ambrose Burnside
  • - Burnside marched directly towards Richmond.
  • Lees 79,000 met Burnsides 122,000 at
    Fredericksburg, Virginia on Rappahannock River.
  • Burnside crossed the river without cover and wave
    after wave of Union troops were met with
    artillery fire
  • 13,000 Union Casualties to only 5,000 Confederate
  • Burnside asks to be relieved of his command

(No Transcript)
  • Battle of Chancellorsville (May 1, 1863)
  • Lincoln appoints Gen. Joseph Hooker
  • Plans to move around Fredericksburg secretly and
    attack Lee from behind his defenses.
  • His forces were discovered by General J.E.B.
    Stuart. (a cavalry commander)
  • Lee sends troops after Hooker
  • After a brief skirmish, Lees forces under
    Jackson move into the thick woods and separate,
    attacking from several angles.
  • Jackson mistakenly shot that night in the dark,
    dies on May 10th.
  • Confederate army wins complete victory

(No Transcript)
Build-up to Gettysburg
  • Lowest point in the war for the Union
  • Major losses at Fredericksburg Chancellorsville
  • Rumors of Lincolns resignation / talk of peace
  • Lee Moves North
  • Seeking renewed resources / Victory in Union
  • Hear word of shoe supply in Gettysburg PA
  • - Skirmish with Union cavalry turned into the
    greatest battle ever fought in North America

Gettysburg Day 1 July 1st 1863
  • Both Union and Confederate troops rush to the
    site of the skirmish
  • General George Meade arrives only in command
    less than one week
  • Fighting occurs between two ridges
  • Confederates are able to push Union troops back
    to the hills. Fighting continued throughout the
    day. A confident Lee proposed (against
    advisement) to attack the Union troops early the
    next morning.

Gettysburg Day 2 July 2nd
  • Gen. James Longstreet
  • Not ready to attack with Union troops until 4pm!
  • Gives Meade a chance to gather reinforcements and
  • Little Round Top!
  • Vulnerable hill strategically important
  • Could be used for cannon fire
  • Union troops run out of ammo, defend the hill
    with bayonet charge
  • Save Union from defeat

Gettysburg Day 3 July 3rd
  • Begins with brief Confederate attack on north
    Union line.
  • Battlefield falls silent after
  • Early Afternoon 150 cannons fire to begin Lees
    infantry charge against the Unions center.
  • Marches 15,000 troops Under General Pickett
  • Only half of the troops return to Confederate
    lines after ½ hour of battle

Conclusion of Gettysburg
  • Picketts charge ended the bloodiest battle of
    the Civil War
  • Union Army
  • 23,000 of 85,000 suffer casualties
  • Confederate Army
  • 28,000 of 75,000 suffer casualties
  • Lee had lost 1/3 of his army for the second time
  • Confederates retreat back to Virginia.

Vicksburg, Mississippi
  • The last point left in Confederate control on the
    Mississippi R.
  • Strategically safe.
  • On a hilltop
  • Surrounded by swampland
  • Only one area of dry land that could be used to

  • Ulysses S. Grant commands Union troops.
  • Made several previous attempts to bypass or
    attack the city.
  • Moves far south and crosses the river, then
    attacks Mississippis capital at Jackson.
  • Draws Confederate forces (under Pemberton) out of
  • Clash again at Champions Hill
  • Confederates retreat to Vicksburg

  • SIEGE A tactic in which an enemy is surrounded
    and starved in order to make it surrender.
  • Grant uses Siege tactics
  • Artillery fires 2,800 Shells per day for over a
  • Residents dug caves in hillsides to hide from the
    artillery fire.
  • On July 4th, 1863 Pemberton surrenders the
    Confederate troops.
  • Why July 4th?
  • Thought he would have the best chance at
    negotiating the terms of surrender.

The Importance of 1863
  • Turning point of the war!
  • Control of the Mississippi
  • Confederacy cut in two
  • Lees army runs out of reinforcements, has to
    retreat to Virginia.
  • Never again threatens Union soil.

The Gettysburg Address
  • Delivered on November 19th of 1863
  • A ceremony held at Gettysburg, was designed to
    honor Union soldiers who had died there in
    battle. 15,000 were in attendance.
  • The speech only lasted 2 minutes.
  • Initially ignored because of its shortness, the
    address later became one of the most popular
    speeches in American History.

Chapter 11, Section 4
  • Devastation and a New Freedom

A Change of Attitude
  • The Confederate capital at Richmond, VA has a new
    feeling about its streets.
  • Many cities set fire by Union troops, but the
    Confederates set Richmond ablaze on their own.
  • African Americans welcome the arriving Union army
    with open arms.

