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MODERN ERA: 1750 - 1914

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Title: MODERN ERA: 1750 - 1914


1
MODERN ERA 1750 - 1914
  • CHANGES IN THE NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE
    STRUCTURES

2
REVOLUTIONARY IDEAS
  • Revolution
  • A popular idea, means to an end
  • A way to restructure society
  • Popular sovereignty
  • Relocating sovereignty in the people
  • Traditional monarchs
  • Claimed a "divine right" to rule, unquestionable
  • Constitutional Limitations
  • Aristocracy, Enlightenment challenged king
  • Glorious Revolution of 1688
  • Made the monarch responsible to the people
  • John Locke's theory of contractual government
  • Authority comes from the consent of the governed
  • Freedom and equality
  • Demands for freedom of worship
  • Freedom of expression, assembly
  • Demands for political and legal equality
  • Condemned legal, social privileges of aristocrats
  • Equality not extended to all

3
TYPES OF REVOLUTIONS
  • Aristocratic Revolution
  • Aristocracy fights to preserve privileges
  • Often against royal absolutism
  • Rarely for other classes rights
  • Usually ends with constitution, limits on
    monarchy
  • Bourgeois (liberal) Revolution
  • Middle class seeks rights equal to nobility
  • Extension of franchise, ability to hold office
  • Issues of taxation often involved
  • Reforms limited and rarely radical, franchise
    limited
  • American (1776), French (1789), Meiji Restoration
    (1867)
  • Latin American Revolutions (1820s)
  • Mass revolutions
  • Most of society effected and involved
  • Often goals are quite radical and methods often
    quite violent
  • Nationalist Revolutions
  • China (1911)
  • Haitian Revolution (1793)
  • Socialist Revolutions

4
REFORM
  • Often system allowed change without radical
    means, violence
  • Reform was a theme of 1750 1914
  • Reform movements
  • Increased, responsive democratic representation,
    institutions
  • Expansion of male suffrage was the key issue
  • One of the hallmarks of a democratic society
  • Very successful in US, Western Europe, British
    settler colonies, Japan
  • Less so in Latin America, Russia, Eastern Europe,
    Africa, Asia
  • Abolition of slavery, serfdom
  • Abolition movement was very successful
  • Other forms of coercive labor replaced them
  • Racial, social equality did not follow
  • Women Rights
  • One goal was full female franchise
  • Not achieved until after 1914 but progress

5
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • Tension between Britain, American colonies
  • Legacy of Seven Years' War
  • British debt, North American tax burden
  • Colonists increasingly independent minded
  • Colonial protest
  • Over taxes, trade policies, Parliamentary rule
  • Colonial boycott of British goods
  • Attacks on British officials Boston Tea Party,
    1773
  • Political protest over representation in
    Parliament
  • Continental Congress, 1774
  • British troops, colonial militia skirmished at
    the village of Lexington, 1775
  • The Declaration of Independence, 4 July 1776
  • Declaration inspired by Enlightenment, Locke's
    theory of government
  • The American Revolution, 1775-1781
  • Building an independent state Constitutional
    Convention, 1787

6
FRENCH REVOLUTION NAPOLEON
  • Summoning the Estates General
  • Financial crisis King Louis XVI forced to summon
    Estates General to raise new taxes
  • First and Second Estates (nobles, clergy) tried
    to limit Third Estate (commoners)
  • National Assembly
  • Formed by representatives of Third Estate, 17
    June 1789
  • Demanded a written constitution and popular
    sovereignty
  • Angry mob seized the Bastille on 14 July, sparked
    insurrections in many cities
  • National Assembly wrote the "Declaration of the
    Rights of Man and the Citizen"
  • The Assembly abolished the feudal system, altered
    the role of church
  • France became a constitutional monarchy, 1791
  • The Convention and the Reign of Terror
  • Replaced National Assembly under new
    constitution, 1791
  • Convention abolished the monarchy and proclaimed
    France a republic
  • King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette
    executed, 1793
  • Radical Jacobins dominated Convention in 1793-94
    in "reign of terror"
  • During the Reign of Terror, at least 300,000
    suspects were arrested 17,000 were officially
    executed, and many died in prison or without
    trial.
  • Revolutionary changes in religion, dress,
    calendar, women's rights
  • The Directory, 1795-1799
  • A conservative reaction against the excesses of
    the Convention

