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Age of Early European Explorations

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... Early 16c Atlantic ... Slave Trade The Slave Trade Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans. Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Age of Early European Explorations


1
The Age of Early European Explorations Conquests
2
Admiral Zheng He
  • Each ship was 400 long and 160 wide!

1371-1435
3
Zheng Hes Voyages
  • In 1498, Da Gama reached Calcutta, Chinas
    favorite port!

4
Earlier Explorations
  • Islam the Spice Trade ?INDIA
  • A New Player ? Europe
  • Marco Polo, 1271
  • Expansion becomes a state enterprise ? monarchs
    had the authority the resources.
  • Better seaworthy ships.
  • Chinese Admiral Zheng He the Ming Treasure
    Fleet

5
Motives for European Exploration
  1. Crusades ? by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia.
  2. Renaissance ? curiosity about other lands and
    peoples.
  3. Reformation ? refugees missionaries.
  4. Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue.
  5. Technological advances.
  6. Fame and fortune.

6
OR MORE SIMPLY PUT.
  • The 3 Gs ..
  • GOD !
  • GOLD !
  • GLORY !

7
New Maritime Technologies
Better Maps Portulan
Hartman Astrolabe(1532)
Mariners Compass
Sextant
8
New Weapons Technology
9
A Map of the Known World, pre- 1492
10
Prince Henry, the Navigator
  • School for Navigation, 1419

11
Museum of Navigationin Lisbon
12
Portuguese Maritime Empire
  1. Exploring the west coast of Africa.
  2. Setting up Trading Posts/Rest stations the Entire
    Time
  3. Bartolomeo Dias, 1487 1st to get around tip of
    Africa (Cape of Good Hope)
  4. Vasco da Gama, 1498 1st to get to India to city
    of Calcutta.

13
Other Voyages of Exploration
14
Christofo Colon 1451-1506
15
Columbus Four Voyages
16
The Columbian Exchange
Squash Avocado Peppers Sweet Potatoes
Turkey Pumpkin Tobacco Quinine
Cocoa Pineapple Cassava POTATO
Peanut TOMATO Vanilla MAIZE
Syphilis
Trinkets
Liquor
GUNS
Olive COFFEE BEAN Banana Rice
Onion Turnip Honeybee Barley
Grape Peach SUGAR CANE Oats
Citrus Fruits Pear Wheat HORSE
Cattle Sheep Pigs Smallpox
Flu Typhus Measles Malaria
Diptheria Whooping Cough
17
Why would the 'Columbian Exchange' be considered
the tsunami of unintentional "bio-terrorism"??
18
Ferdinand Magellan the First Circumnavigation
of the WorldEarly 16c
19
Atlantic Explorations
Looking for El Dorado
20
The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 The Popes
Line of Demarcation
21
Cycle of Conquest Colonization
Explorers
Conquistadores
OfficialEuropeanColony!
Missionaries
PermanentSettlers
22
The First Spanish ConquestsThe Aztecs
vs.
Fernando Cortez
Montezuma II
23
The Death of Montezuma II
24
Cortez and the Aztecs
  • 1519 Cortes able to take over with only 600 men.
  • Thought Cortes was some sort of God
  • 3 advantages of Spaniards
  • Superior Weapons (Gunpowder)
  • Help of Native Rival Tribes
  • Diseases (Smallpox and Measles)

25
Mexico Surrenders to Cortez
26
The First Spanish Conquests
The Incas
vs.
Francisco Pizarro
Atahualpa
27
Mayans
  • Stretched from Southern Mexico to Northern
    Central America
  • 1200 B.C. 400 B.C. Greatest Times
  • Trade linked their states together. Cacao
    ( Chocolate Bean) main currency
  • Slash and Burn Agriculture
  • Polytheistic
  • Made Human Sacrifices Pierced own bodies to make
    blood sacrifices
  • Most Advanced writing
  • Wrote in Hieroglyphics
  • Mysteriously Disappear!

28
Forced policy of the Spanish Empire in the New
World
  1. Encomienda or forced labor.
  2. Thought to be a good source of labor, but too
    many Natives die of diseases.
  3. Where will the Spaniards get someone to do the
    backbreaking work for them?

29
Slaves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill
30
Treasuresfrom the Americas!
31
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
32
The Slave Trade
  • Existed in Africa before the coming of the
    Europeans.
  • Portuguese replaced European slaves with
    Africans.
  • Sugar cane sugar plantations.
  • First boatload of African slaves brought by the
    Spanish in 1518.
  • 275,000 enslaved Africans exportedto other
    countries.
  • Between 16c 19c, about 10 million Africans
    shipped to the Americas.

33
The Colonial Class System
Peninsulares
Creoles
Mestizos
Mulattos
Native Indians
Black Slaves
34
Latin American Social Structure
  • Peninsulare- Spaniard born in Spain
  • Creole- Pure blooded Spaniard born in colony
  • Mestizo- Mixed blooded Spanish and Native
  • Mulatto- Mixed blooded Spanish and African
  • African Slaves
  • Native Americans

35
Slave Ship
Middle Passage
36
African CaptivesThrown Overboard
Sharks followed the slave ships!
37
European Empires in the Americas
38
The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church
Our Lady of Guadalupe
Guadalajara Cathedral
Spanish Mission
39
Father Bartolome de Las Casas
  • New Laws ? 1542

40
New Colonial Rivals
  • Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to
    dominate trade in the Indian Ocean.
  • Spain in Asia ? consolidated its holdings in the
    Philippines.
  • First English expedition to the Indies in 1591.
  • Surat in NW India in 1608.
  • Dutch arrive in India in 1595.

41
New Colonial Rivals
42
Impact of European Expansion
  1. Native populations ravaged by disease.
  2. Influx of gold, and especially silver, into
    Europe created an inflationary economic
    climate.Price Revolution
  3. New products introduced across the continents
    Columbian Exchange.
  4. Deepened colonial rivalries.

43
5. New Patterns of World Trade
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