Blood - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Blood

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Title: ch10blood Author: Barb Weekley Description: Chapter 10 Blood Last modified by: District 211 Created Date: 6/29/2001 10:21:34 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Blood


1
Blood
Out damned spot! Out, I say Heres the smell
of the blood still, All the perfumes of Arabia
will not Sweeten this little hand. Oh, Oh,
Oh! William Shakespeares Lady Macbeth, in
Macbeth
2
Unknown Stains at a Scene
  • Questions to be answered
  • Is it blood?
  • Is it human blood?
  • Whose is it?
  • Determine blood type.
  • What caused the blood spatter?
  • Determine the method(s) in which blood may have
    been deposited.

3
Introduction
  • Blood typing can provide class evidence whereas
    DNA profiling can provide individual evidence.

4
Blood Characteristics
  • Whole blood carries cells and plasmathe fluid
    with hormones, clotting factors, and nutrients.
  • Shown below
  • Red (Erythrocyte) blood cells carry oxygen to
    the bodys cells and carbon dioxide away.
  • Platelets aid in blood clotting and the repair
    of damaged blood vessels.
  • White (Leukocyte) blood cells fight disease and
    foreign invaders and, alone, contain cell nuclei.

Erythrocyte Platelet Leukocyte
5
Blood Typing
  • What are the four types of blood?
  • A, B, AB, and O
  • What do we use to identify the blood types?
  • ABO Blood Typing
  • What is the population distribution in the US?

6
Blood Typing
  • What is the difference between the types?
  • Antigen cells are located on the red blood
    cell.
  • Antibodyare proteins secreted by white blood
    cells that attach to antigens to destroy them,
    located outside the red blood cell.
  • Agglutinationclumping of red blood cells will
    result if blood types with different antigens are
    mixed

7
Blood Group A
  • Has A antigens on the surface of red blood cells
    and B antibodies in blood serum.
  • The B antibodies will attack and destroy Type B
    blood cells when they are introduced into the
    body.
  • Can give blood to A and AB, can received blood
    from O and A

8
Blood Group B
  • Has B antigens on the surface of red blood cells
    and A antibodies in blood serum.
  • The A antibodies will attack and destroy Type A
    blood cells when they are introduced into the
    body.
  • Can give blood to B and AB can receive blood
    from O and B

9
Blood Group AB
  • Has both A B antigens on the surface of red
    blood cells NO A or B antibodies in blood
    serum.
  • Will not reject or attack any blood types
    Universal Recipient
  • Can give blood to AB, can receive blood from A,
    B, O, and AB

10
Blood Group O
  • Has NO A or B antigens on the surface of red
    blood cells but has BOTH A B antibodies in
    blood serum.
  • Will not provoke and attack by any antibodies
    Universal Donor
  • Can give blood to A, B, O, and AB can receive
    blood from O

11
Blood Groups
Can Give Blood To
Can Get Blood From
Antigen
Type
Antibody
A
A
B
A, AB
O, A
B, AB
O , B
B
B
A
Neither A nor B
AB
A and B
AB
A, B, O, AB
Universal Acceptor
Neither A nor B
A, B, O, AB
O
A and B
O
Universal Donor
12
Rh Factor
  • A certain blood protein was discovered while
    studying Rhesus Monkeys called Rh
  • If this protein is present in your blood, you
  • are Rh (positive).
  • If your blood lacks this protein, you are
  • Rh- (negative).
  • This is why we have positive (O) and negative
    (B-) blood types!

13
Presumptive Tests forBlood Determination
  • Kastle-Meyer color testa mixture of
    phenolphthalein and hydrogen peroxide the
    hemoglobin will cause the formation of a deep
    pink color if blood is present
  • Hematest tabletreacts with the heme group in
    blood causing a blue-green color
  • Luminol testreaction with blood to produce light

14
Human vs Animal Blood
  • Microscopic observation
  • RBC in animal has a nucleus
  • RBC in human no nucleus

Frog Blood
Human Blood
15
Human vs Animal Blood
  • Precipitin test
  • Blood is injected into a rabbit antibodies are
    formed the rabbits blood is extracted as an
    antiserum the antiserum is placed on sample
    blood. The sample will react with human proteins
    if human blood is present. This test is very
    sensitive and requires only a small amount of
    blood.
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