Despotismabsolute monarchs pursued legal,
social, and educational reforms
The code forbade privileges based on birth,
allowed freedom of religion, and specified that
government jobs should go to the most qualified.
7
THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM
8
HAITIAN REVOLUTION
  • Saint-Domingue
  • Rich French colony on western Hispaniola
  • Society dominated by small white planter class
  • 90 percent of population were slaves
  • Horrendous working conditions
  • Large communities of escaped slaves (maroons)
  • Ideas of Enlightenment reached educated blacks
  • Free blacks fought in American war
  • Slave revolt began in 1791
  • Factions of white settlers, gens de couleur,
    slaves battled each other
  • French troops arrived in 1792 British, Spanish
    intervened in 1793
  • Slaves conquer whole island including Spanish
    part
  • Whites driven into exile, executed
  • Toussaint Louverture (1744-1803)
  • Son of slaves, literate, son of Enlightenment
  • Skilled organizer, built strong, disciplined army
  • Controlled most of Saint-Domingue by 1797
  • Created a constitution in 1801
  • Arrested by French troops died in jail, 1803

9
INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA
  • Mexican independence
  • Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1807 weakened
    royal control of colonies
  • 1810 peasant revolt in Mexico led by Hidalgo,
    defeated by conservative creoles
  • 1821 Mexico briefly a military dictatorship,
    then in 1822 a republic
  • Simon Bolivar 1822
  • Led independence movement in South America
  • Inspired by George Washington, took arms against
    Spanish rule in 1811
  • Bolivar's effort of creating the Gran Colombia
    failed in 1830s
  • Jose de San Martin 1825
  • Led independence movements in Bolivia, Argentina,
    Chile
  • United efforts with Bolivar
  • Brazilian independence
  • Portuguese royal court fled to Rio de Janeiro,
    1807
  • Brazil declared a separate kingdom during exile
  • The king's son, Pedro, agreed to Brazilian
    independence, 1821
  • Creole dominance in Latin America
  • Independence brought little social change in
    Latin America
  • Principal beneficiaries were creole elites
  • Caribbean remained largely under European control

10
THE NEW AMERICAN MAP
11
LATIN AMERICA
  • Old Problems confront new realities
  • Leaders came from Enlightenment spoke of
    equality, freedom
  • No allowance freedom of religion
  • Slavery ended but not exploitation of poor,
    Indians
  • Equality was too threatening to elite
  • Democracy uncommon, rich men voted
  • Old color distinctions did not disappear rapidly,
    easily, or at all
  • Political instability after independence
  • Creole leaders ruled but had little experience
    with self-government
  • White minority dominated politics While fighting
    amongst selves
  • Peasant majority was without power
  • Conflicts between farmers, ranchers, indigenous
    peoples common
  • Intense fighting in Argentina, Chile modern
    weapons against native peoples
  • Colonists had pacified most productive land by
    1870s
  • Caudillos, Caudillism, Politics and the Church
  • Military leaders who held power after
    revolutionary era
  • Used military to seize power, stay in control
    interested only in power for own sake
  • Opposed liberalizing effects often made
    alliances with aristocratic elites, land owners
  • Ruled through the church and opposed an
    secularization, reform of society

12
NATIONALISM
  • Born in France (Joan of Arc), spread abroad
    during French Revolution
  • Idea began as radical, adopted by liberals, used
    by conservatives
  • An idea which could unify society across social
    classes
  • Many aspects similar to religion, faith
  • Loyalty to state often replaces loyalty to
    church, monarch
  • Dominated 19th century
  • Cultural nationalism
  • An expression of national identity
  • Emphasized common historical experience
  • Used folk culture, literature, music
  • Illustrated national spirit, distinctiveness
  • Political nationalism more intense in the
    nineteenth century
  • Demanded loyalty, solidarity from national group
  • Minorities sought independence as national
    community
  • Young Italy formed by Giuseppe Mazzini
  • World-wide spread
  • Contact with Europeans introduced others to idea
    of nationalism
  • Nationalism often brought with it western ideas,
    structures
  • Strongest in Middle East, India, Japan