A More Aggressive Gen. Grant
  • Confederates hope to hold defenses until Union
    election in November of 1864
  • Feel that another president may replace Lincoln
    and grant independence to the south.
  • Lincoln puts Grant in charge of the Union army
    and brings him east to fight Lee
  • Gen. William Sherman is placed in the west
  • Both plan to beat the Confederates through
    greater population and industry.
  • Grant plans to charge directly to Richmond,
    knowing that Lee will have to fight to defend the

Battle of the Wilderness
  • 2 Day battle that begins on May 5th
  • This is Lees first attempt to stop Grants
  • Fought in the same location as the Battle of
  • Fought in a dense forest The woods caught on
  • Confusion occurs because of this
  • Longstreet is shot only a short distance from
    where Jackson was shot the year before
  • Grant loses many men but refuses to retreat
  • He marches around the Confederates and continues
    towards Richmond

Spotsylvania and Cold Harbor
  • May 8th - Spotsylvania
  • Confederates catch up to the Union forces and a 2
    week battle follows.
  • Grant suffers major casualties again but still
    follows his route to Richmond. Ensures Lincoln he
    will continue to fight.
  • June 3rd Cold Harbor
  • Grant mounts two attacks and again loses many
    troops. This time 7,000.

Siege at Petersburg
  • A railroad center south of Richmond.
  • Supplied food to the city.
  • Grants attack fails and in two months he has
    lost 65,000 more of his troops.
  • So many men died that some had pinned their
    name/address on their uniform so they could be
  • June 18th, 1864 Grant opts for siege tactics.
  • Lee has trouble replacing casualties and tries to
    defend until the November election in the Union.

Shenandoah Valley
  • Grant sends General Phil Sheridan to attack and
    destroy all transportation routes and crops.
  • One home burned belonged to a relative of Robert
    E. Lee Henrietta Lee.
  • This marks the beginning of Grants utter
    devastation of the South.

Sherman takes Georgia
  • Same tactics as Grant with Atlanta as his goal.
  • General Joseph Johnston would defend in the same
    way as Lee.
  • Johnston was replaced by General James Hood who
    Jefferson Davis thought would be more aggressive
  • A series of battles results in their retreat to
    Atlanta and Gen Sherman lays siege to Atlanta.
  • Confederate army flees the city in early

Shermans March to the Sea
  • Plans to march to capture Savannah.
  • Torches the city of Atlanta before leaving
  • Causes complete destruction for 300 miles.
  • Destroys bridges, factories, railroads,
    livestock, crops and even homes.
  • Arrives in Savannah and the Confederates have
    already fled. Easily takes the city.

Election of 1864
  • Lincoln (Rep.) runs with Andrew Johnson
  • Johnson was a Pro Union Southerner
  • Lincoln faces trouble for his pocket Veto of the
    Wade Davis Bill. Union Party.
  • Ran against Gen. McClellan - Democrat
  • Thought his chances were good because he had
    support from some troops.
  • Promised to negotiate an end to war
  • Lincoln wins easily after Union capture of Atlanta

  • February 1865 Lincoln and Congress pass the
    Thirteenth Amendment.
  • Became a law on December 18th
  • The law ended slavery in the United States
  • It becomes apparent that the war is nearly over.

End of the War.
  • Sherman marches from Savannah to SC
  • SC was seen as the basis for Confederate belief
    because it was the 1st state to secede.
  • Even more brutal than he was in Georgia.
  • Burns nearly all houses in his path
  • Burns half of Columbia, the state capital, to the
  • Stops the destruction of civilian property upon
    entering North Carolina.

Surrender at Appomattox
  • Lee tries to reunite with Johnston to combine
    forces, but is cut off and retreats to the small
    town of Appomattox, Virginia.
  • Lee knows the war is over despite suggestions to
    begin guerilla warfare.
  • Lee and Grant meet in the house of Wilmer McLean.

  • Terms of Surrender
  • Lee and Grant talked peacefully and then
    exchanged plans for the surrender.
  • Troops could return home with their horses.
  • Would not be punished as traitors.
  • Grant offered to feed the Confederate troops.
  • Grant orders no celebration in the Union army
    because the southerners were our countrymen
  • Surrender met with mixed feelings in the south.
  • Gen. Johnston surrenders to Sherman in NC a few
    weeks later
  • Confederate surrender continues throughout the

Lincolns Assassination
  • Shot at Fords Theater in Washington D.C. by John
    Wilkes Booth
  • Lincoln dies early the next morning after nothing
    could be done for him.
  • Booth is found in a barn hiding, the barn is
    burned and shot at, killing him.
  • A Tragic loss, but what was gained by the war?