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Understanding Atmospheric Circulation, Modeling, and the NGSS

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Title: Understanding Earth s Climate Author: Rich Hedman Last modified by: Judi Kusnick Created Date: 10/8/2014 10:36:36 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Understanding Atmospheric Circulation, Modeling, and the NGSS


1
Understanding Atmospheric Circulation, Modeling,
and the NGSS
  • By Judi Kusnick and Rich Hedman
  • Fall Regional MeetingFar Western Section
  • National Association of Geoscience Teachers
    (NAGT)
  • 10/12/14

2
Goals for Workshop
  • Three main goals
  • To develop in you an understanding of the science
    content.
  • To encourage you to use an instructional approach
    that is
  • To encourage you to engage your students in the
    practices of science and engineering.

student-centered
and student idea-centered
3
The Science and Engineering Practices
4
The Science and Engineering Practices
5
Developing Using Models
  • These lessons were designed to engage the learner
    in developing and using models.
  • There are many types of modelsphysical
    representations, scale models, computer
    modelsbut to us, a model is a set of ideas about
    a natural process.
  • A scientific model can be used to explain natural
    phenomena, to make predictions, and to connect
    ideas.

6
These are NOT the kinds of models we are talking
about
  • These are physical replicas, tools, or
    representations that may be useful in
    communicating about and reasoning with underlying
    models.

7
Rules of Engagement
  • Be considerate and respectful in language and
    tone.
  • Make sure everyone has a chance to express their
    ideas.
  • Try to not steal anyones Aha! moment by
    telling them your answersinstead ask
    questions that will guide your group to these
    ideas. (ask, dont tell!)

8
Phenomena Cloud Motion
  • The phenomena we will observe is cloud motion
    from satellite images.
  • Task 1
  • Study the video carefully and look for large
    scale patterns in motion.
  • Note that we cant really see anything gt 60
    degrees latitude.
  • Summarize the patterns in cloud motion by drawing
    one arrow indicating the average wind direction
    in each 30 degree band of latitude on the map.
  • If we ignore gt60 degrees latitude, you should
    draw 4 arrows.

9
Phenomena Global Cloud Motion
What patterns do you notice?
10
What about 60-90 latitude?
  • Arctic
  • Antarctic

Draw an arrow for these bands of latitude.
11
Consensus on Phenomena
  • In your groups, discuss the patterns noticed by
    each person and come to a consensus regarding the
    general wind direction in each band of latitude
    shown on the map.
  • Draw a big circle on poster paper, draw in the
    latitude lines, and label each band of latitude
    with your consensus wind directions. You will
    have one arrow in each band of latitude, for a
    total of 6 arrows.
  • Be prepared to post your work.

?
12
Driving Question
  • What causes the patterns in earths atmospheric
    circulation?
  • We will answer the question by developing
    explanatory models, from basic to complex.

13
Introducing Convection
  • Preassessment Agree/Disagree about convection

14
Now lets do another inquiry activity
  • Handout Convection Instructions
  • Read the opening paragraph
  • What do you need to be careful with as you do the
    activity?
  • Read the procedure.
  • Does everyone in the group understand what you
    are to do?

15
Lets get going.
  • New Materials Manager gets
  • Round plastic bin
  • 4 styrofoam cups
  • Small paper cup
  • Eyedropper
  • When you are ready, have a teacher bring you
    water for your pan (step 3).
  • Then follow all the steps through 7.

16
What happened?Why did it happen?
17
Time for you to do one.
  • Ask a question using the available materials
  • More hot water
  • Ice
  • More cups
  • Tea bags
  • Sandwich bags

18
Did we find out anything new?
19
Lets read
  • Find Convection Reading
  • Use the Summary Protocol to read and summarize.
  • One paragraph at a time, rotating responsibility
    for leading the group with each new paragraph.
  • Product is a written summary.

20
Lets revisit the A D
  • Look at each statement again. Do you want to
    change your mind about any?

21
The Science and Engineering Practices
22
Driving Question (Revisit)
  • What causes the patterns in earths atmospheric
    circulation?
  • We will answer the question by developing
    explanatory models, from basic to complex.