13
EMERGENCE OF IDEOLOGIES
  • Conservatism
  • Called the Ancien Regime
  • Resisted change, opposed revolutions
  • Importance of continuity, tradition, aristocracy
  • Edmund Burke
  • Viewed society as organism that changed slowly
    over time
  • American Revolution natural, logical outcome of
    history
  • French Revolution violent and irresponsible
  • Congress of Vienna was a Conservative restoration
  • Restored Balance of Power ruled through great
    powers
  • Monarchy was at heart of conservatism
  • Liberalism
  • Welcomed controlled change as an agent of
    progress
  • Strongly middle class, support economic reform,
    education to help industrialization
  • Wanted to reform political structure, increase
    electorate slightly
  • Championed freedom, equality, democracy, written
    constitutions
  • Limits on state power, interference in individual
    freedoms
  • John Stuart Mill championed individual freedom
    and minority rights
  • Radicalism

14
IMAGINED COMMUNITIES
  • Concert of Europe 1815 - 1860
  • Congress of Vienna, 1814-15
  • Concert of European great powers called Holy
    Alliance
  • UK, Russia, Prussia, Austria, France working in
    concert
  • Attempted to prevent revolutions, change
  • Intervened militarily to oppose change
  • Often forced to limit, control changes
  • Imagined Communities
  • Groups begin to form based on a perceived sense
    of community
  • Each group defined by agreed upon set of values,
    goals

15
THE SOCIALIST CHALLENGE
  • Socialism
  • Arose as an outgrowth of the Industrial
    Revolution
  • Accelerated by the horrible conditions of the
    workers in the cities
  • Utopian socialists
  • Charles Fourier, Robert Owen, and their followers
  • Established model communities based on principle
    of equality
  • Stressed cooperative control of industry,
    education for all children
  • Marxian Socialists (Communists)
  • Marx (1818-1883), Engels (1820-1895), leading
    socialists
  • Scorned the utopian socialists as unrealistic,
    unproductive
  • Critique of industrial capitalism
  • Unrestrained competition led to ruthless
    exploitation of working class
  • State, courts, police all tools of the
    capitalist ruling class
  • The Communist Manifesto, 1848
  • Claimed excesses of capitalism would lead to a
    communist revolution
  • Revolution would wipe away capitalism and
    establish a socialist society
  • Dictatorship of the proletariat" would destroy
    capitalism
  • Socialism would follow a fair, just, and
    egalitarian society
  • Ideas dominated European, international socialism
    throughout 19th century

16
UNIFICATION OF ITALY, GERMANY
  • Italy
  • After Congress of Vienna
  • Italy divided into small states all states
    except Sardinia, Papacy ruled by foreign
    dynasties
  • Austria was the preeminent power in Italy
  • Mazzini, Nationalist, formed Young Italy inspired
    uprisings against foreign rule
  • 1848 Nationalist revolution destroyed by Austrian
    troops
  • Sardinia and Cavour
  • Italian Sardinia only ethnic Italian state
  • Prime Minister of Sardinia becomes leader of
    nationalists
  • Expelled Austrian authorities in northern Italy,
    1859 with French aide
  • Garibaldi
  • Revolutionary nationalist, democrat
  • Staged revolutions, later seized control of
    Southern Italy
  • 1860-1870 Italian states united under Sardinia
  • Germany
  • After Congress of Vienna Dominated by Austrian
    von Metternich
  • German Confederacy a collection of independent
    states dominated by Austria
  • Prussia the largest German state but limited in
    action by Austria
  • Metternichs System preserved conservatism,
    persecuted liberalism, hated nationalism

17
MAPS OF UNIFICATION
18
THE UNITED STATES
  • Jacksonian Democracy
  • Expansion of electorate to include poorer,
    western Americans
  • By 1820s all adult white men could vote and hold
    office
  • Constant tension between states rights, federal
    powers
  • Rapid westward expansion after the revolution
  • 1803, US purchased France's Louisiana Territory
  • By 1840s, coast-to-coast expansion was claimed as
    manifest destiny
  • The Mexican-American War, 1845-1848
  • Conflict with indigenous peoples followed
  • 1830, Indian Removal Act forced eastern Indians
    to move west of Mississippi
  • Thousands died on the "Trail of Tears" to
    Oklahoma
  • Stiff resistance to expansion Battle of Little
    Big Horn, 1876, Sioux victory
  • U.S. massacre at Wounded Knee, 1890, ended Indian
    Wars
  • An Era of Compromise Avoided Conflict 1820-1854
  • North had the population, dominated House of
    Representatives
  • South wanted to preserve slavery but would lose a
    vote in House
  • Missouri Compromise in 1820 admitted one slave,
    one free state
  • South able to block abolition of slavery in
    Senate
  • Sectional conflict

