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INDIA AND THE INDIAN OCEAN BASIN

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Title: INDIA AND THE INDIAN OCEAN BASIN Author: paulphilp Last modified by: paulphilp Created Date: 12/2/2005 12:09:40 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INDIA AND THE INDIAN OCEAN BASIN


1
INDIA AND THE INDIAN OCEAN BASIN
  • THE POST-CLASSICAL WORLDS OF SOUTH AND SOUTH-EAST
    ASIA

2
NORTHERN INDIA
  • North India
  • Tension among regional kingdoms
  • Nomadic Turks became absorbed into Indian society
  • Harsha (reigned 606-648 C.E.) temporarily
    restored unified rule
  • Introduction of Islam to northern India
  • The Sind were conquered by Arab Muslims in 711
    (Umayyad period)
  • Muslim merchants formed communities in major
    cities of coastal India
  • Turkish migrants and Islam
  • Most Turks convert to Islam in tenth century
  • Some moved to Afghanistan others pushed into
    Anatolia
  • Mahmud of Ghazn
  • Turkish leader in Afghanistan, established a
    Muslim state there
  • Made expeditions to northern India
  • The sultanate of Delhi (1206-1526 C.E.)
  • Mahmud's successors conquered north India, 1206
  • Established an Islamic state known as the
    sultanate of Delhi
  • Sultans' authority did not extend far beyond the
    capital at Delhi
  • Islam began to have a place in India

3
SULTANATE OF DELHI MUSLIMS IN INDIA
4
SOUTHERN INDIA
  • The Hindu South
  • Politically divided but relatively peaceful
  • The Chola kingdom (850-1267 C.E.)
  • Was a larger kingdom ruled Coromandel coast
  • At high point, conquered Ceylon, parts of
    southeast Asia
  • Dominated waters from South China Sea to Arabian
    Sea
  • Not a tightly centralized state
  • Local autonomy was strong
  • Began to decline by the twelfth century
  • The kingdom of Vijayanagar (1336-1565 C.E.)
  • Established by two Indian brothers
  • Renounced Islam in 1336, returned to Hindu faith

5
CHOLA EMPIRE
6
VIJAYANAGAR
7
THE MONSOON WORLD
  • The monsoons (rains in spring and summer)
  • Irrigation systems were needed for dry months
  • No big river in south India
  • Waterworks included dams, reservoirs, canals,
    wells
  • Stored rain in large reservoirs connected to
    canals
  • One reservoir of the eleventh century covered 250
    square miles
  • Population growth
  • 53 million in 600 C.E.
  • 105 million in 1500 C.E.
  • Urbanization
  • New capital Delhi
  • Large port cities

8
TRADE, DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHERN INDIA
  • Internal trade
  • Self-sufficient in staple food
  • Rare metals, spices, special crops
  • South India, Ceylon experienced economic growth
  • Temples and society in south India
  • Hindu temples served as economic, social centers
  • Possessed large tracts of land
  • Hundreds of employees
  • Temple administrators maintain order, deliver
    taxes
  • Served as banks engaged in business ventures

9
TRADE IN THE INDIAN OCEAN
  • Dhows and junks
  • Large ships involved in maritime trade in Indian
    Ocean
  • Indian port cities
  • Called emporia
  • Were clearinghouses of trade, cosmopolitan
    centers
  • Indians, Arabs, Chinese divided region into zones
  • One ethnic group controlled trade in each region
  • Exchanged goods at emporia, entrepot cities for
    other regional goods
  • Trade goods
  • Silk and porcelain from China
  • Spices from southeast Asia
  • Pepper, gems, pearls, and cotton from India
  • Incense and horses from Arabia and southwest Asia
  • Gold, ivory, and slaves from east Africa
  • Rice, wood were only staple goods traded
  • Specialized production
  • Production of high-quality cotton textiles
    thrived
  • Sugar, leather, stone, carpets, iron and steel