23
Consider the Earth
  • Where is it usually warm on earth?
  • Where is it usually cold on earth?

24
How do we know?
  • Where is it usually warm on earth?
  • Where is it usually cold on earth?

DATA!
25
Make a Prediction
  • Make a prediction
  • Where would air be rising from earths surface?
  • Where would air be sinking toward earths
    surface?

26
These ideas represented on a globe
27
Basic Model
  • Based on your understanding of 1) air as a fluid,
    2) convection currents, and 3) the earth
    temperature map, predict the convection cells
    these ideas imply in our atmosphere.
  • TASK 2 Use the materials provided to make a 3-D
    representation of your convection cells around
    your globe.

28
Handout for Task 2 Basic Model
  • Materials beach ball globes (prepared w/ up
    down arrows), transparency strips, tape,
    transparency pens (red, blue, black), paper towel
    water (for erasing), poster paper, poster
    markers (red, blue, black).
  • Task 2 With your group
  • 1. Use a black transparency pen to draw the
    surface winds on your globe predicted by your
    model.
  • 2. Now use the transparency strips to make a 3-D
    representation of the convection cells around the
    globe implied by your model.
  • Draw arrows on the transparency strips to
    indicate the direction of air.
  • Use red for warm air and blue for cold air.

29
Task 2 Step 1
30
Task 2 Representation of Basic Model
  • In the end, students globes will look something
    like

31
Task 2 Representation of Basic Model
  • In the end, students drawings should look
    something like
  • It is important to have students continually
    shift from 3-D representations to 2-D flat
    drawings.
  • Most people have difficulty thinking and
    visualizing in 3-D and practice helps.

32
Task 2 Representation of Basic Model
  • In the end, students drawings should look
    something like
  • Basic Model
  • Earths air is heated differentially by the sun
    (warm equator, cold poles).
  • Temp differences produce density differences in
    air.
  • Gravity differentially effects air masses with
    different densities.
  • Warm air rises at equator cold air sinks at
    poles.
  • The result is one large convection cell the N.
    and S. hemispheres.

33
Compare Basic Model to Phenomena
Our Basic Model
Actual Phenomena
Our basic model has a problem! We need more data.
34
Data Earth is Big!
Because earth is so big, warm air rising at the
equator cools well before it reaches the poles.
This air at altitude doesnt reach the north
pole, it cools and sinks long before it reaches
the pole.
35
Earth is Big! (Cont.)
Also, because earth is so big, cold air sinking
at the poles warms well before it travels back to
the equator.
This surface air doesnt reach the equator, it
warms up and rises well before it reaches the
equator.
36
Task 3 Revise the Basic Model
  • Task 3 With your group,
  • 1. Discuss how to best revise your model to take
    into account that earth is large.
  • 2. Then use the transparency strips to make a 3-D
    representation of the convection cells around the
    globe implied by your model. Draw arrows on the
    transparency strips to indicate the direction of
    air. Use red for warm air and blue for cold air.
  • 3. Be prepared to share and explain your model.

37
Task 3 Revise the Basic Model (Cont.)
  • 4. On poster paper, sketch a circle for earth,
    and draw in your convection cells and your
    predicted surface air currents. Use red for warm
    air and blue for cold air.

38
Task 3 Share Explain Group Models
  • Groups share and explain their revised basic
    models.
  • After discussion, develop a class consensus model
    that fits the data we have so far.

39
Class Consensus Model
  • The class consensus model should look something
    like

40
Class Consensus Model
  • What we have added to our earlier model
  • Because the earth is so large, density
    differences produce multiple (an odd number)
    convection cells in the N. hemisphere and
    multiple (an odd number) convections cells in the
    S. hemisphere.

41
Compare Class Model to Phenomena
Our Class Model
Actual Phenomena
Our model still has a problem! We need YET MORE
DATA
42
Data Earth is Spinning!
  • Earths spin is counter-clock wise (CCW) when
    viewed from the North Pole.
  • Earths spin is clockwise (CW) when viewed from
    the South Pole.

CCW
CW
43
Data Earth is Spinning!
While watching MIT video, pay attention to the
data patterns. If spinning clockwise, the ball is
deflected? If spinning counter-clockwise, the
ball is deflected?
44
Spinning Data Pattern
  • Summarize the data patterns you noticed on the
    board
  • If spinning clockwise, the thrown ball is always
    deflected ___________________?
  • If spinning counter clockwise, the thrown ball is
    always deflected ___________________?

