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Standards%20and%20Interoperability

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Title: Standards%20and%20Interoperability


1
Standards and Interoperability
  • Kurt Molholm
  • kmolholm_at_aol.com or
  • kurt_at_molholm.com

2
Standards
  • Historically, the range of hardware, software,
    and platform products from different vendors made
    it difficult or impossible for to share data
    effectively.
  • Software standards help enable software to
    interoperate.
  • Interoperability is not the same as standards.
  • Interoperability does not assure access

3
Types of IT Standards
  • Proprietary (de facto) standards
  • Evolve from a product line or specific vendor
  • De facto standards are widely accepted and used,
    but lack formal approval by a recognized
    standards organization.
  • PDF/Adobe Acrobat and
  • PostScript are examples of
  • de facto standards.
  • Open (de jure) standards
  • Publicly available specifications
  • Developed and adopted by some authorized
    standardization body, e.g.
  • ISO/NISO/ANSI
  • WWW Consortium
  • Organization for the Advancement of Structured
    Information Standards (OASIS)
  • The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

The objective of open standards is to create an
environment for interoperability.
4
Interoperability
  • The ability of software and hardware on different
    machines from different vendors to share data.
  • Sourcewww.webopedia.com
  • The ability of two or more systems, or components
    to exchange information, and to use the
    information that has been exchanged
  • Source www.globalvoice.com/index.asp

5
The Information Continuum
  • In this new information age, knowledge is
    changing too fast. Not only is new knowledge and
    information being produced, but old knowledge is
    being reinterpreted and repackaged for more and
    varied purposes.
  • Accessing, evaluating and using information from
    a variety of sources has become a skill in itself
    for the user
  • This has put a heavy pressure on providers of
    information to deliver the right information at
    the right time and the right scale to the right
    person.
  • THE GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTER

6
The Raison d'être - Putting Knowledge to Work -
Scientific Data and Information
  • Factual inputs, data, models, analyses, technical
    information, or scientific assessments related to
    such scientific and engineering disciplines .
  • This includes any communication or representation
    of knowledge such as facts or data, in any medium
    or form, including textual, numerical, graphic,
    cartographic, narrative, or audiovisual forms.

Data and Information are essential building
blocks of science --- Transfer of Information
and Knowledge is Essential
7
Considerations
8
Metadata and Information Discovery
  • Metadata - Commonly divided into
  • descriptive metadata
  • structural metadata
  • administrative metadata
  • Discovery - General term covering all strategies
    and methods of finding information in a digital
    library.
  • Sourcewww.cs.cornell.edu/wya/DigLib/MS1999/glossa
    ry.html

However, the Internet is not yet a Library!
9
Metadata and Information Discovery
  • Forms of Digital Objects
  • Audio Recorded or broadcast sound, including
    speech, music, animal calls, nature sounds,
    synthesized sounds, and noise.
  • Text Printed or handwritten material accessible
    to the naked eye.
  • Visual Material - Motion Moving visual images,
    possibly accompanied by a sound track. Includes
    motion video and animation.
  • Visual Material - Non-motion Any static visual
    material, including still photographs, prints,
    drawings, posters, atlases, and raster maps.
  • Numeric Material Significant numeric content,
    either statistical, coded, or graphically
    displayed

10
Persistence and Presentation
  • Persistence
  • There is a need for Bits and bytes to be labeled
    or referenced in such a way that they can be
    reliably found over time.
  • Global uniqueness. The same identifier will
    never be assigned to two different resources.
  • Support distributed naming and resolution.
  • Must support both tangible and intangible
    objects.
  • Presentation
  • Traditional Paper and Ink
  • Digital Formats
  • Multimedia

11
Maintenance and Preservation
  • Maintenance -
  • Permit changes (e.g. errata)
  • Version Control
  • Preservation -
  • Attempt to ensure long-term presentation
  • Attempt to ensure long-term discovery and access

12
Standards, Guidelines, and so forth
13
Metadata
  • ISO 10646 and Unicode - In 1991, the ISO Working
    Group responsible for ISO/IEC 10646 (JTC 1/SC
    2/WG 2) and the Unicode Consortium decided to
    create one universal standard for coding
    multilingual text.
  • Unicode Standard identifies the corresponding
    version of ISO/IEC 10646. Start with
    http//www.unicode.org/versions/
  • The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative - an open
    forum engaged in the development of interoperable
    online metadata standards

14
Metadata
  • A scientific data repository should allow
    metadata searching. Examples
  • US Federal Geographic Data Committee approved the
    Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
    www.fgdc.gov/metadata/metadata.html
  • indecsgt Data Dictionary (Digital Object
    Indentifier - DOI Related). (Scientific data sets
    may be identified by DOIs, and several efforts
    are now underway in this area)