10
INDIAN OCEAN TRADE
CLOTH YARN SILKS INDIGO PEPPER GEMS ANIMALS DRUGS
SILVER LACQUER SILK PORCELAIN SUGAR LUXERIES TEA
COFFEE SLAVES IVORY HORSES SILKS GOLD STEEL
SPICES TIMBER RICE MEDICINES
11
DEVELOPMENT OF HINDUISM
  • Religious geography in India
  • Hinduism predominated in southern India (Deccan)
  • Islam in the north (Ganges-Indus River Plain)
  • Buddhism in Ceylon, foothills of the Eastern
    Himalayas
  • Tribal religions in the hills of Eastern India
  • Caste helped to integrate immigrants into Indian
    society
  • Caste and social change guilds and subcastes
    (jatis)
  • Expansion of caste system, especially to southern
    India, Southeast Asia
  • Vishnu and Shiva (Brahma)
  • Decline of Buddhism benefited Hinduism
  • Development of Trimurti
  • Devotional cults
  • Achieve mystic union with gods as way of
    salvation
  • Most popular were devotion to Vishnu and Shiva
  • Shankara
  • Philosopher (ninth century)
  • Preferred disciplined logical reasoning
  • Ramanuja
  • Philosopher (eleventh and twelfth centuries)

12
ISLAM IN SOUTH ASIA
  • Conversion to Islam occurred in slow, gradual way
  • Some converted for improving their lower social
    statuses
  • Often an entire caste or subcaste adopted Islam
    en masse
  • By 1500, about 25 million Indian Muslims (1/4 of
    population)
  • Sufis
  • Most effective missionaries, devotional approach
    to Islam
  • Followers observed old rituals, venerate old
    spirits
  • Emphasized piety and devotion
  • The bhakti movement
  • No distinction between Hinduism, Islam
  • Taught universal love, devotion
  • Guru Kabir (1440-1518)
  • Important bhakti teacher
  • Shiva, Vishnu, and Allah were one deity

13
S.E. ASIAN PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
14
ETHNIC MAP SOUTHEAST ASIA
15
AGRICULTURE IN S.E. ASIA
16
EARLY SOUTHEAST ASIA
  • Indian influence in southeast Asia
  • Indian merchants brought their faiths to
    southeast Asia
  • Hinduism and Buddhism established first
  • Islam began to arrive with merchants, Sufis after
    1000 CE
  • Ruling elites of southeast Asia
  • Adapted some Indian political traditions
  • Ruling patterns
  • Uses Indians as bureaucrats
  • The states sponsored Hinduism and later Buddhism
  • Showed no interest in Indian caste system
  • Funan (first to sixth century C.E.)
  • In lower Mekong River (Cambodia/Vietnam)
  • Semi-feudal government
  • Much local autonomy
  • Drew enormous wealth by controlling trade
  • Adopted mercantilism as state philosophy
  • Established commercial monopolies
  • Adopted Sanskrit as official language
  • Decline of Funan in sixth century

17
POST-CLASSICAL S.E. ASIA
  • Srivijaya (670-1025 C.E.)
  • Established on Sumatra after the fall of Funan
  • Maintained sea trade between China and India by
    navy
  • Chola kingdom of south India eclipsed Srivijaya
    in 11th century
  • Angkor (889-1431 C.E.)
  • Kingdom built by Khmers (Cambodians)
  • Two capitals Angkor Thom (Buddhism), Angkor Wat
    (Hinduism)
  • The city was a microcosmic reflection of Hindu
    world order
  • Famous for architecture and water technologies
  • Immense wealth built on trade
  • Centralized rule only near capital, feudal in
    farthest reaches
  • Turned to Buddhism during the twelfth, thirteenth
    centuries
  • Originally Mahayana Buddhist
  • Later Theravada introduced from Sri Lanka
  • Thais invaded the capital in 1431, and Khmers
    abandoned it

18
SRIVIJAVA Hindu and Buddhist Blends
19
KHMER EMPIRE
20
ANGKOR WAT
21
ARRIVAL OF ISLAM
  • Conversion to Islam was slow and quiet
  • Ruling elite converted in cities
  • Rural residents retained their traditions
  • Islam was not an exclusive faith in southeast
    Asia
  • Sufis appealed to a large public in these
    countries
  • Melaka was first powerful Islamic state
  • On Straits of Melacca
  • Power based on controlling trade in 15th century
  • Destroyed by Portuguese
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