45
Task 4 Final Model
  • How would this affect the wind directions on your
    model?
  • Draw in the deflections you predict will occur on
    your poster.

46
Task 4 Final Model
  • Have a group or two share their final model.
  • Now lets look at the scientific consensus of the
    wind patterns

47
Representation of Final Model
48
Representation of Final Model
  • What we added to our model
  • Earths spin deflects poleward wind west and
    equatorward wind east.

49
Representation of Final Model of Surface Winds
N. Hemisphere winds deflected to the right of
original path.
S. Hemisphere winds deflected to the left of
original path.
Final Model
50
Representation of Final Model of Surface Winds
  • Alternatively

In both hemispheres, poleward wind is deflected
to the EAST, and equatorward wind is
deflected to the WEST.
Final Model
51
Compare Final Model to Phenomena
Final Model
Actual Phenomena
Our final model predicts the actual wind patterns!
52
Simple Version of Final Model
  • Our simple model which explains earths
    atmospheric circulation
  • Uneven heating of earth earths large size
    earths spin rate
  • gt observed global wind patterns.
  • We can describe the causal relationships within
    this model in much more detail . . . (next slide)

53
Detailed Model (teacher only!)
54
Assessing Student Understanding
  • One option
  • Use our final model of atmospheric circulation to
    explain earths surface wind directions in each
    band of latitude.

55
Assessing Student Understanding
  • Another option
  • Use our final model of atmospheric circulation to
    explain the high pressure at the poles and 30
    latitude lines and low pressure along the equator
    and 60 latitude lines

56
Extensions or Assessment
  • Even with the simple model
  • Uneven heating of earth earths large size
    earths spin rate
  • gt observed global wind patterns
  • We can ask a lot of interesting questions
  • What happens if we vary the planets spin rate?
  • What happens if we change the spin direction?
  • What happens if we have a small planet?
  • What happens if we have a giant planet?
  • What happens if the temperature differential is
    greater?
  • What happens if the temperature differential is
    less?

57
Extension Example Jupiter Winds
58
Extension Example Other Planets
59
Linked to Earth Sci Stds 5 6
  • 5. Heating of Earths surface and atmosphere by
    the sun drives convection within the atmosphere
    and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents.
    As a basis for understanding this concept
  • a. Students know how differential heating of
    Earth results in circulation patterns in the
    atmosphere and oceans that globally distribute
    the heat.
  • b. Students know the relationship between the
    rotation of Earth and the circular motions of
    ocean currents and air in pressure centers.
  • c. Students know the origin and effects of
    temperature inversions.
  • d. Students know properties of ocean water, such
    as temperature and salinity, can be used to
    explain the layered structure of the oceans, the
    generation of horizontal and vertical ocean
    currents, and the geographic distribution of
    marine organisms.
  • e. Students know rain forests and deserts on
    Earth are distributed in bands at specific
    latitudes.
  • f. Students know the interaction of wind
    patterns, ocean currents, and mountain ranges
    results in the global pattern of latitudinal
    bands of rain forests and deserts.
  • g. Students know features of the ENSO (El Niño
    southern oscillation) cycle in terms of
  • sea-surface and air temperature variations across
    the Pacific and some climatic results of this
    cycle.
  • 6. Climate is the long-term average of a regions
    weather and depends on many factors. As a basis
    for understanding this concept
  • a. Students know weather (in the short run) and
    climate (in the long run) involve the transfer of
    energy into and out of the atmosphere.
  • b. Students know the effects on climate of
    latitude, elevation, topography, and proximity to
    large bodies of water and cold or warm ocean
    currents.
  • c. Students know how Earths climate has changed
    over time, corresponding to changes in Earths
    geography, atmospheric composition, and other
    factors, such as solar radiation and plate
    movement.
  • d. Students know how computer models are used to
    predict the effects of the increase in greenhouse
    gases on climate for the planet as a whole and
    for specific regions.

60
Also new NGSS Performance Expectation
61
The End!
  • Contact information
  • Rich Hedman hedmanrd_at_csus.edu
  • Judi Kusnick kusnickj_at_saclink.csus.edu
  • To download all of the files used in this
    presentation, go to
  • http//www.csus.edu/indiv/k/kusnickj/
  • Then follow the link to this presentation.
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