19
USA IN MAPS
20
CANADIAN DOMINION
  • Independence came without war
  • Autonomy and division characterized Canadian
    history
  • Distance from England, isolation in north and
    interior led to self-government, autonomy
  • Always a contest between English speaking, French
    speaking groups
  • Immigrants and Amerindians dominated in the
    interior
  • Eastern Canada (Quebec, Ontario, Maritime
    Provinces) dominate Canada
  • French Quebec taken by Britain after the Seven
    Years' War
  • Quebec Act was a large cause of war with American
    colonies
  • British authorities made large concessions to
    French Canadians
  • After 1781, many British loyalists fled United
    States to seek refuge in Canada
  • The War of 1812 unified Canada against U.S.
    invaders
  • Anti-U.S. sentiments due to US invasions,
    pillaging Would get revenge years later by
    sending U.S. Justin Bieber and 2014 Olympic
    Hockey
  • Created sense of unity among French and British
    Canadians
  • Dominion of Canada created in 1867
  • Federal constitutional monarchy
  • Government with a governor-general acting for
    British monarch
  • Canadian Parliament and Provincial governments
    share rule
  • Britain retained jurisdiction over foreign
    affairs until 1931
  • Prime Minister John Macdonald strengthens
    Canadian independence

21
CANADA IN IMAGES
22
  • Stop do not take notes on remaining Slides!!

23
EURASIAN SOCIETIES AT A CROSSROAD
  • Threatened Societies
  • SW Asia Ottoman Empire, Persia
  • Eastern Europe Russia, Austria-Hungary
  • East Asia China, Korea, and Japan
  • Southeast Asia Vietnam, Thailand
  • Common problems
  • Military weakness, vulnerability to foreign
    threats
  • Internal weakness especially from disaffected
    groups
  • Economic problems, financial difficulties
  • Corruption and unresponsive elites
  • Issues of westernization vs. modernization
  • Western interests often dominate government,
    economy
  • Reform efforts
  • Attempts at political and educational reform
  • Attempts at industrialization
  • Often turned to western models
  • Different results of reforms
  • Ottoman Empire, Austria, Russia, Iran, and China
  • Reforms unsuccessful

24
EURASIA IN 1871
25
OTTOMAN DECLINE
  • Military decline since the late seventeenth
    century
  • Ottoman forces behind European armies in
    strategy, tactics, weaponry, training
  • Janissary corps politically corrupt,
    undisciplined, unable to fight
  • Provincial governors gained power, private armies
  • Russia made war on Ottomans to divert domestic
    problems
  • Austria, other European powers support local
    Christians independence
  • Lost Caucasus and central Asia to Russia
  • Western frontiers to Austria
  • Balkan provinces to Greece and Serbia
  • Egypt gained autonomy after Napoleon's failed
    campaign in 1798
  • Egyptian general Muhammad Ali built a powerful,
    modern army
  • Ali's army threatened Ottomans, made Egypt an
    autonomous province
  • France annexes Muslim Algeria in 1830 and Tunisia
    in 1882
  • The State
  • Government was cumbersome, bureaucratized,
    medieval
  • State was multinational and not all Muslim
  • Power resided often with the provincial
    governors, elite
  • Unwilling to adopt modern European methods or
    reform infrastructure
  • Dominated by bureaucrats, landed elite unwilling
    to change

