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Creating a Positive Environment: Positive Behavioral Interventions

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Title: RTI for Social Behavior: Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports Author: dosfrogs Last modified by: WSD Created Date: 10/15/2012 4:05:48 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Creating a Positive Environment: Positive Behavioral Interventions


1
Creating a Positive Environment Positive
Behavioral Interventions Supports
  • Carol Frodge
  • Former Principal, Edmonds School District
  • PBIS Trainer
  • Fierce Conversations Trainer

2
What is your vision?
  • On your card, write one word or phrase that
    describes the kind of school culture you want for
    yourself and your child.

3
10 minutes
  • Assess Where We Are
  • What already works well in regards to a positive
    social environment and behavior? How do you know?
  • What is not working well? How do you know?
  • If you make changes, how will you know if its
    getting better?

4
What is School-wide PBIS?
  • School-wide PBIS is
  • A systems approach, establishing the social
    culture and behavioral supports needed for
    schools to be effective learning environments for
    all students.
  • Utilizes Three Tiers of Intervention
  • Evidence-based features of PBIS
  • Prevention
  • Define and teach positive social expectations
  • Acknowledge positive behavior
  • Arrange consistent consequences for problem
    behavior
  • Collection and use of data for decision-making
  • Continuum of intensive, individual interventions.
  • Administrative leadership Team-based
    implementation

5
PBS is NOT
  • A specific practice or curriculum, but rather a
    general approach to preventing problem behavior
  • Limited to any particular group of students, but
    rather for all students
  • New, but rather is based on a long history of
    behavioral practices and effective instructional
    design strategies

6
Data How decisions are made.
Practices How staff interacts with students.
Systems How things are done.
7
Supporting Decision Making
Supporting Staff Behavior
Adapted from What is a systems Approach in
school-wide PBS?OSEP Technical Assistance on
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.
Accessed at http//www.Pbis.org/schoolwide.htm
Supporting Student Behavior
8
AIM ALIGNMENT Increased Student Achievement
Aim of the Organization
Aim of the Organization
Goals and Measures
Goals and Measures
Random Acts of Improvement
Aligned Acts of Improvement
From Jim Shipley Associates
9
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10
Why implement PBIS?
Students do their best in a positive school
culture School environment is predictable 1.
common language 2. common vision (understanding
of expectations) 3. common experience (everyone
knows) School environment is positive regular
recognition for positive behavior School
environment is safe violent and disruptive
behavior is not tolerated School environment is
consistent adults use similar expectations.
11
Positive School Climate
  • Maximizes academic engagement and achievement
  • Minimizes rates of rule violating behaviors
  • Encourages acts of respectful and responsible
    behaviors
  • Improves supports for students with disabilities
    and those placed at risk of educational failure

12
School-wide and Classroom-wide Systems
  • 1. Identify a common purpose and approach to
    discipline
  • 2. Define a clear set of positive expectations
    and behaviors
  • 3. Implement procedures for teaching expected
    behavior
  • 4. Differentiate supports from a continuum of
    procedures for encouraging expected behavior
  • 5. Differentiate supports from a continuum of
    procedures for discouraging inappropriate
    behavior
  • 6. Implement procedures for on-going monitoring
    and evaluation.

13
  • 1. Identify a common purpose and approach to
    discipline.

14
Why do students behave appropriately or not
appropriately?
15
  • Ever Heard These?
  • Lantana, you skipped 2 school days, so were
    going to suspend you for 2 more.
  • Phoebe, Im taking your book away because you
    obviously arent ready to learn.
  • You want my attention?! Ill show you
    attention...lets take a walk down to the office
    have a little chat with the Principal.

16
10 minutes
  • What is the underlying belief behind these
    behavioral interventions?

17
Science of Behavior has Taught Us that Students
  • Are NOT born with bad behaviors
  • Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive
    consequences
  • Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught
    directly and receiving positive feedback.

18
Ineffective Responses to Problem Behavior
  • Get Tough (practices)
  • Train and Hope (systems)

19
Worry 1Teaching by Getting Tough
  • Runyon I hate this f____ing school, youre a
    dumbf_____.
  • Teacher That is disrespectful language. Im
    sending you to the office so youll learn never
    to say those words again.starting now!