15
Search, Discovery, Access
  • Search the Web on your own using
  • Local Sources and Personal Bookmarks
  • Search Engines such as Google, Yahoo
  • Search the Web using Portals and Meta Search
    Engines (content through one single
    interface)examples
  • MetaSearch engines such as Dogpile, Vivísimo, CSA
    Illumina Multisearch, Elseviers Scirus
  • Directory of Open Access Journals - A service
    that covers free, full text, quality controlled
    scientific and scholarly journals
    http//www.doaj.org/

16
Search, Discovery, Access
  • Portals and Meta Search Engines examples cont.
  • CODATA/ICSTI Prototype Portal on Permanent Access
    to Scientific Data and Information
    http//www.nap.edu/shelves/codata/index.html
  • Science.gov - a gateway to authoritative selected
    science information of U.S. Government agencies.
    http//www.science.gov/
  • Online JOurnals Search Engine www.ojose.com
  • Note , SearchEngineWatch,Science Search Engines
    is a good reference source

17
Search, Discovery, Access
  • Community of Science search engine to find home
    pages and contact addresses for scientists.
  • ISI Web of Knowledge
  • Elsevier
  • ScienceDirect
  • Engineering Information
  • Engineering Village 2
  • ChemVillage
  • CAS SciFinder
  • FAOSTAT an on-line and multilingual database
    currently containing time-series records covering
    international statistics

18
Search, Discovery, Access
  • Enterprise Servers - collectively serve the needs
    of an enterprise rather than a single user.
  • MarkLogics XML Content Server
  • IXIASOFTs TEXTML Server XML Content Server

19
Persistence
  • Uniform Resource Name - URNs are persistent and
    unique identifiers of Internet documents. URNs
    are globally unique, persistent, and accessible
    over the network.
  • Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) a compact
    sequence of characters that identifies an
    abstract or physical resource.

20
Persistence
  • ARK (Archival Resource Key) is a system primarily
    designed for custodians of archived digital
    objects
  • The Handle System generally conforms with the URN
    framework. The DOI system of unique identifiers
    is based on the Handle System
  • Persistent Uniform Resource Locator (PURL) was
    developed and implemented by OCLC. Intended as an
    interim system to be used until the URN framework
    is well established.
  • Source The National Library of Australia's
    Preserving Access to Digital Information (PADI)

21
Presentation
  • Traditional Paper and Ink (Meta-) Markup
    Languages -"meta" languages because they are used
    for defining markup languages.
  • SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) ISO
    88791986
  • HTML (HyperText Markup Language)
  • XML (eXtensible Markup Language - ISO 15022). XML
    has been designed for ease of implementation and
    for interoperability with both SGML and HTML.
    Flynn, P (Ed.), The XML FAQ v.4.41, Cork,
    2006-01-07, http//xml.silmaril.ie/

22
Presentation
  • Paper - PDF/Adobe Acrobat, Word
  • Digital Format
  • See ISO Committee JTC 1/SC 29 Coding of audio,
  • picture, multimedia and hypermedia information
  • Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) ISO 11172
  • Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) and JPEG
    File Interchange Format (JFIF) ISO/IEC
    15444-122005
  • http//www.jpeg.org/index.html
  • Graphic Interchange Format (GIF) can be displayed
    on almost all web browsers
  • Real Audio - a proprietary audio format

23
Maintenance Preservation
  • Access Control
  • Intellectual Property Notices
  • Handles System
  • Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference
    Model (ISO 147212003)
  • XML (ISO 15022)
  • URL/URI systems
  • Version Control
  • Z39.50 (ISO 239501998) Presentation software

24
Conclusion
  • the beauty of standards is that there are so
    many to choose from
  • Interoperability is not the same as standards.
  • Interoperability does not assure access
  • The Information Continuum means considering both
    the near-term and the long-term AND multiple
    presentation forms
  • A little knowledge is a dangerous thing, but it
    is not half so bad as a lot of ignorance.
  • Terry Pratchett, Equal Rites

25
Information and Knowledge Transfer Is the Raison
d'être
  • Wisdom is the result of learning and using
    knowledge for a strategic advantage. After
    gaining knowledge, wisdom is used to meet new
    situations. Wisdom resides in the minds of the
    users.
  • Stuhlman Management Consultants, Knowledge
    Management Terms
  • Knowledge can be conveyed, but not wisdom.
  • Siddhartha by Hermann Hesse

26
Contact
kmolholm_at_aol.com or kurt_at_molholm.com
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