26
OTTOMAN REFORM, REORGANIZATION
  • Attempt to reform military
  • Led to violent Janissary revolt (1807-1808),
    suppression of Janissaries
  • Reformer Mahmud II (1808-1839) became sultan
    after revolt
  • Janissaries resisted, Mahmud had them killed
    reforms followed
  • He built an European-style army, academies,
    schools, roads, and telegraph
  • Legal, educational reforms
  • Called Tanzimat ("reorganization") era
    (1839-1876)
  • Ruling class sought sweeping restructuring to
    strengthen state
  • Broad legal reforms, modeled after Napoleon's
    civic code
  • State reform of education (1846), free and
    compulsory primary education (1869)
  • Undermined authority of the ulama, enhanced the
    state authority
  • Opposition to Tanzimat reforms
  • Religious conservatives critical of attack on
    Islamic law and tradition
  • Legal equality for minorities resented by some,
    even a few minority leaders
  • Young Ottomans wanted more reform freedom,
    autonomy, decentralization
  • High-level bureaucrats wanted more power, checks
    on the sultan's power
  • Cycles of reform and repression
  • 1876, coup staged by bureaucrats who demanded a
    constitutional government
  • New sultan Abd al-Hamid II (1876-1909)

27
MUSLIM RESISTANCE
  • Resistance
  • Muslim universities
  • Frequently organized education around western
    model
  • Educated several generations of students
  • Muslim Army Officers in Service of Europeans
  • Often educated in western style universities,
    learned western ideas
  • Become source of anti-Western activities even
    while supporting reform
  • Revolt in the Sudan
  • Egypt nominally ruled Sudan, attempted to enforce
    control
  • Egypt able to control Nile farmers opposition
    comes from nomads, herders
  • Rule greatly resented as it was corrupt,
    overtaxed peasants
  • British pressure Egyptians to eradicate slavery,
    upsetting Muslims (Koran allows)
  • Muhammad Achmad The Mahdi (1870s)
  • Direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad
    proclaims jihad against Egyptians, British
    masters
  • Wahhabis Reformer A very puritanical form of
    Islam, seeks to purify Islam
  • Purge Islam of problems reform, modernize but
    not at expense to Islam
  • Overran all of Sudan, threatens Egypt, killed
    British commander at Khartoum
  • Khalifa Abdallahi and the Mahdist state
  • The Mahdi dies his successor builds an Islamic
    state under rule of Koran

28
QING (MANCHU) CHINA
  • Qing China (1622 1911)
  • Nomadic dynasty from Manchuria
  • To rule, maintained strict separation of Chinese,
    Manchu
  • Chinese not allowed to settle in Manchuria
  • Manchurians not allowed to marry Chinese
  • Retained much of Chinese political traditions,
    institutions
  • Retained examination system
  • Ruled through Confucian scholars
  • Qing Army
  • Manchurian nomadic army based on cavalry
  • Unwilling to use modern weapons
  • Rot from Within begins in 18th century
  • Emperor isolated, ineffective
  • Surrounded by eunuchs, advisors who kept him
    isolated
  • Lived in Forbidden City at center of Beijing
  • Extreme politics amongst bureaucrats, eunuchs,
    harem
  • Bureaucracy
  • Too large and cumbersome, corrupt and
    conservative
  • Examination system riddled with favoritism,
    elitism, cheating

29
CHINA UNDER PRESSURE
  • The Taiping rebellion
  • Internal turmoil in China in the later nineteenth
    century
  • Population grew by 50 percent land and food more
    slowly poverty strained resources
  • Other problems official corruption, drug
    addiction
  • Four major rebellions in 1850s and 1860s the
    most dangerous was the Taiping
  • The Taiping ("Great Peace") program proposed by
    Hong Xiuquan
  • Called for end of Qing dynasty resented Manchu
    rule
  • Radical social change no private property,
    footbinding, concubinage
  • Popular in southeast China seized Nanjing
    (1853), moved on Beijing
  • Taiping defeat by combined Qing and foreign
    troops
  • Gentry sided with government regional armies had
    European weapons
  • Taipings defeated in 1864 the war claimed twenty
    to thirty million lives
  • Reform frustrated
  • The Self-Strengthening Movement (1860-1895)
  • Blended Chinese cultural traditions with European
    industrial technology
  • Built shipyards, railroads, weapon industries,
    steel foundries, academies
  • Not enough industry to make a significant change
  • Powerful empress dowager Cixi opposed changes
  • The hundred-days reforms (1898)