20
Reactive Responses are Predictable
  • When we experience aversive situations, we
    select interventions that produce immediate
    relief and
  • Remove students
  • Remove ourselves
  • Modify physical environments
  • Assign responsibility for change to students
    and/or others

21
based on the erroneous assumption that students
  • Are inherently bad
  • Will learn more appropriate behavior through
    increased use of aversives
  • Will be better tomorrow

22
When behavior doesnt improve, we Get Tougher!
  • Zero tolerance policies
  • Increased surveillance
  • Increased suspension and expulsion
  • In-service training by expert
  • Alternative programming
  • A predictable, systemic response, but

23
creates a false sense of security!
  • Fosters environments of control
  • Triggers and reinforces antisocial behavior
  • Shifts accountability away from school
  • Devalues child-adult relationship
  • Weakens relationship between academic and social
    behavior programming

24
Worry 2Train Hope
25
Science of Human Behavior
  • Behavior is learned
  • Behavior occurrences are linked to environmental
    factors
  • Challenging behavior occurs when the demands of
    the environment exceed a kids capacity to
    respond adaptively.
  • Behavior change occurs through teaching needed
    skills and minimizing environmental triggers.

26
  • The single factor common to successful change in
    schools is that relationships improve. If
    relationships improve, schools get better. If
    relationships remain the same or get worse,
    ground is lost.
  • Michael Fullan
  • Education reform authority

27
Why Every Moment Matters
  • We experience approximately 20,000 moments every
    day.
  • We react first emotionally, second rationally.
  • Daniel Kahneman Nobel Prize-winning scientist
  • The magic ratio is 5 positive interactions for
    every 1 negative interaction.
  • 9 out of 10 people say they are more productive
    when they are around positive people.
  • Increasing positive emotions could lengthen life
    span by 10 years.

.
28
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29
Resiliency and Protective Factors at School
  • Caring Relationships A supportive and respectful
    environment
  • High expectations and academic standards
  • Opportunities for participation and contribution
  • Bonnie Barnard Risk to Resiliency What Schools
    Can Do

30
5 minutes
  • Which of these statements best summarizes your
    philosophy about student misbehavior?
  • Students who misbehave will learn appropriate
    behavior through punishment.
  • Students who misbehave will learn appropriate
    behavior through intentional teaching of
    appropriate behavior.

31
  • 2. Define a clear set of common expectations and
    behaviors.

32
Schoolwide Social Expectations
  • Guidelines
  • Identify 3-5 Expectations That
  • Desired Behaviors that Replace Your Problem
    Behaviors
  • Short, Positive Statements (what to do!)
  • Easy to remember
  • Consider the Culture of Community
  • For all students, staff, parents and others who
    come to your school

33
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34
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35
Redesign Learning Teaching Environment
School Rules NO Food or Gum NO Running NO
Swearing NO Bullying
36
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37
Clear and Consistent Expectations
38
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39
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40
Student Ownership
41
15 minutes
  • Identify Ten Problem Behaviors
  • Identify 3-5 Potential School wide Expectations
    that
  • Broadly Address Your Problem Behaviors
  • Consider Culture of Community
  • If You Have Expectations Do They Need Revising?

42
  • 3. Implement procedures for teaching of expected
    behaviors.

43
Why Develop a System forTeaching Behavior?
  • Behaviors are prerequisites for academics
  • Procedures and routines create structure
  • Repetition is key to learning new skills
  • For a child to learn something new, it needs to
    be repeated on average of 8 times
  • For a child to unlearn an old behavior and
    replace with a new behavior, the new behavior
    must be repeated on average 28 times (Harry Wong)

44
School-Wide Systems for Student SuccessA
Response to Intervention (RtI) Model
Academic Systems
  • Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90
  • All students
  • Preventive, proactive

45
School-Wide Systems for Student SuccessA
Response to Intervention (RtI) Model
Academic Systems
  • Tier 2/Secondary Interventions 5-15
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Small group interventions
  • Some individualizing
  • Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90
  • All students
  • Preventive, proactive

46
School-Wide Systems for Student SuccessA
Response to Intervention (RtI) Model
Academic Systems
  • Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions 1-5
  • Individual students
  • Assessment-based
  • High intensity
  • Tier 2/Secondary Interventions 5-15
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Small group interventions
  • Some individualizing
  • Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90
  • All students
  • Preventive, proactive

47
School-Wide Systems for Student SuccessA
Response to Intervention (RtI) Model
Academic Systems
  • Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions 1-5
  • Individual students
  • Assessment-based
  • High intensity
  • Tier 2/Secondary Interventions 5-15
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Small group interventions
  • Some individualizing
  • Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90
  • All students
  • Preventive, proactive

48
School-Wide Systems for Student SuccessA
Response to Intervention (RtI) Model
Academic Systems
Behavioral Systems
  • Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions 1-5
  • Individual students
  • Assessment-based
  • High intensity
  • Tier 2/Secondary Interventions 5-15
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Small group interventions
  • Some individualizing
  • Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90
  • All students
  • Preventive, proactive
  • 80-90 Tier 1/Universal Interventions
  • All settings, all students
  • Preventive, proactive