30
JAPAN SHOGUN TO EMPEROR
  • Crisis and reform in early nineteenth century
  • Emperor isolated, secluded shogun military
    dictator
  • Centralized bureaucracy alliances with feudal
    lords
  • Japan not unaware of what was going on in wider
    world
  • Dutch allowed to visit Japan at Nagasaki once a
    year
  • Crisis
  • Crop failure, high taxes on agriculture, rising
    rice prices
  • All led to protests and rebellions
  • Reforms and ideas conflict
  • Government Neo-Confucian conservative reforms
  • Dutch Learning Support western studies, reforms,
    working with west anti-Chinese
  • National Studies praised Japanese traditions,
    emperor, Shinto led to ultranationalism
  • Foreign pressure on Japan
  • European wanted her to reverse long-standing
    closed door policy
  • Europeans wanted to trade, wanted safe ports for
    whaling fleets
  • 1844 requests by British, French, U.S. for the
    right of entry rebuffed
  • 1853
  • U.S. Commodore Perry sailed U.S. fleet to Tokyo
    Bay, demanded entry
  • Japan forced to accept unequal treaties with
    U.S., other western countries

31
JAPAN MEIJI ERA
  • Meiji government welcomed foreign expertise
  • Fukuzawa Yukichi studied western constitutions
    and education
  • Ito Hirobumi helped build Japanese constitutional
    government
  • Social Revolution 1873 - 1876
  • Abolition of the feudal order essential to new
    government
  • Daimyo and samurai lost status, privileges class
    abolished
  • Samurai issued bonds to pay for loss, but
    inflation led to impoverishment
  • Samurai rebelled but the new national conscript
    army put rebellion down
  • Some went into business, created western-style
    companies (Mitsubishi)
  • Districts reorganized to break up old feudal
    domains
  • Emperor created new nobility based on English
    style House of Peers
  • Revamping tax system
  • Converted grain taxes to a fixed money tax more
    reliable income for state
  • Assessed taxes on potential productivity of
    arable land
  • Constitutional government, the emperor's "gift"
    to the people in 1889
  • Emperor remained supreme, limited the rights of
    the people
  • Less than 5 percent of adult males could vote
  • Legislature, the Diet, was an opportunity for
    debate and dissent but limited powers
  • Remodeling the economy and infrastructure

32
AFRICA
  • Africa 1750 1850
  • North Africa nominally part of the Ottoman Empire
  • Sudan, Sahel Africa had most powerful, developed
    states
  • West Africa forest kingdoms part of the Atlantic
    slave trade
  • East Africa dominated by native kingdoms, Swahili
    trading states
  • South Africa population dispersal, state
    building of the Ngoni
  • Few European possessions in Africa
  • Atlantic (not Islamic) slave trade ended in early
    19th century
  • Age of Exploration leads to Imperialism
  • Europeans explore Africa, developed interest in
    Africa
  • Permitted by technology
  • Transportation, weaponry made it easy
  • Medicines made it possible
  • Africa was the center, objective of imperialism
  • Africa was partitioned between Europeans
  • Only Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent
  • Infrastructures and Changes
  • Political
  • Colonial powers ignored indigenous peoples almost
    totally

33
MAPPING AFRICA, 1830
34
AFRICA 1914
35
RUSSIA EMPIRE UNDER PRESSURE
  • Post-1812
  • Great concern with defense, liberal ideas as
    threat to old order
  • Government introduced reforms to improve
    bureaucracy
  • Made an alliance with the conservative powers of
    Europe to maintain order
  • December Uprising 1825
  • Death of Alexander I prompted some
    western-oriented officers to rebel
  • Suppressed mercilessly by new tsar
  • Nicholas I
  • Orthodoxy, autocracy and nationality
  • State became very repressive, secret police
  • Policeman of Europe used army to suppress
    revolutions
  • Suppressed rebellion in Poland
  • Policy of foreign wars to divert domestic
    problems
  • Serfdom Issue
  • Russia needed work force in order to industrial
  • Serfdom not efficient
  • Lack of workers in cities an obstacle to economic
    development
  • Gap between western, eastern Europe economic
    systems