Illinois PBIS Network, Revised May 15, 2008.
Adapted from What is school-wide PBS? OSEP
Technical Assistance Center on Positive
Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Accessed
at http//pbis.org/schoolwide.htm
49
School-Wide Systems for Student SuccessA
Response to Intervention (RtI) Model
Academic Systems
Behavioral Systems
  • Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions 1-5
  • Individual students
  • Assessment-based
  • High intensity
  • Tier 2/Secondary Interventions 5-15
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Small group interventions
  • Some individualizing
  • 5-15 Tier 2/Secondary Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Small group interventions
  • Some individualizing
  • Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90
  • All students
  • Preventive, proactive
  • 80-90 Tier 1/Universal Interventions
  • All settings, all students
  • Preventive, proactive

Illinois PBIS Network, Revised May 15, 2008.
Adapted from What is school-wide PBS? OSEP
Technical Assistance Center on Positive
Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Accessed
at http//pbis.org/schoolwide.htm
50
School-Wide Systems for Student SuccessA
Response to Intervention (RtI) Model
Academic Systems
Behavioral Systems
  • Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions 1-5
  • Individual students
  • Assessment-based
  • High intensity
  • 1-5 Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions
  • Individual students
  • Assessment-based
  • Intense, durable procedures
  • Tier 2/Secondary Interventions 5-15
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Small group interventions
  • Some individualizing
  • 5-15 Tier 2/Secondary Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Small group interventions
  • Some individualizing
  • Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90
  • All students
  • Preventive, proactive
  • 80-90 Tier 1/Universal Interventions
  • All settings, all students
  • Preventive, proactive

Illinois PBIS Network, Revised May 15, 2008.
Adapted from What is school-wide PBS? OSEP
Technical Assistance Center on Positive
Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Accessed
at http//pbis.org/schoolwide.htm
51
Traditional Approach to Service Delivery
0
Amount of Resources Needed To Solve Problem
Special Education
Sea of Ineligibility
General Education
Intensity of Problem
52
Levels of SupportResponse to Intervention
0
Amount of Resources Needed To Solve Problem
Special Education
General Education With Support
General Education
Intensity of Problem
53
Teaching Expectations
  • Teach at the start of the year and review when
    needed
  • Define and offer a rationale for each expectation
  • Describe what the behavior looks like
  • Actively involve students in discriminating
    between non-examples and examples of the
    expectations
  • Have students role play the expected behaviors
  • Re-teach the expectations often
  • Reinforce desired behavior
  • Source Washbrun S., Burrello L., Buckman S.
    (2001). Schoolwide behavioral support. Indiana
    University.

54
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55
Kuleana Be Responsible Have lunch card ready
Be orderly in all lines Hoihi Be Respectful
Use proper table manners Eat your own
food Laulima Be Cooperative Wait patiently/
quietly Malama Be Safe Walk at all times Wash
hands Chew food well dont rush
Cafeteria
King Kaumualii on Kauai
56
Effective Classroom Management Systems
  • Teach and encourage classroom-wide positive
    expectations
  • Teach and encourage classroom routines and cues
  • Use a ratio of 5 positives to 1 negative
    adult-student interaction
  • Supervise actively
  • Redirect for minor, infrequent behavior errors
  • Precorrect chronic errors frequently

57
10 minutes
  • Who should create the lessons in each setting?
  • Who should teach the lessons in each setting?
  • Are there some areas that you need to prioritize
    for teaching?
  • How will you assess results?
  • How will you know when re-teaching is needed?

58
4. Differentiate supports from a continuum of
procedures for encouraging appropriate behavior.
59
Motivation
  • Most people are motivated by a mix of intrinsic
    and extrinsic factors, so we must increase both
    of these - Sprick
  • Thinking about your job. What are the factors
    that motivate you for this both intrinsically and
    extrinsically?

60
Expectancy X Value
  • Expectancy multiplied by Value Motivation
  • Expectancy is the degree to which the student
    expects to be successful at the given task.
  • Value is how much the student values the reward
    for the success.
  • This applies for both academics and behavior.