36
RUSSIAN REPRESSION MARXISM
  • Cycles of protest and repression
  • Peasants
  • Often landless, no political power
  • Frustrated by lack of meaningful reform
  • Peasant uprisings become more common than serf as
    frustration heightened
  • Population increased as potato introduced,
    increasing pressures on society
  • Social Protest
  • Antigovernment protest and revolutionary activity
    increased in 1870s
  • Middle Class, some aristocrats advocated rights,
    political representation
  • Radical Intelligentsia advocated socialism and
    anarchism, recruited in countryside
  • Repression by tsarist authorities secret police,
    censorship
  • Russification sparked ethnic nationalism,
    attacks on Jews tolerated
  • Terrorism emerges as a tool of opposition
  • Radicals wanted solution to social issue from a
    Russian perspective
  • Young intellectuals went directly to the peasants
  • Most opposed westernization, autocracy,
    capitalism
  • Many became peasant anarchists
  • Alexander II, the reforming tsar, assassinated by
    a bomb in 1881
  • Nicholas II (1894-1917), more oppressive,
    conservative ruler

37
MARXISM Workers will stage a revolution and
overthrow capitalism, state LENINISM Will only
succeed with the leadership of an elite group
of revolutionaries
38
RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF 1905
  • Russian Revolution of 1905
  • Military defeat, humiliation in Russo-Japanese
    War was cause
  • Russia always diverted domestic tension by short,
    successful wars
  • In 1870s, 1880s had expanded against Ottoman
    Empire
  • Massive protests followed news of defeat
  • Workers mounted general strikes in St.
    Petersburg, Moscow
  • Peasant insurrections in countryside against
    landlords
  • Police repressions ineffective, just upset people
  • Bloody Sunday massacre
  • Poor workers of St. Petersburg march to palace to
    ask tsar for help
  • Unarmed workers shot down by government troops
  • Peasants seized landlords' property, killed
    landlords
  • Workers formed soviets (worker councils) in
    cities, factories
  • Workers tended towards non-Marxist socialists
    Marxists marginalized
  • Sought to achieve ends without full scale
    revolution
  • A Fizzled Revolution
  • Tsar forced to accept elected legislature, the
    Duma
  • Many parties elected with conflicting interests
  • Unable, unwilling to cooperate

39
A MULTINATIONAL EMPIRE
  • Austria 1750 1814
  • A collection of states ruled by the Hapsburg
    family who were also the Holy Roman Emperors
  • The Holy Roman Empire was neither holy, nor Roman
    nor an empire
  • No common government, few common institutions
    (save Catholicism)
  • Austria in 1815 1860
  • One of the victors against Napoleon extremely
    conservative and reactionary
  • The weakest, most threatened of Europes great
    powers
  • Prime Minister Metternich dominated German
    Confederation, Italy
  • Used force, coercion to prevent German, Italian
    nationalism
  • Opposed nationalism, liberalism, democracy
  • 1848 Revolution nearly destroyed state
  • Russia intervened to suppress revolutions
  • Austria then intervened in Germany, Italy to
    suppress revolutions
  • Prussia fights to isolate Austria, unify Germany
    w/o Austria
  • Austria in 1866 1870
  • Defeated in 1858 by French-Sardinian Alliance
    1866 by Prussia
  • Driven from German Confederation, Italy
  • Sees nationalism, German unification triumph
    under rival Prussia
  • Sees Italy united under Sardinia Papal states
    erased

40
MAP OF CONFUSION
41
NATIONALISM IMPERIALISM
  • Nationalism heavily involved in imperialism
  • Source of national pride, strength to acquire
    colonies
  • Non-Westerners soon learned to be nationalist
  • Many studied in Western schools, learned western
    knowledge to get ahead
  • Many defined their sense of nation as response to
    imperialism
  • India
  • Two types of state-structures in India
  • Princely States States ruled by Indian princes,
    assisted by British officials
  • British possessions States ruled directly by
    British
  • Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833), "father of modern
    India"
  • Sought an Indian society based on European
    science and traditional Hinduism
  • Used press to mobilize educated Hindus and
    advance reform
  • The Indian National Congress, founded 1885
  • Educated Indians met, with British approval, to
    discuss public affairs
  • Congress aired grievances about colonial rule,
    sought Indian self-rule
  • 1906, All-India Muslim League
  • Formed to advance interests of Indian Muslims
  • Limited reform, 1909
  • Wealthy Indians could elect representatives to
    local councils