61
Celebrate what you want to see more
of."--Thomas J. Peters,
62
Reinforcement Rationale
  • Focuses attention on desired behaviors
  • Increases the repetition of desired behaviors
  • Fosters a positive school climate
  • Reduces amount of time spent on discipline
  • Increases instructional hours

63
positive feedback reinforcement
64
  • Praise and positive feedback have an enhancing
    effect on intrinsic motivation.
  • Daniel Pink DRIVE The Surprising Truth about
    What Motivates Us 2009
  • Edward L. Deci, Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic
    Reinforcement, and Inequity, Journal of
    Personality and Social Psychology 22 (1972)119-20

65
What is effective praise?
66
Characteristics of Effective Praise
  • Good praise includes students names.
  • Good praise is descriptive.
  • Simply describe what the student is doing at the
    time - focusing on actions.
  • Good praise is convincing.
  • Good praise is varied.
  • Good praise is about effort and accomplishment.
    (Carol Dweck Mindset )

67
Why praise effort?
  • Effort is one of those things that gives meaning
    to life. Effort means you care about something,
    that something is important to you and you are
    willing to work for it. It would be an
    impoverished existence if you were not willing to
    value things and commit yourself to working
    toward them.
  • Carol Dweck, Mindset

68
Reward Reinforcement
  • The big debate
  • Rewards No Rewards

69
Reinforcement Systems Types of Reinforcement
  • Social (lunch with friends, principal, teacher)
  • Activity (dance, extra recess, assembly, picnic)
  • Sensory (music, books/magazines)
  • Token Economies (school store)
  • Tangibles (treasure box)

70
Reinforcement Systems Guidelines for
Implementing
  • Encourage every staff member to reinforcement
    positive student behavior and review often
  • Reward frequently in the beginning (4 to 1
    minimum)
  • Ensure that earned kept
  • Provide equal access to reinforcement for all
    students
  • Collect data on frequency of reinforcement

71
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72
Starbucks PBIS Example
73
Dolphin Pride Awards
74
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75
Posters
76
Washington High Franklin Pierce School District
Desired Behaviors Reinforced
77
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78
Super Sub Slips
  • Procedures
  • Give 5 slips in subfolder for each class
  • Subs gives 2 out immediately for students who
    start class correctly
  • Cottage Grove, OR

79
Bus Bucks
  • Procedures
  • Review bus citations
  • On-going driver meetings
  • Teaching expectations
  • Link bus bucks w/ schools
  • Acknowledging bus drivers
  • Springfield P.S., OR

80
10 minutes
  • What Methods Could You Use to Recognize
    Reinforce Students?
  • Ideas for high Level and low level reinforcement
  • Who will manage the reinforcement system?
  • How will you know if it is effective?
  • How will you reinforce staff?

81
5. Differentiate supports from a continuum of
procedures for discouraging inappropriate
behaviors.
82
Responding to Problem Behaviors
83
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84
Consequences to behavior
  • We need to have an agreed upon continuum for
    managing behavior, that is enforceable and
    reasonable.
  • We also need to understand the function of the
    behavior, and individualize the response at
    times. (One size does not fit all)

85
Classrooms with poor behavior management produce
negative student outcomes
  • Classroom management linked to the number of
    students at risk for EBD (National Research
    Council, 2002)
  • Poor classroom management place students at risk
    of current and future behavior problems (Aber,
    Jones, Brown, Chaudry, Samples,1998 Ialongo,
    Poduska, Werthamer, Kellam, 2001)

86
Mirror, Mirror- Neurons Neural Wi-Fi
The frontal lobe does not fully develop until the
mid-twenties
Cause Effect, Logic are High Road aspects of
social interaction
Mirror neurons pick up on others emotional
states, assist with empathy and compassion, along
with survival
Fight, Flight, or Freeze and Mirroring are Low
Road aspects of social interaction
87
Emotions and the Brain
88
Discouraging Problem Behavior
  • Clearly defined problem and context
  • e.g., hat in class, tardies, transitions, etc.
  • Precorrection/preventive strategy
  • for identified risk times or settings
  • Consistent procedures
  • e.g, all staff, settings, minor behaviors
  • Teaching Opportunity
  • focus on appropriate expectation

89
Keep in mind
  • An effective correction system will work for most
    students and staff, most of the time
  • It wont be perfectthere will always be the top
    of the triangle to keep us humble.

90
Teach Correction Procedures for Level One
Behaviors
  • Teach Students How You Will Respond and Be
    Consistent
  • I will make eye contact
  • I will move closer to you
  • I will ask you Are you with me?
  • I will point to the in class Break Space
  • I will hand you the Buddy Room Form

91
Responding to Level One Behaviors
  • Acknowledge students exhibiting expected behavior
  • Secure attention redirect student to expected
    behavior
  • Provide choice between expected behavior and
    staff-managed consequence
  • Deliver staff-managed consequences consistently
  • Do not make Mountains out of Molehills
  • Avoid escalating problems
  • Follow through with office-managed consequences
  • RETEACH and REINFORCE

92
Correction Procedures
  • Analyze and Adjust the Implementation of Your
    Basic Management Plan
  • Analyze and Adjust the Strategies You Are Using
    to Build a Positive Relationship
  • Analyze the Misbehavior and Develop a Function
    Based Intervention
  • Have You Reviewed Desired Behavior?

93
Chronic Errors
  • Precorrectprompt for desired behavior in problem
    context
  • go to problem setting/situation
  • get attention of students
  • give reminder or opportunity to practice skills
  • watch child for demonstration of skill
  • acknowledge demonstration
  • Provide positive feedback

94
Major Problem Behaviors
  • Time Owed
  • Time-out
  • Restitution
  • Positive Practice /Overcorrection
  • Response Cost
  • Detention
  • Office Referral
  • Adapted from
    CHAMPs

95
Red Zone The Final Frontier
  • We all share this story
  • What can we really do?
  • Be in youths shoes.
  • Build a relationship.
  • Set clear limits.
  • Monitor frequently.
  • Reinforce desired behaviors.
  • Work with your student support team.

96
10 minutes
  1. Look at the list of possible misbehaviors and
    decide whether they should be handled in the
    classroom or the office. (handout List of
    Misbehaviors)
  2. What is the general rule for how you decided?

97
6. Implement procedures for ongoing monitoring
and evaluation.
98
Importance of Data
  • Insanity is doing the same thing over and over,
    but expecting different results
  • Einstein

99
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100
PBIS Implementation Suspensions In Highline
School District
101
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102
Impacts In Highline in Just One YearTime Bought
Back When We Reduce Problem Behaviors that Lead
to Office Referrals
This Data Reported Yearly to the Highline School
Board As Part of Their Visibility and
Sustainability Efforts
103
Emphasize Data-based Evaluation
  • Conduct self-assessment and action planning
  • Evaluate self-improvement continuously
  • Identify strengths and needs
  • Plan and implement strategic dissemination

104
Results from PBIS
  • Reduction in Office Referrals
  • Reduction in Suspension
  • Reduction in Drop Outs
  • Increase in Academic Gains
  • Increase in Staff Satisfaction
  • Increase in Student Satisfaction
  • Increase in Parent Satisfaction
  • Return on Investment is High

105
10 minutes
  • Do you have a data system where you can easily
    store office referral information and analyze it
    for decision making?
  • What systems do have in place to analyze the data
    about problem behavior?

106
What Does PBS Look Like?
  • SW-PBS (primary)
  • gt80 of students can tell you what is expected of
    them and give behavioral example because they
    have been taught, actively supervised, practiced,
    and acknowledged
  • Positive adult-to-student interactions exceed
    negative
  • Function-based behavior support is foundation for
    addressing problem behavior
  • Data and team-based action planning and
    implementation are operating
  • Administrators are active participants
  • Full continuum of behavior support is available
    to all students

107
  • Secondary and Tertiary
  • Team-based coordination and problem-solving
    occurs
  • Local specialized behavioral capacity is built
  • Function-based behavior support planning occurs
  • Person-centered, contextually and culturally
    relevant supports are provided
  • District/regional behavioral capacity is built
  • Supports are instructionally oriented
  • SW-PBS practices and systems are linked
  • School-based comprehensive supports are
    implemented

108
Active Administrative Participation
  • Actively participates as a member of the
    leadership team
  • Establishes PBS initiative as one of the top
    three improvement plan priorities
  • Commits to and invests in a 2-3 year
    implementation effort

109
School Wide PBIS Team
  • Team is representative
  • Team has regular meetings and creates an action
    plan
  • Team assesses progress regularly and reports back
    to staff
  • Team uses data to drive decisions

110
Coaches
  • Establish a network of highly skilled personnel
    who have
  • Fluency with PBS systems and practices
  • Capacity to deliver technical assistance
  • Capacity to sustain team efforts
  • Follow-up training throughout the year includes
  • Specialized topics
  • Communication and problem-solving

111
District Scale Up Model
  • School-wide PBS Team
  • Represents school, meets regularly, et cetera
  • Coach
  • Provides technical assistance to school
  • Links school to district to state
  • District Leadership Team
  • Guides planning and development
  • Coordinates Training
  • Comprises regional teams/structure

112
15 minutes
  1. Look at Team Implementation Checklist.
  2. Where is your school?

113
Want more information?
  • www.pbisnetwork.org
  • www.pbis.org - Creating the Culture of Change
  • www.swis.org
  • cnfrodge_at_gmail.com

114
What Works Clearinghouse
  • Research to Practice
  • Evaluation of Research Evidence
  • Recommendations on best practices
  • ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/
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