42
NATIONALIST RIVALRIES
  • Nationalism spread by the French Revolution and
    Napoleonic Wars
  • Self-determination each ethnic group had a right
    to a sovereign state
  • Concept was ignored or opposed by dynastic powers
  • Considerable nationalistic tensions in Ottoman,
    Hapsburg, and Russian empires
  • Slavic nationalism in the Balkans
  • Stressed kinship of all Slavic peoples
  • Pan-Slavism was a movement to unite all Slavs
    under the Russian tsar
  • Ottoman empire shrank as first Greece, then
    others, gained independence
  • Serbs of Austria-Hungary sought unification with
    independent Serbia
  • Russians promoted Pan-Slavism in
    Austria-Hungarian empire
  • Germany backed Austria-Hungary to fight ethnic
    nationalism
  • The naval race between Germany and Britain
    increased tensions
  • Germany's rapid industrialization threatened
    British economic predominance
  • Both states built huge iron battleships, called
    dreadnoughts
  • Colonial disputes of the late nineteenth century
  • Germany unified in 1871 came late to the
    colonial race
  • German resentment and antagonism toward both
    France and Britain
  • France and Germany nearly fought over Morocco in
    1905
  • Balkan wars (1912-13) further strained European
    diplomatic relations

43
IRANIAN REVOLUTION OF 1905-1911
  • Causes
  • Intellectuals feel that to save Iran they would
    have to limit Shahs power
  • Encroachment by Russians, British on Iranian
    territory upset Iranians
  • Initiated by the Majilis or Iranian Parliament
  • 1905 A year of demonstrations and strikes
  • Parliamentarians tended to be educated,
    merchants, clerics, young
  • Introduced the constitutional concept of
    government
  • People were sovereign and their representatives
    were delegated to enact the laws
  • Old Shah abdicates, new shah accepts
    constitutional limitations
  • 1906
  • Constitutionalists failed to protect victory
    against domestic, international threats
  • Trade Russian influence for British control
  • Took at face value Mohammed Ali Shah's pledges to
    respect constitution
  • 1907-1908
  • UK, Russia prepare to divide Iran into spheres
    of influence
  • Mohammed Ali Shah used opportunity to overthrow
    constitution
  • Shah attempts to kill constitutionalists, forced
    to abdicate, flees
  • Spheres of influence
  • Anglo-Russian convention signed on August 31,
    1907

44
MEXICAN REVOLUTION 1911- 1920
  • The Revolution (1910-1920)
  • Middle class joins peasants, workers overthrow
    Diaz
  • Class Factions
  • 1910-1914 all rebels vs. Diaz and Huerta
  • 1914-20 Carranza, Obregon vs. Zapata, Villa
  • Regional Revolutions North, South, Yucatan
  • Course of the Revolution
  • Liberal Middle Class Leaders
  • Francisco Madero rules at first
  • Seeks middle class constitutional democracy
  • Opposes land reform landless peasants attack
    large landowners
  • Peasant armies win pitched battles against
    government troops
  • General Huerta, army side with landowners, kills
    Madero
  • Venustiano Carranza
  • Organizes coalition with Villa, Zapata, Obregon
  • US troops sent by Wilson support Carranza, Huerta
    resigns
  • Peasant, Common Rebels
  • Pancho Villa led northern rebels, especially
    landless peasants
  • Emiliano Zapata initiates land reform in the
    Southern areas he controls

45
CHINESE REVOLUTION
  • Reform Fails
  • Chinese elites unwilling, unable to reform
  • Boxer Rebellion shows weakness of state,
    humiliating to Chinese
  • Chinese leaders
  • Leaders educated abroad, especially Japan, US
  • Sun Yat-sen
  • Founds United League in Tokyo using Chinese
    foreign funds
  • Wins support of many military officers, foreign
    exiles
  • Suns Three Principles of the People
  • Nationalism Overthrow Manchus, end foreign
    hegemony
  • Democracy Popularly elected republican form of
    government
  • People's Livelihood help people, regulate means
    of production, land
  • 1911 Revolution broke out in Hubei
  • Local army rebellion followed by many armies
  • Joined by United League members
  • 2/3 of provinces join rebels
  • 1912
  • Last Emperor abdicates
  • Sun Yat-sen inaugurated as first president
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